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1st Air Commando Group

Constituted as 1st Air Commando Group on 25 Mar 1944 and activated in India on 29 Mar. The group, which began operations immediately, was organized to provide fighter cover, bombardment striking power, and air transportation services for Wingate's Raiders, who were operating behind enemy lines in Burma. The organization consisted of a headquarters plus the following sections: bomber (equipped with B-25's); fighter (P-51's); light-plane (L-1's, L-5's, and helicopters) transport (C-47's); glider (CG-4A's and TG-5's); and light-cargo (UC-64's). The group supported operations in Burma by landing and dropping troops, food, and equipment; evacuating casualties; and attacking airfields and transportation facilities. Received a DUC for operations against the enemy, Mar-May 1944. Withdrew from the front late in May 1944 and, with the bomber section eliminated and the P-51's replaced by P-47's, began a training program. Reorganized later, with the sections being eliminated and with fighter, liaison, and troop carrier squadrons being assigned. Transported Chinese troops and supplies from Burma to China in Dec 1944, and carried out supply, evacuation, and liaison operations for Allied troops in Burma until the end of the war. Attacked bridges, railroads, barges, troop positions, oil wells, and airfields in Burma and escorted bombers to Rangoon and other targets during the early months of 1945. Changed from P-47's to P-51's in May 1945, the fighter squadrons being engaged in training from then until the end of the war. Moved to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 3 Nov 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Squadrons. 5th Fighter: 1944-1945. 6th Fighter: 1944-1945. 164th Liaison: 1944-1945. 165th Liaison: 1944-1945. 166th Liaison: 1944-1945. 319th Troop Carrier: 1944-1945.

1st Combat Cargo Group

Constituted as 1st Combat Cargo Group on 11 Apr 1944 and activated on 15 Apr. Equipped with C-47's. Moved to the CBI theater in Aug 1944. Began operations in Sep 1944 by transporting supplies and reinforcements to and evacuating casualties from Imphal, Burma. Continued to support Allied operations in Burma, flying in men and supplies from India, moving equipment required to construct and operate airstrips, dropping dummy cargoes to lead the enemy away from Allied offensives, dropping paratroops for the assault on Rangoon (May 1945), and evacuating prisoners of war who were freed by Allied advances. Meanwhile, part of the group had been sent to China, and for a short time (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) the group's headquarters was located there. Operations in China included helping to evacuate the air base at Kweilin during a Japanese drive in Sep 1944, moving Chinese troops, and flying many supply missions, some of which involved ferrying gasoline and materiel over the Hump from India. The group, partially re-equipped with C-46's in Jun 1945, engaged primarily in transporting men, food, arms, and ammunition until the end of the war. Redesignated 512th Troop Carrier Group in Sep 1945. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 24 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 512th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 2 Sep 1949. Equipped with C-46's. Ordered to active service on 15 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1951.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Equipped with C-46's.

Squadrons. 1st (later 326th): 1944-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 2d (later 327th): 1944-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 3rd (later 328th): 1944-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 4th (later 329th): 1944-1945; 1949-1951.

1st Fighter Group

Organized as 1st Pursuit Group in France on 5 May 1918. Began operations immediately and served at the front until the end of the war, using Nieuport-28, Spad, and Sopwith Camel aircraft. Protected friendly observation balloons and planes, and made strafing attacks on enemy ground forces, but engaged primarily in counter-air patrols in which the group's pilots gained many victories over enemy aircraft and destroyed numerous observation balloons. Two of the group's pilots were awarded the Medal of Honor: 1st Lt (later Capt) Edward V Rickenbacker - America's World War I "Ace of Aces" who served as commander of the 94th (Hat-in-the-Ring) Squadron - received the medal for action near Billy, France, on 25 Sep 1918 when, disregarding the heavy odds, he attacked a flight of seven enemy planes and shot down two of them; 2nd Lt Frank Luke Jr - the "balloon buster" - was awarded the medal for attacking and shooting down three German balloons on 29 Sep 1918 before his plane was hit and forced to land near Murvaux, France, where he died while defending himself against capture by enemy ground troops. Demobilized in France on 24 Dec 1918.

Reconstituted in 1924 and consolidated with 1st Pursuit Group that had been organized in the US on 22 Aug 1919. Redesignated 1st Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in Dec 1939, and 1st Pursuit Group (Fighter) in Mar 1941. Trained, participated in exercises and maneuvers, put on demonstrations, took part in National Air Races, tested equipment, and experimented with tactics, using Spad, Nieuport, DeHavilland, SE-5, MB-3, PW-8, P-1, P-6, PT-3, P-16, P-26, P-35, P-36, P-38, P-41, P-43, and other aircraft during the period 1919-1941. Was the only pursuit group in the Army's air arm for several years; later, furnished cadres for new units. Moved to the west coast immediately after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and flew patrols for several weeks. Redesignated 1st Fighter Group in May 1942.

Moved to England, Jun-Jul 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat with P-38 aircraft on 28 Aug and flew a number of missions to France before being assigned to Twelfth AF for duty in the Mediterranean theater. Moved to North Africa, part of the ground echelon landing with the assault forces at Arzeu beach on 8 Nov 1942. The air echelon arrived a few days later and the group soon began operations, attacking enemy shipping, escorting bombers, flying strafing missions, and performing reconnaissance duties during the campaign for Tunisia. Participated in the reduction of Pantelleria. Escorted bombers to targets in Sicily and later aided ground forces during the conquest of that island by strafing and dive-bombing roads, motor transports, gun emplacements, troop concentrations, bridges, and railways. Flew missions against the enemy in Italy and received a DUC for its performance on 25 Aug 1943 when the group carried out a strafing attack on Italian airdromes, destroying great numbers of enemy aircraft that presented a serious threat to the Allies' plans for landing troops at Salerno. Also escorted bombers to Italy, receiving another DUC for a mission on 30 Aug 1943 when the group beat off enemy aircraft and thus enabled bombers to inflict serious damage on marshalling yards at Aversa. Supported the invasion at Salerno in Sep and continued operations with Twelfth AF until Nov 1943. Assigned to Fifteenth AF with the primary mission of escorting bombers that attacked targets in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received third DUC for covering the withdrawal of B-17's after an attack on Ploesti on 18 May 1944. Also flew strafing and dive-bombing missions in an area from France to the Balkans. Supported the landings at Anzio in Jan 1944 and the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. Continued operations until May 1945. Inactivated in Italy on 16 Oct 1945.

Activated in the US on 3 Jul 1946. Equipped first with P-80's and later (1949) with F-86's. Redesignated 1st Fighter-Interceptor Group in Apr 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 1st Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 17th (formerly 147th): 1918; 1919-1940. 27th: 1918; 1919-1945; 1946-1952. 71st: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 94th: 1918; 1919-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 95th: 1918; 1919-1927. 185th: 1918.

1st Photographic Group

Constituted as 1st Photographic Group on 15 May 1941. Activated on 10 Jun 1941. Redesignated 1st Mapping Group in Jan 1942, and 1st Photographic Charting Group in Aug 1943. Charted and mapped areas of the US and sent detachments to perform similar functions in Alaska, Canada, Africa, the Middle East, India, the Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America, and the Kurils. Used a variety of aircraft, including F-2's, F-3's, F-7's, A-29's, B-17's, B-18's, B-24's, and B-25's. Disbanded on 5 Oct 1944.

Squadrons. 1st: 1941-1943. 2d: 1941-1944. 3d: 1941-1943. 4th: 1941-1944. 6th: 1943-1944. 19th: 1943. 91st: 1943-1944.

1st Search Attack Group

Constituted as 1st Sea-Search Attack Group (Medium) on 8 Jun 1942 and activated on 17 Jun. Redesignated 1st Sea-Search Attack Group (Heavy) in Jun 1943, 1st Sea-Search Attack Unit in Sep 1943, and 1st Search Attack Group in Nov 1943. Assigned directly to AAF in Jul 1942; assigned to First AF in Nov 1943. Tested equipment and developed techniques and tactics for use against submarines and surface craft; also flew patrol missions and searched for enemy submarines. Late in 1943 became concerned primarily with radar training for combat crews. Used B-17, B-18, and B-24 aircraft. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 2d: 1942-1944. 3d: 1942-1944. 4th (formerly 18th Antisubmarine): 1943-1944.

2nd Air Commando Group

Constituted as 2nd Air Commando Group on 11 Apr 1944 and activated on 22 Apr. Trained for operations with P-51, C-47, and L-5 aircraft. Moved to India, Sep-Nov 1944. Between Nov 1944 and May 1945 the group dropped supplies to Allied troops who were fighting the Japanese in the Chindwin Valley in Burma; moved Chinese troops from Burma to China; transported men, food, ammunition, and construction equipment to Burma; dropped Gurkha paratroops during the assault on Rangoon; provided fighter support for Allied forces crossing the Irrawaddy River in Feb 1945; struck enemy airfields and transportation facilities; escorted bombers to targets in the vicinity of Rangoon; bombed targets in Thailand; and flew reconnaissance missions. After May 1945 the fighter squadrons were in training; in Jun the group's C-47's were sent to Ledo to move road-building equipment; during Jun-Jul most of its L-5's were turned over to Fourteenth AF. The group returned to the US during Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 12 Nov 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Squadrons. 1st Fighter: 1944-1945. 2nd Fighter: 1944-1945. 127th Liaison: 1944-1945. 155th Liaison: 1944-1945. 156th Liaison: 1944-1945. 317th Troop Carrier: 1944-1945.

2nd Bombardment Group

Organized as 1st Day Bombardment Group in France on 10 Sep 1918. Equipped with DH-4 and Breguet aircraft and entered combat on 12 Sep. Attacked troop concentrations and communications to interfere with the enemy's movement of reinforcements and supplies to the front during the Allied offensive at St Mihiel. Also took part in the Meuse-Argonne campaign, attacking the enemy behind the line, and conducting bombing operations that helped to protect Allied ground forces by diverting German pursuit planes from the battle zone. Participated in one of the great bombing raids of the war Mitchell struck a concentration point where German troops were preparing for a counterattack against the Allied offensive in the Meuse-Argonne area. Demobilized in France in Nov 1918, soon after the armistice.

Reconstituted (in 1924) and consolidated with a group that was organized in the US as 1st Day Bombardment Group on 18 Sep 1919 and redesignated 2d Bombardment Group in 1921. Used LB-5A, B-10, B-17 (1937-), B-15 (1938-), and other aircraft during the 1920's and 1930's. Engaged in routine training; tested and experimented with equipment and tactics; participated in maneuvers; took part in Mitchell's demonstrations of the effectiveness of aerial bombardment on battleships; flew mercy missions to aid victims of a flood in Pennsylvania in 1936 and victims of an earthquake in Chile in 1939; and made goodwill flights to South America in the late 1930's. Redesignated 2d Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 1939. Trained with B-17's.

Served on antisubmarine duty for several months after the US entered World War II. Moved to North Africa, Mar-May 1943, and remained in the theater until after V-E Day, being assigned first to Twelfth and later (Dec 1943) to Fifteenth AF. Flew many support and interdictory missions, bombing such targets as marshalling yards, airdromes, troop concentrations, bridges, docks, and shipping. Participated in the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia, Apr-May 1943; the reduction of Pantelleria and the preparations for the invasion of Sicily, May-Jul 1943; the invasion of Italy, Sep 1943; the drive toward Rome, Jan-Jun 1944; the invasion of Southern France, Aug 1944; and the campaigns against German forces in northern Italy, Jun 1944-May 1945. Engaged primarily in long-range bombardment of strategic targets after Oct 1943, attacking oil refineries, aircraft factories, steel plants, and other objectives in Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Greece. En route to bomb a vital aircraft factory at Steyr on 24 Feb 1944, the group was greatly outnumbered by enemy interceptors, but it maintained its formation and bombed the target, receiving a DUC for the performance. On the following day, while on a mission to attack aircraft factories at Regensburg, it met similar opposition equally well and was awarded a second DUC. Served as part of the occupation force in Italy after V-E Day. Inactivated in Italy on 28 Feb 1946.

Redesignated 2d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Redesignated 2d Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Converted to B-50's early in 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 11th: 1918; 1919-1927. 20th: 1918; 1919-1946; 1947-1952. 49th (formerly 166th): 1918; 1919-1946; 1947-1952. 96th: 1918; 1919-1946; 1947-1952. 429th: 1942-1946.

2d Combat Cargo Group

Constituted as 2nd Combat Cargo Group on 25 Apr 1944. Activated on 1 May 1944. Trained with C-46 and C-47 aircraft. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Oct-Nov 1944, and assigned to Fifth AF. Operated from Biak to fly passengers and cargo to US bases in Australia, New Guinea, the Admiralties, and the Philippines. Also dropped supplies to US and guerrilla forces in the Philippines. Moved to Leyte in May 1945. Maintained flights to bases in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines; transported personnel and supplies to the Ryukyus, and evacuated casualties on return flights. Moved to Okinawa in Aug 1945. Transported personnel and equipment of the occupation forces to Japan and ferried liberated prisoners of war to the Philippines. Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Squadrons. 5th: 1944-1946. 6th: 1944-1946. 7th: 1944-1946. 8th: 1944-1946.

2d Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 2nd Photographic Group on 1 May 1942 and activated on 7 May. Redesignated 2nd Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group in May 1943, and 2nd Photographic Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Assigned first to Second AF, later to Third AF. Trained crews and units for photographic reconnaissance and mapping; occasionally provided personnel to help man new groups and squadrons. Aircraft included B-17's, B-24's, B-25's, L-4's, L-5's, P-38's, and A-20's. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 6th: 1942. 7th: 1942-1944. 10th: 1942-1944. 11th (formerly 5th): 1942-1944. 29th: 1943-1944.

3rd Air Commando Group

Constituted as 3rd Air Commando Group on 25 Apr 1944. Activated on 1 May 1944. Moved to the Philippines late in 1944. Assigned to Fifth AF for operations with P-51, C-47, and L-5 aircraft. Attacked Japanese airfields and installations in the Philippines, supported ground forces on Luzon, provided escort for missions to Formosa and the China coast, made raids on airfields and railways on Formosa, and furnished cover for convoys. Also transported personnel, dropped supplies to ground troops and guerrilla forces, evacuated casualties from front-line strips, adjusted artillery fire, and flew courier and mail routes. Moved to the Ryukyus in Aug 1945. Flew some patrols over Japan, made local liaison flights, and hauled cargo from the Philippines to Okinawa. Moved to Japan in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Squadrons. 3rd Fighter: 1944-1946. 4th Fighter: 1944-1946. 157th Liaison: 1944-1946. 159th Liaison: 1944-1946. 160th Liaison: 1944-1946. 318th Troop Carrier: 1944-1946.

3rd Bombardment Group

Organized as Army Surveillance Group on 1 Jul 1919. Redesignated 1st Surveillance Group in Aug 1919. Used DH-4B's to patrol the border from Brownsville, Tex, to Nogales, Ariz, until 1921. Redesignated 3d Attack Groupin 1921, and 3rd Bombardment Group (Light) in 1939. Equipped with O-1, O-2, A-5, A-12, A-17, A-18, A-20, A-24, and other aircraft, 1921-1941. Trained, participated in maneuvers, tested new equipment, experimented with tactics, flew in aerial reviews, patrolled the Mexican border (1929), and carried air mail (1934). Furnished personnel for and helped to train new organizations, 1939-1941.

Moved to Australia early in 1942 and became part of Fifth AF. Redesignated 3rd Bombardment Group (Dive) in Sep 1942, and 3rd Bombardment Group (Light) in May 1943. Served in combat from 1 Apr 1942 until V-J Day. Used A-20, A-24, and B-25 aircraft for operations.

The group had its headquarters in Australia until Jan 1943, but its squadrons operated from New Guinea, bombing and strafing enemy airfields, supply lines, installations, and shipping as the Allies halted the Japanese drive toward Port Moresby and drove the enemy back from Buna to Lae. At the end of that campaign in Jan 1943, headquarters moved to New Guinea. For the next year and a half the group continued to serve in the Southwest Pacific, where it played an important role in the offensives in which the Allies pushed along the northern coast of New Guinea, taking Salamaua, Lae, Hollandia, Wakde, Biak, and Noemfoor. In Mar 1943 it took part in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, which ended Japanese attempts to send convoys to Lae. In Aug 1943, when Fifth AF struck airfields at Wewak to neutralize Japanese airpower that threatened the advance of Allied forces in New Guinea, the group made an attack in the face of intense antiaircraft fire on 17 Aug, destroyed or damaged many enemy planes, and won a DUC for the mission. In the fall of 1943 the group struck Japanese naval and air power at Rabaul to support the assaults on Bougainville and New Britain. In an attack on shipping at Simpson Harbor, New Britain, on 2 Nov 1943, the 3rd group encountered heavy opposition from enemy fighters and from antiaircraft batteries on the ships. In that attack Maj Raymond H Wilkins, commander of the 8th squadron, sank two ships before he was shot down as he deliberately drew the fire of a destroyer so that other planes of his squadron could withdraw safely - an action for which Maj Wilkins was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. The group moved to the Philippines late in 1944. Equipped with A-20's, it bombed and strafed airfields; supported ground forces on Mindoro, Luzon, and Mindanao; attacked industries and railways on Formosa; and struck shipping along the China coast. Moved to Okinawa early in Aug 1945 and flew some missions to Japan before the war ended. Moved to Japan in Sep 1945 and, as part of Far East Air Forces, became part of the army of occupation.

Served in combat in the Korean War from 27 Jun 1950 until the armistice on 27 Jul 1953. Operated first from Japan and later from Korea, using B-26 aircraft. Flew most of its missions at night to attack such targets as airfields, vehicles, and railways. Capt John S Walmsley Jr was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on 14 Sep 1944: flyding a night mission in a B-26, Capt Walmsley discovered and attacked an enemy supply train, and after exhausting his ammunition he flew at low altitude to direct other aircraft to the same objective; the train was destroyed but Walmsley's plane crashed in the target area. The group returned to Japan in 1954. Redesignated 3rd Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955.

Squadrons. 8th: 1919-. 12th: 1919-1921. 13th (formerly 104th): 1919-1924; 1929-. 26th: 1921-1929. 51st: 1935-1936. 89th (formerly 10th): 1941-1946. 90th: 1919-.

3rd Combat Cargo Group

Constituted as 3rd Combat Cargo Group on 1 Jun 1944 and activated in India on 5 Jun. Equipped with C-47's. Supported ground forces during the battle for northern Burma and the subsequent Allied drive southward. Flew Allied troops and materiel to the front, transporting gasoline, oil, vehicles, engineering and signal equipment, and other items that the group either landed or dropped in Burma. Also evacuated wounded personnel to India. Moved to Burma in Jun 1945. Hauled gasoline and other supplies to bases in western China. Redesignated 513th Troop Carrier Group in Sep 1945. Moved to China in Nov. Inactivated on 15 Apr 1946.

Redesignated 513th Troop Carrier Group (Special). Activated in Germany on 19 Nov 1948. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Using C-54's, transported food, coal, and other supplies during the Berlin airlift, 1948-1949. Inactivated in Germany on 16 Oct 1949.

Redesignated 513th Troop Carrier Group (Assault, Fixed Wing). Activated in the US on 8 Nov 1955. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with C-123 aircraft.

Squadrons. 9th (later 330th): 1944-1946; 1948-1949; 1955-. 10th (later 331st): 1944-1945; 1948-1949; 1955-. 11th (late 332nd): 1944-1946; 1948-1949; 1955-. 12th (later 333rd): 1944-1945; 1948-1949.

3rd Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 3rd Photographic Group on 9 Jun 1942 and activated on 20 Jun. Redesignated 3rd Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group in May 1943, 3rd Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) in Nov 1943, and 3rd Reconnaissance Group in May 1945. Moved, via England, to the Mediterranean theater, Nov-Dec 1942, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Used F-4 and F-5 aircraft. Provided photographic intelligence that assisted the campaigns for Tunisia, Pantelleria, Sardinia, and Sicily. Reconnoitered airdromes, roads, marshalling yards, and harbors both before and after the Allied landings at Salerno. Covered the Anzio area early in 1944 and continued to support Fifth Army in its drive through Italy by determining troop movements, gun positions, and terrain. Flew reconnaissance missions in connection with the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. Received a DUC for a mission on 28 Aug 1944 when the group provided photographic intelligence that assisted the rapid advance of Allied ground forces. Also mapped areas in France and the Balkans. Inactivated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947.

Squadrons. 5th: 1942-1945. 12th: 1942-1945. 13th: 1942-1943. 14th: 1942-1943. 15th: 1942-1944. 23d: 1944-1945.

4th Combat Cargo Group

Constituted as 4th Combat Cargo Group on 9 Jun 1944 and activated on 13 Jun. Trained with C-46 and C-47 aircraft. Moved to India in Nov 1944. Began operations with C-46's in Dec 1944. Transported reinforcements and supplies for Allied forces in Burma until May 1945. Operations included moving equipment and materials for the Ledo Road in Dec 1944; transporting men, mules, and boats when the Allies crossed the Irrawaddy River in Feb 1945; and dropping Gurkha paratroops during the assault on Rangoon in May 1945. Moved to Burma in Jun 1945 and hauled ammunition, gasoline, mules, and men to China until the war ended. Returned to India in Nov 1945. Inactivated on 9 Feb 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Squadrons. 13th: 1944-1945. 14th: 1944-1946. 15th: 1944-1945. 16th: 1944-1945.

4th Fighter Group

Constituted as 4th Fighter Group on 22 Aug 1942. Activated in England on 12 Sep 1942. Former members of RAF Eagle Squadrons formed the nucleus of the group, which served in combat from Oct 1942 to Apr 1945 and destroyed more enemy planes in the air and on the ground than any other fighter group of Eighth AF. Operated first with Spitfires but changed to P-47's in Mar 1943 and to P-51's in Apr 1944. On numerous occasions escorted bombers that attacked factories, submarine pens, V-weapon sites, and other targets in France, the Low Countries, or Germany. Went out sometimes with a small force of bombers to draw up the enemy's fighters so they could be destroyed in aerial combat. At other times attacked the enemy's air power by strafing and dive-bombing airfields. Also hit troops, supply depots, roads, bridges, rail lines, and trains. Participated in the intensive campaign against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Received a DUC for aggressiveness in seeking out and destroying enemy aircraft and in attacking enemy air bases, 5 Mar-24 Apr 1944. Flew interdictory and counter-air missions during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. Supported the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Covered the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Moved to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Activated on 9 Sep 1946. Equipped with P-80's. Converted to F-86 aircraft in 1949. Redesignated 4th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Moved to Japan, Nov-Dec 1950, for duty with Far East Air Forces in the Korean War. Began operations from Japan on 15 Dec 1950 and moved to Korea in Mar 1951. Escorted bombers, made fighter sweeps, engaged in interdiction of the enemy's lines of communications, flew armed reconnaissance sorties, conducted counter-air patrols, served as an air defense organization, and provided close support for ground forces. One member of the group, Maj George A Davis Jr, commander of the 334th squadron, was awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 10 Feb 1952 when, leading a flight of two F-86's, Davis spotted twelve enemy planes (MiG's), attacked, and destroyed three before his plane crashed in the mountains. The group returned to Japan in the fall of 1954. Redesignated 4th Fighter-Bomber Group in Mar 1955.

Squadrons. 334th: 1942-1945; 1946-. 335th: 1942-1945; 1946-. 336th: 1942-1945; 1946-.

4th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 4th Photographic Group on 14 Jul 1942 and activated on 23 Jul. Trained for overseas duty with F-4's. Moved to the South Pacific late in 1942. Assigned to Thirteenth AF in Jan 1943. Redesignated 4th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group in May 1943, 4th Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) in Nov 1943, and 4th Reconnaissance Group in May 1945. From Dec 1942 to May 1945 the group, based successively on New Caledonia, Espiritu Santo, Guadalcanal, and Morotai, flew reconnaissance missions over enemy territory to supply air force units with target and damage assessment photographs and to provide army and navy units with intelligence on Japanese troop concentrations, installations, shore defenses, supply routes, and shipping. It also produced maps of Allied and enemy-held territory and prepared navigation charts for US units. During the last three months of the war the group photographed Japanese positions and installations on Mindanao and Borneo to aid US and Australian operations. Moved to Leyte in Sep 1945. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947.

Squadrons. 17th: 1942-1946. 18th: 1942-1944. 19th: 1942-1943. 20th: 1942-1943. 38th: 1945-1946.

5th Bombardment Group

Authorized as 2nd Group (Observation) on 15 Aug 1919 and organized in Hawaii. Redesignated 5th Group (Observation) in Mar 1921, 5th Group (Pursuit and Bombardment) in Jun 1922, and 5th Group (Composite) in Jul 1922. Used DH-4, MB-2, B-12, LB-5, LB-6, PW-9, P-12, O-19, and other aircraft. Activities included training, participating in Army-Navy maneuvers, staging aerial reviews, sowing seeds from the air for the Territorial Forestry Division, and bombing a stream of lava flowing from Mauna Loa to divert it from the city of Hilo. Redesignated 5th Bombardment Group in Mar 1938, 5th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Dec 1939, and 5th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 1940. Equipped with B-17's and B-18's by Dec 1941. Assigned to Seventh AF in Feb 1942. Engaged primarily in search and patrol missions off Hawaii from Dec 1941 to Nov 1942.

Left Hawaii in Nov 1942 and, operating from bases in the South and Southwest Pacific with B-17 and B-24 aircraft, served in combat with Thirteenth AF during the Allied drive from the Solomons to the Philippines. Flew long patrol and photographic missions over the Solomon Islands and the Coral Sea, attacked Japanese shipping off Guadalcanal, and raided airfields in the northern Solomons until Aug 1943. Then struck enemy bases and installations on Bougainville, New Britain, and New Ireland. Raided the heavily defended Japanese base on Woleai during Apr and May 1944 and received a DUC for the action. Helped to neutralize enemy bases on Yap and in the Truk and Palau Islands, Jun-Aug 1944, preparatory to the invasion of Peleliu and Leyte. Flew missions to the Netherlands Indies, receiving a DUC for an attack, conducted through heavy flak and fighter defenses, on oil installations at Balikpapan, Borneo, on 30 Sep 1944. Completed a variety of missions from Oct 1944 until the end of the war, these operations including raids on enemy bases and installations on Luzon, Ceram, Halmahera, and Formosa; support for ground forces in the Philippines and Borneo; and patrols off the China coast. Remained in the theater as part of Far East Air Forces after the war, but all personnel evidently had been withdrawn by early in 1946. Redesignated 5th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Apr 1946, and 5th Reconnaissance Group in Feb 1947. Remanned in Mar 1947, equipped with FB-17's and F-2's, and engaged in mapping areas of the Philippines, Formosa, and the Pescadores.

Moved to the US in May 1949. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 5th Strategic Reconnaissance Group in Jul 1949. Equipped with RB-29's. Redesignated 5th Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Heavy) in Sep 1950. Began converting to B-36's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 6th Pursuit: 1919-1927. 19th Pursuit: 1924-1927. 23d: 1922-1930, 1938-1947, 1947-1952. 26th Attack: 1930-1938. 31st: 1938-1947, 1947-1952. 38th: 1947-1949. 72d: 1923-1930, 1938-1947, 1949-1952. 338th: 1947-1949. 394th (formerly 4th): 1920-1922, 1927-1938, 1939-1946. 431st (formerly 50th, later 5th): 1930-1938, 1946, 1947.

5th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 5th Photographic Group on 14 Jul 1942 and activated on 23Jul. Redesignated 5th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group in May1943, and 5th Photographic Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Trained andparticipated in maneuvers. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Jul-Sep 1943. Assigned first to Twelfth AF and later (Oct 1944) to Fifteenth. Flew missionsto Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Balkans, using F-5 aircraft. Also flew some photographic missions at night with B-17'sand B-25's. Photographed areas near Anzio prior to the Allied landings. Provided reconnaissance of road and rail targets to support US Fifth and British Eighth Army in southern Italy. Made bomb damage assessments at Cassino. Operated over northwest France, photographing rail targets to be bombed in connection with the invasion of Normandy. Mapped coastal areas in preparation for the invasion of Southern France. Received a DUC for action on 6 Sep 1944 when the group secured photographic intelligence of German Air Force installations in the Balkans and thus enabled fighter organizations to destroy large numbers of enemy transport and fighter planes. Provided reconnaissance services for Fifteenth AF's campaign against the enemy's oil industry, aircraft production, and communications. Also assisted the advance of ground forces in northern Italy by supplying intelligence on enemy installations in the area. Redesignated 5th Reconnaissance Group in May 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 28 Oct 1945. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947.

Squadrons. 15th: 1944-1945. 21st: 1942-1943. 22d: 1942-1943. 23d: 1942-1944. 24th: 1942-1943. 32d: 1944-1945. 37th: 1944-1945.

6th Bombardment Group

Organized as 3rd Observation Group in the Panama Canal Zone on 30 Sep 1919. Redesignated 6th Group (Observation) in 1921, 6th Group (Composite) in 1922, 6th Bombardment Group in 1937, 6th Bombardment Group (Medium) in 1939, and 6th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 1940. Operations, which were concernedchiefly with defense of the canal, included training, participating in maneuvers, flying patrol missions, photographing the canal area, staging aerial reviews, making good-will flights to Central and South American countries, and flying mercy missions in Jan 1939 to earthquake victims a Santiago, Chile. Equipped with R-4's and DH-4's in 1919; used SE-5A, MB-3A, and P-12B aircraft in the period 1922-1929; received B-10's in 1936 and B-18's in 1939; used B-17, B-18, B-24, LB-30, and L-4E aircraft after the US entered World War II. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on 1 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted on 29 Jun 1944 and consolidated with 6th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy), which had been constituted on 28 Mar 1944 and activated in the US on 19 Apr 1944. Equipped first with B-17's; later trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Tinian, Nov 1944-Feb 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Commenced operations by attacking Iwo Jima and the Truk Islands in Feb 1945. Afterward, struck industrial targets in Japan, flying in daylight and at high altitude to carry out these missions. Began incendiary raids on area targets in Japan in Mar 1945 and was awarded a DUC for action on 25 May when the group flew at night and at low altitude through alerted enemy defenses to drop incendiaries on Tokyo. Participated in mining operations in the Shimonoseki Strait and received second DUC for contributing to the blockade of the Japanese Empire by mining harbors in Japan and Korea in Jul 1945. Assisted the invasion of Okinawa in Apr 1945 with strikes on Kyushu, hitting airfields that were used by kamikaze pilots. After the war, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners and took part in show-of-force flights over Japan. Moved to the Philippines in Jan 1946 and to the Ryukyus in Jun 1947. Inactivated on Okinawa on 18 Oct 1948.

Redesignated 6th Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated in the US on 2 Jan 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 3d: 1940-1942. 24th: 1922-1929; 1944-1948; 1951-1952. 25th: 1922-1943. 29th: 1943. 39th: 1944-1948; 1951-1952. 40th: 1944-1948; 1951-1952. 44th: 1930-1937. 74th: 1940-1942, 1943. 395th: 1942-1943. 397th (formerly 7th): 1919-1940, 1942-1943.

6th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 6th Photographic Group on 5 Feb 1943 and activated on 9 Feb. Redesignated 6th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group in May 1943, 6th Photographic Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943, and 6th Reconnaissance Group in May 1945. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Sep-Oct 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Used F-5's and F-7's to photograph Japanese airfields, harbors, beach defenses, and personnel areas in New Guinea, the Bismarcks, Borneo, and the southern Philippines. Reconnoitered target areas and enemy troop positions to provide intelligence for air force and army units. Received a DUC for unescorted flights to Leyte during Sep 1944 when in a minimum period of time the group obtained information about Japanese defenses, such information being necessary for planning the amphibious assault on the Philippines. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, flew missions to Formosa and China, engaged in mapping parts of Luzon and Mindanao, and provided intelligence for US ground forces concerning Japanese movements. Moved to Okinawa in Jul 1945 and flew some missions over Kyushu before the war ended. Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. Inactivated on 27 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947.

Squadrons. 8th: 1943-1946. 20th: 1943-1946. 25th: 1943-1946. 26th: 1943-1945. 27th: 1943. 36th: 1944-1945.

7th Bombardment Group

Organized as 1st Army Observation Group on 1 Oct 1919. Redesignated 7th Group (Observation) in Mar 1921. Inactivated on 30 Aug 1921.

Redesignated 7th Bombardment Group in 1923. Activated on 1 Jun 1928. Redesignated 7th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 1939. Trained, participated in aerial reviews, dropped food and medical supplies to persons marooned or lost, and took part in maneuvers and experiments. Aircraft included B-12's, B-18's, and B-17's.

The group was on its way to the Philippines when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 Dec 1941. The ground echelon, on board ship, was diverted to Australia and later sent to Java. Six of the group's B-17's, which had left the US on 6 Dec, reached Hawaii during the enemy attack but were able to land safely. Later in Dec the remainder of the air echelon flew B-17's from the US to Java. From 14 Jan to 1 Mar 1942, during the Japanese drive through the Philippines and Netherlands East Indies, the group operated from Java, being awarded a DUC for its action against enemy aircraft, ground installations, warships, and transports.

Moved to India in Mar 1942 and assigned to Tenth AF. Resumed combat with B-17's and LB-30's; converted to B-24's late in 1942. Operations were directed primarily against the Japanese in Burma, with attacks on airfields, fuel and supply dumps, locomotive works, railways, bridges, docks, warehouses, shipping, and other targets. Also bombed oil refineries and railways in Thailand, hit power plants in China, attacked enemy shipping in the Andaman Sea, and ferried gasoline over the Hump to China. Received second DUC for damaging the enemy's line of supply in southeast Asia with an attack against rail lines and bridges in Thailand on 19 Mar 1945. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 7th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 1 Oct 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped first with B-29's, later with B-36's. Redesignated 7th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Jul 1948. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 9th: 1919-1921; 1928-1946; 1946-1952. 11th: 1919-1921; unkn-1942. 22d: 1939-1942. 30th: 1928-1931. 31st: 1919-1921; 1928-[1939?]. 436th (formerly 88th): 1939-1946; 1946-1952. 492d: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 493d: 1942-1946.

7th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 7th Photographic Group on 5 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Redesignated 7th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group in May 1943, 7th Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) in Nov 1943, and 7th Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to England on 7 Jul 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Used Spitfires and L-5's to obtain information about bombardment targets and damage inflicted by bombardment operations; provide mapping service for air and ground units; observe and report on enemy transportation, installations, and positions; and obtain data on weather conditions. Prior to Jun 1944, photographed airfields, cities, industrial establishments, and ports in France, the Low Countries, and Germany. Received a DUC for operations during the period, 31 May-30 Jun 1944, when its coverage of bridges, marshalling yards, canals, highways, rivers, and other targets contributed much to the success of the Normandy campaign. Covered missile sites in France during Jul, and in Aug carried out photographic mapping missions for ground forces advancing across France. Provided reconnaissance support for the airborne attack on Holland in Sep and for the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Used P-51's to escort its own reconnaissance planes during the last months of the war as the group supported the Allied drive across the Rhine and into Germany. Took part in the final bomb-damage assessment following V-E Day. Inactivated in England on 21 Nov 1945. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947.

Squadrons. 13th: 1943-1945. 14th: 1943-1945. 22d: 1943-1945. 27th: 1943-1945. 28th: 1943. 29th: 1943. 30th: 1943.

8th Fighter Group

Authorized on the inactive list as 8th Pursuit Group on 24 Mar 1923. Activated on 1 Apr 1931. Redesignated 8th Pursuit Group (Fighter) in 1939, and 8th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1941. Trained, took part in maneuvers and reviews, and tested planes and equipment, using PB-2, P-6, P-12, P-35, P-36, P-39, and P-40 aircraft prior to World War II. In Dec 1941, became part of the defense force for the New York metropolitan area. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater early in 1942. Redesignated 8th Fighter Group in May 1942. Became part of Fifth AF. Equipped first with P-39's, added P-38's and P-40's in 1943, and used P-38's after May 1944.

Established headquarters in Australia in Mar 1942 but sent detachments to New Guinea for operations. Moved to New Guinea in Sep 1942 and served in combat until malaria forced the organization to withdraw to Australia in Feb 1943. Resumed operations in Apr 1943 and served in the theater through the rest of the war. Covered Allied landings, escorted bombers, and attacked enemy airfields in New Guinea; supported operations of the US Marines at Cape Gloucester, Feb-Mar 1944; flew long-range escort and attack missions to Borneo, Ceram, Halmahera, and the southern Philippines; provided cover for convoys, attacked enemy shipping, and won a DUC for strafing a strong Japanese naval force off Mindoro (26 Dec 1944) covered landings at Lingayen; supported ground forces on Luzon; escorted bombers to targets on the Asiatic mainland and on Formosa; and, in the last days of the war, attacked airfields and railways in Japan. Remained in the theater after V-J Day, being based in Japan for duty with Far East Air Forces. Converted to P-51's early in 1946 and to F-80's early in 1950. Redesignated 8th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950.

Began operations in the Korean War on 26 Jun 1950 by providing cover for the evacuation of US personnel from Seoul. Entered combat the following day. Shifted to F-51 aircraft in Oct 1950 but converted back to F-80's in Dec 1950. Began operating from bases in Korea in Oct 1950, but resumed operations from Japan in Dec 1950 when Communist forces drove far south in Korea. Returned to Korea in Jun 1951. Served in combat until the end of the war, supporting UN ground forces and attacking such targets as airfields, supply lines, and troop concentrations. Maj Charles Loring Jr was awarded the Medal of Honor for his action on 22 Nov 1952: after his plane had been hit and badly crippled as he was leading a flight of four F-80's against enemy artillery at Sniper Ridge, Maj Loring deliberately dived his plane into the gun emplacements. The group converted to F-86's in the spring of 1953 and returned to Japan the following year.

Squadrons. 33d: 1932-1941. 35th: 1932-. 36th: 1931, 1932-. 55th: 1931-1932. 68th: 1945-1947. 80th: 1942-1945, 1947-.

8th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Group on 15 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Trained to provide photographic intelligence for air and ground forces. Moved to India, Feb-Mar 1944. Equipped with F-5, F-6, F-7, and P-40 aircraft. Conducted photographic reconnaissance, photographic mapping, and visual-reconnaissance missions. Produced maps, mosaics, terrain models, and target charts of areas in Burma, China, French Indochina, and Thailand. Also bombed and strafed enemy installations and provided escort for bombardment units. Redesignated 8th Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 5 Nov 1945. Disbanded on 6 Mar 1947.

Squadrons. 9th: 1944-1945. 20th: 1944-1945. 24th: 1944-1945. 40th: 1944-1945.

9th Bombardment Group

Authorized as 9th Group (Observation) on 19 Jul 1922. Organized on 1 Aug 1922. Redesignated 9th Bombardment Group in 1935, 9th Bombardment Group (Medium) in 1939, and 9th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 1940. Trained, took part in maneuvers, and participated in air shows, during the period 1922-1940. Equipped with B-10's and B-18's in the late 1930's and early 1940's. Moved to Panama late in 1940 to serve as part of the defense force for the canal. Used B-17's for antisubmarine operations in the Caribbean. Returned to the US in 1942. Equipped with B-17, B-24, and B-26 aircraft. Trained cadres for bombardment units and tested equipment.

Redesignated 9th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Mar 1944. Prepared for combat with B-29's. Moved to the Pacific theater, Nov 1944-Feb 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Commenced operations late in Jan 1945 with attacks against Japanese-held Maug. After that, struck industrial targets in Japan, conducting the missions in daylight and at high altitude. Received a DUC for bombing the industrial area of Kawasaki in Apr 1945. Beginning in Mar 1945 the group carried out incendiary raids at night on area targets in Japan. During Apr and May it assisted the Allied assault on Okinawa by hitting airfields that the Japanese were using to launch planes against the invasion force. Also conducted mining operations against Japanese shipping, receiving second DUC for such actions in the Inland Sea during May 1945. After the war, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners and took part in show-of-force missions over the Japanese home islands. Moved to the Philippines in Apr 1946 and to the Marianas in Jun 1947. Inactivated on Guam on 20 Oct 1948.

Redesignated 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Group. Activated in the US on 1 May 1949. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped primarily with B-29's although a few B-36's were assigned during 1949-1950. Redesignated 9th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Apr 1950, and 9th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Oct 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 1st: 1922-1923; 1929-1948; 1949-1952. 5th: 1922-1923; 1929-1948; 1949-1952. 99th: 1929-1948; 1949-1952. 430th: 1943-1944.

9th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 9th Photographic Reconnaissance Group on 15 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Assigned to Third AF. With squadrons attached but none assigned, the group trained crews and units for photographic reconnaissance and combat mapping. Aircraft included B-17's, B-24's, F-4's, F-5's, F-7's, and A-20's. Disbanded on 6 May 1944.

Squadrons. (See narrative.)

10th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 73rd Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Engaged in training activities, participating in the Tennessee Maneuvers in 1943. Redesignated 73rd Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, 73rd Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943, and 10th Photographic Group (Reconnaissance) in Dec 1943. Moved to the European theater, Jan-Feb 1944, for duty with Ninth AF. Used F-3, F-5, F-6, L-1, L-4, and L-5 aircraft for operations, Feb 1944-May 1945. Photographed airfields, coastal defenses, and ports, and made bomb-damage assessment photographs of airfields, marshalling yards, bridges, and other targets, in preparation for the Normandy invasion; received a DUC for flying at low altitude to photograph the coast from Blankenberghe to Dunkirk and from Le Touquet to St-Vaast-la-Hougue, 6-20 May 1944. Supported the invasion in Jun by making visual and photographic reconnaissance of bridges, artillery, road and railroad junctions, traffic centers, airfields, and other targets. Assisted the Allied drive toward the German border during the summer and early fall of 1944 by flying daylight and night photographic missions; also performed tactical reconnaissance for ground and air units, directing artillery to enemy positions and fighter-bombers to opportune targets. Aided Third Army and other Allied organizations in the battle to breach the Siegfried Line, Sep-Dec 1944. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by flying reconnaissance missions in the combat zone. From Feb 1945 to V-E Day, assisted the advance of Third Army across the Rhine, to Czechoslovakia, and into Austria. Remained in Germany after the war as part of the army of occupation, being assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Redesignated 10th Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947.

Remanned and equipped with RF-51's. Redesignated 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1948. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1949.

Activated in Germany on 10 Jul 1952. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Equipped with RB-26, RB-57, RF-80, and RF-84 aircraft.

Squadrons. 1st: 1945-1949; 1952-. 12th: 1941-1942, 1944-1946. 14th: 1943. 15th (formerly Observation): 1942-1943, 1944-1945, 1947-1949. 15th (formerly Photographic): 1947. 16th: 1941-1942. 22d: 1941-1942. 30th: 1944. 31st: 1944-1945. 32d: 1952-. 33d: 1944. 34th: 1944, 1945. 36th (formerly 28th): 1942-1943. 38th: 1952-. 39th: 1945. 42d: 1952-. 91st: 1941-1942, 1942-1943. 111th: 1945. 152d: 1943. 155th (formerly 423rd, later 45th): 1944-1945, 1945-1947. 160th: 1945-1947. 162d: 1945.

10th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted on the inactive list as 1st Transport Group on 1 Oct 1933. Consolidated with the 10th Observation Group (which had been constituted on the inactive list on 1 Oct 1933), redesignated 10th Transport Group, and activated, on 20 May 1937. Trained with C-27's and C-33's. As part of the logistic organization, assigned first to Office of Chief of the Air Corps and later (1941) to Air Service Command, the group transported supplies, materiel, and personnel within the US. Assigned to Air Transport Command (later I Troop Carrier Command) in Apr 1942. Redesignated 10th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Converted to C-47's. Trained cadres for troop carrier groups and in 1943 was given the additional duty of training replacement crews. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 1st: 1937-1943. 2d: 1937-1943. 3d: 1937-1940. 4th: 1937-1940. 5th: 1937-1944. 27th: 1942-1943, 1943-1944. 38th: 1942-1944. 307th: 1943-1944. 308th: 1943-1944.

11th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 11th Observation Group in 1933. Redesignated 11th Bombardment Group (Medium) in 1938. Activated in Hawaii on 1 Feb 1940. Redesignated 11th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 1940. Assigned to Seventh AF in Feb 1942. Trained with B-18's; received B-17's for operations. Flew patrol and search missions off Hawaii after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Moved to the New Hebrides in Jul 1942. Became part of Thirteenth AF. Struck airfields, supply dumps, ships, docks, troop positions, and other objectives in the South Pacific, Jul-Nov 1942, and received a DUC for those operations. Continued operations, attacking Japanese airfields, installations, and shipping in the Solomons, until late in Mar 1943. Returned to Hawaii, reassigned to Seventh AF, and trained with B-24's. Resumed combat in Nov 1943 and participated in the Allied offensive through the Gilberts, Marshalls, and Marianas, while operating from Funafuti, Tarawa, and Kwajalein. Moved to Guam in Oct 1944 and attacked shipping and airfields in the Volcano and Bonin Islands. Moved to Okinawa in Jul 1945 to take part in the final phases of the air offensive against Japan, bombing railways, airfields, and harbor facilities on Kyushu and striking airfields in China. After the war, flew reconnaissance and surveillance missions to China and ferried liberated prisoners of war from Okinawa to Luzon. Remained in the theater as part of Far East Air Forces but had no personnel assigned after mid-Dec 1945 when the group was transferred to the Philippines. Redesignated 11th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Apr 1946. Transferred to Guam in May 1946, remanned, and equipped with B-29's. Terminated training and operations in Oct 1946. Inactivated on Guam on 20 Oct 1948.

Redesignated 11th Bombardment Group (Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Dec 1948. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped with B-36 aircraft. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 14th: 1940-1941. 26th: 1940-1948; 1948-1952. 42d: 1919-1948; 1948-1952. 98th: 1941-1948; 1948-1952. 431st: 1942-1946.

11th Photographic Group

Constituted as 11th Photographic Group (Mapping) on 19 Nov 1943. Activated on 1 Dec 1943. Engaged in photographic mapping in the US and sent detachments to carry out similar operations in Africa, the CBI theater, the Near and Middle East, Mexico, Canada, Alaska, and the Caribbean. Used B-17, B-24, B-25, B-29, F-2, F-9, F-10, and A-20 aircraft. Disbanded on 5 Oct 1944.

Squadrons. 1st: 1943-1944. 3d: 1943-1944. 19th: 1943-1944.

12th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 12th Bombardment Group (Light) on 20 Nov-1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, B-23, and PT-17 aircraft. Patrolled the west coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Dec 1941. Using B-25's, began training early in 1942 for duty overseas. Moved to the Middle East, Jul-Aug 1942, and assigned to Ninth AF. Attacked storage areas, motor transports, troop concentrations, airdromes, bridges, shipping, marshalling yards, and other targets in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Pantelleria, Lampedusa, Crete, Sicily, and Italy, Aug 1942-Jan 1944. Supported the Allied drive from Egypt to Tunisia, Oct 1942-Apr 1943.

Early in 1943 two squadrons operated with Twelfth AF, assisting Allied forces moving eastward across North Africa, while the other squadrons continued operations with Ninth AF, bombing enemy defenses along the Mareth Line. Received a DUC for action against the enemy in North Africa and Sicily from Oct 1942 to Aug 1943. While attached to Twelfth AF, Jun-Aug 1943, the group operated from bases in Tunisia and Sicily against targets in Pantelleria, Lampedusa, Sicily, and Italy. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and operated primarily against targets in Italy until Jan 1944. Flew some missions to Albania and Yugoslavia.

Moved to India, Feb-Apr 1944, and assigned to Tenth AF. Engaged chiefly in missions against the enemy in Burma, Apr 1944-May 1945. Bombed communications, military installations, and other objectives. Delivered ammunition to Allied forces at Imphal. Also attacked some targets in China. Began training with A-26 aircraft in the summer of 1945. Returned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 22 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 12th Bombardment Group (Light). Activated on 19 May 1947. Not manned during 1947-1948. Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 12th Fighter-Escort Group. Activated on 1 Nov 1950. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Trained with F-84's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 81st: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 82d: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 83d: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 434th (formerly 94th): 1941-1942, 1942-1946. 559th: 1950-1952. 560th: 1950-1952. 561st: 1950-1952.

13th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 13th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. After the US entered the war the group searched for enemy U-boats and covered friendly convoys off the east coast of the US. Served with First AF and later with AAF Antisubmarine Command, using B-28, B-25, and A-29 aircraft for operations. Inactivated on 30 Nov 1942.

Squadrons. 3rd Antisubmarine (formerly 39th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 4th Antisubmarine (formerly 40th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 5th Antisubmarine (formerly 41st Bombardment): 1941-1942. 6th Antisubmarine (formerly 393rd Bombardment): 1942.

14th Fighter Group

Constituted as 14th Pursuit Group (Fighter) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's and P-43's. Converted to P-38's, which were used in flying patrols on the west coast of the US after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 14th Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942. Began operations with Eighth AF in Oct 1942, escorting bombers to targets in France. Arrived in North Africa shortly after the campaign for Algeria and French Morocco (8-11 Nov 1942) had ended, and remained in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war, being assigned first to Twelfth AF and later (Nov 1943) to Fifteenth. Flew escort, strafing, and reconnaissance missions from the middle of Nov 1942 to late in Jan 1943 and then withdrew from combat, some of the men and planes being reassigned. Resumed operations in May. Flew dive-bombing missions during the Allied assault on Pantelleria. Helped prepare for and support the invasions of Sicily and Italy. Engaged primarily in escort work after Nov 1943, flying many missions to cover bombers engaged in long-range operations against strategic objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Received a DUC for a mission on 2 Apr 1944 when the group, by beating off attacks by enemy fighters, enabled bombers to strike important ball-bearing works in Austria. Also provided escort for reconnaissance operations, supported the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, and on numerous occasions flew long-range missions to strafe and dive-bomb motor vehicles, trains, bridges, supply areas, airdromes, and troop concentrations in an area extending from France to the Balkans. Inactivated in Italy on 9 Sep 1945.

Activated in the US on 20 Nov 1946. Equipped first with P-47's and later with F-84's. Inactivated on 2 Oct 1949.

Redesignated 14th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 37th: 1943-1945; 1946-1949; 1955-. 48th: 1941-1945; 1946-1949. 49th: 1941-1945; 1946-1949. 50th: 1941-1942.

15th Fighter Group

Constituted as 15th Pursuit Group (Fighter) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated in Hawaii on 1 Dec 1940. Redesignated 15th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in Feb 1942, and 15th Fighter Group in May 1942. Served as part of the defense force for the Hawaiian Islands, using A-12, OA-9, B-12, P-36, P-39, and P-40 aircraft. The Japanese attack on Hawaii on 7 Dec 1941 caused numerous casualties in the group and destroyed many of its aircraft; nevertheless, during the raid several of the group's pilots succeeded in taking off and in destroying some enemy planes, including four shot down by Lt George Welch and two credited to Lt Kenneth M Taylor. Afterward the group, which was remanned, reorganized, and assigned to Seventh AF, remained part of the Hawaiian defense system. Sent squadrons (including some that had been attached) to the Central or South Pacific at various times for operations against the Japanese. Began training in Apr 1944 for very-long-range escort missions. Obtained P-51 aircraft late in 1944. Moved to Iwo Jima in Feb 1945. Supported the invasion force on Iwo early in Mar by bombing and strafing trenches, cave entrances, troop concentrations, and storage areas. Began strikes against enemy airfields, shipping, and military installations in the Bonin Islands by the middle of Mar. Flew its first mission to Japan on 7 Apr 1945, receiving a DUC for escorting 8=29's that bombed the Nakajima aircraft plant near Tokyo. Struck Japanese airfields on Kyushu late in Apr and early in May 1945 to curtail the enemy's suicide attacks against the invasion force at Okinawa. Also hit enemy troop trains, small factories, gun positions, and hangars in the Bonins and Japan. Assigned to Twentieth AF during the summer of 1945. Continued its fighter sweeps against Japanese airfields and other targets, and flew longrange escort missions to Japanese cities until the end of the war. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, in Nov 1945 to Hawaii, where the group was remanned and re-equipped. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1946.

Redesignated 15th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated in the US on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 6th: 1943-1944. 12th: 1942. 18th: 1943-1944. 45th: 1940-1946. 46th: 1940-1944. 47th: 1940-1946; 1955-. 78th: 1943-1946.

16th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 16th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 28 Mar 1944. Activated on 1 Apr 1944. Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Mar-Apr 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 16 Jun 1945 with a bombing raid against an airfield on Moen. Flew first mission against the Japanese home islands on 26 Jun 1945 and afterwards operated principally against the enemy's petroleum industry. Flying unescorted in the face of severe enemy attack, the 16th bombed the oil refinery at Shimotsu, the Mitsubishi refinery and oil installations at Kawasaki, and the coal liquefaction plants at Ube, Jul-Aug 1945, and was awarded a DUC for the missions. After the war the group dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners of war in Japan, Manchuria, and Korea, and participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan. Inactivated on Guam on 15 Apr 1946.

Squadrons. 15th: 1944-1946. 16th: 1944-1946. 17th: 1944-1946. 21st: 1944.

16th Fighter Group

Authorized on the inactive list as 16th Pursuit Group on 24 Mar 1923. Activated in the Panama Canal Zone on 1 Dec 1932. Served as a part of the defense force for the canal. Used various types of aircraft, including P-12's, P-26's, P-36's, and P-39's, prior to World War II; equipped with P-40's in 1941. Redesignated 16th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1939, and 16th Fighter Group in 1942. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on 1 Nov 1943.

Squadrons. 24th: 1932-1943. 29th: 1933-1943. 43d: 1940-1943. 44th: 1938-1939. 74th: 1934-1938. 78th: 1932-1937.

17th Bombardment Group

Authorized as 17th Observation Group on 18 Oct 1927. Redesignated 17th Pursuit Group in 1929. Activated on 15 Jul 1931. Redesignated 17th Attack Group in 1935, and 17th Bombardment Group (Medium) in 1939. Trained and participated in maneuvers, using P-12 and P-26 (1931-1932), A-17 (1933-1939), and B-18 (1940-1941) aircraft. Used B-25's for patrol duty on the west coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and later patrolled the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic coast. Converted to B-26's in the summer of 1942.

Moved to North Africa late in 1942 and began operations on 30 Dec. Served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war, being assigned first to Twelfth AF, then to Fifteenth (Nov 1943), and again to Twelfth (Jan 1944). Flew interdictory and close-support missions, bombing bridges, rail lines, marshalling yards, harbors, shipping, gun emplacements, troop concentrations, and other targets. Helped to bring about the defeat of Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943; assisted in the reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun 1943; participated in the invasions of Sicily in Jul and of Italy in Sep 1943; and took part in the drive toward Rome, receiving a DUC for a bombing attack on airdromes at Rome on 13 Jan 1944. Also received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for operations in Italy, Apr-Jun 1944. Took part in the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, and continued bombardment operations in northern Italy, France, and later in Germany. Received second DUC for bombing attacks on enemy defenses near Schweinfurt on 10 Apr 1945. Assisted in the disarmament of Germany after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 26 Nov 1945. Redesignated 17th Bombardment Group (Light). Activated on 19 May 1947. Apparently did not become operative. Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948. Activated in Korea on io May 1952. Assigned to Far East Air Forces and equipped with B-26's for service in the Korean War. Engaged in interdiction and provided close support for UN ground forces until the armistice in Jul 1953. Moved to Japan in Oct 1954; returned to the US, Mar-Apr 1955. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with B-57 aircraft. Redesignated 17th Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955.

Squadrons. 34th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 37th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 73d: 1947-1948; 1952-. 95th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 432d: 1942-1945.

11th Photographic Group

Constituted as 11th Photographic Group (Mapping) on 19 Nov 1943. Activated on 1 Dec 1943. Engaged in photographic mapping in the US and sent detachments to carry out similar operations in Africa, the CBI theater, the Near and Middle East, Mexico, Canada, Alaska, and the Caribbean. Used B-17, B-24, B-25, B-29, F-2, F-9, F-10, and A-20 aircraft. Disbanded on 5 Oct 1944.

Squadrons. 1st: 1943-1944. 3d: 1943-1944. 19th: 1943-1944.

12th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 12th Bombardment Group (Light) on 20 Nov-1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, B-23, and PT-17 aircraft. Patrolled the west coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 12th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Dec 1941. Using B-25's, began training early in 1942 for duty overseas. Moved to the Middle East, Jul-Aug 1942, and assigned to Ninth AF. Attacked storage areas, motor transports, troop concentrations, airdromes, bridges, shipping, marshalling yards, and other targets in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Pantelleria, Lampedusa, Crete, Sicily, and Italy, Aug 1942-Jan 1944. Supported the Allied drive from Egypt to Tunisia, Oct 1942-Apr 1943. Early in 1943 two squadrons operated with Twelfth AF, assisting Allied forces moving eastward across North Africa, while the other squadrons continued operations with Ninth AF, bombing enemy defenses along the Mareth Line. Received a DUC for action against the enemy in North Africa and Sicily from Oct 1942 to Aug 1943. While attached to Twelfth AF, Jun-Aug 1943, the group operated from bases in Tunisia and Sicily against targets in Pantelleria, Lampedusa, Sicily, and Italy. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and operated primarily against targets in Italy until Jan 1944. Flew some missions to Albania and Yugoslavia.

Moved to India, Feb-Apr 1944, and assigned to Tenth AF. Engaged chiefly in missions against the enemy in Burma, Apr 1944-May 1945. Bombed communications, military installations, and other objectives. Delivered ammunition to Allied forces at Imphal. Also attacked some targets in China. Began training with A-26 aircraft in the summer of 1945. Returned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 22 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 12th Bombardment Group (Light). Activated on 19 May 1947. Not manned during 1947-1948. Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 12th Fighter-Escort Group. Activated on 1 Nov 1950. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Trained with F-84's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 81st: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 82d: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 83d: 1941-1946; 1947-1948. 434th (formerly 94th): 1941-1942, 1942-1946. 559th: 1950-1952. 560th: 1950-1952. 561st: 1950-1952.

13th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 13th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. After the US entered the war the group searched for enemy U-boats and covered friendly convoys off the east coast of the US. Served with First AF and later with AAF Antisubmarine Command, using B-28, B-25, and A-29 aircraft for operations. Inactivated on 30 Nov 1942.

Squadrons. 3rd Antisubmarine (formerly 39th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 4th Antisubmarine (formerly 40th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 5th Antisubmarine (formerly 41st Bombardment): 1941-1942. 6th Antisubmarine (formerly 393rd Bombardment): 1942.

14th Fighter Group

Constituted as 14th Pursuit Group (Fighter) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's and P-43's. Converted to P-38's, which were used in flying patrols on the west coast of the US after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 14th Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942. Began operations with Eighth AF in Oct 1942, escorting bombers to targets in France. Arrived in North Africa shortly after the campaign for Algeria and French Morocco (8-11 Nov 1942) had ended, and remained in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war, being assigned first to Twelfth AF and later (Nov 1943) to Fifteenth. Flew escort, strafing, and reconnaissance missions from the middle of Nov 1942 to late in Jan 1943 and then withdrew from combat, some of the men and planes being reassigned. Resumed operations in May. Flew dive-bombing missions during the Allied assault on Pantelleria. Helped prepare for and support the invasions of Sicily and Italy. Engaged primarily in escort work after Nov 1943, flying many missions to cover bombers engaged in long-range operations against strategic objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Received a DUC for a mission on 2 Apr 1944 when the group, by beating off attacks by enemy fighters, enabled bombers to strike important ball-bearing works in Austria. Also provided escort for reconnaissance operations, supported the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, and on numerous occasions flew long-range missions to strafe and dive-bomb motor vehicles, trains, bridges, supply areas, airdromes, and troop concentrations in an area extending from France to the Balkans. Inactivated in Italy on 9 Sep 1945.

Activated in the US on 20 Nov 1946. Equipped first with P-47's and later with F-84's. Inactivated on 2 Oct 1949.

Redesignated 14th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 37th: 1943-1945; 1946-1949; 1955-. 48th: 1941-1945; 1946-1949. 49th: 1941-1945; 1946-1949. 50th: 1941-1942.

15th Fighter Group

Constituted as 15th Pursuit Group (Fighter) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated in Hawaii on 1 Dec 1940. Redesignated 15th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in Feb 1942, and 15th Fighter Group in May 1942. Served as part of the defense force for the Hawaiian Islands, using A-12, OA-9, B-12, P-36, P-39, and P-40 aircraft. The Japanese attack on Hawaii on 7 Dec 1941 caused numerous casualties in the group and destroyed many of its aircraft; nevertheless, during the raid several of the group's pilots succeeded in taking off and in destroying some enemy planes, including four shot down by Lt George Welch and two credited to Lt Kenneth M Taylor. Afterward the group, which was remanned, reorganized, and assigned to Seventh AF, remained part of the Hawaiian defense system. Sent squadrons (including some that had been attached) to the Central or South Pacific at various times for operations against the Japanese. Began training in Apr 1944 for very-long-range escort missions. Obtained P-51 aircraft late in 1944. Moved to Iwo Jima in Feb 1945. Supported the invasion force on Iwo early in Mar by bombing and strafing trenches, cave entrances, troop concentrations, and storage areas. Began strikes against enemy airfields, shipping, and military installations in the Bonin Islands by the middle of Mar. Flew its first mission to Japan on 7 Apr 1945, receiving a DUC for escorting 8=29's that bombed the Nakajima aircraft plant near Tokyo. Struck Japanese airfields on Kyushu late in Apr and early in May 1945 to curtail the enemy's suicide attacks against the invasion force at Okinawa. Also hit enemy troop trains, small factories, gun positions, and hangars in the Bonins and Japan. Assigned to Twentieth AF during the summer of 1945. Continued its fighter sweeps against Japanese airfields and other targets, and flew longrange escort missions to Japanese cities until the end of the war. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, in Nov 1945 to Hawaii, where the group was remanned and re-equipped. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1946.

Redesignated 15th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated in the US on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 6th: 1943-1944. 12th: 1942. 18th: 1943-1944. 45th: 1940-1946. 46th: 1940-1944. 47th: 1940-1946; 1955-. 78th: 1943-1946.

16th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 16th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 28 Mar 1944. Activated on 1 Apr 1944. Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Mar-Apr 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 16 Jun 1945 with a bombing raid against an airfield on Moen. Flew first mission against the Japanese home islands on 26 Jun 1945 and afterwards operated principally against the enemy's petroleum industry. Flying unescorted in the face of severe enemy attack, the 16th bombed the oil refinery at Shimotsu, the Mitsubishi refinery and oil installations at Kawasaki, and the coal liquefaction plants at Ube, Jul-Aug 1945, and was awarded a DUC for the missions. After the war the group dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners of war in Japan, Manchuria, and Korea, and participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan. Inactivated on Guam on 15 Apr 1946.

Squadrons. 15th: 1944-1946. 16th: 1944-1946. 17th: 1944-1946. 21st: 1944.

16th Fighter Group

Authorized on the inactive list as 16th Pursuit Group on 24 Mar 1923. Activated in the Panama Canal Zone on 1 Dec 1932. Served as a part of the defense force for the canal. Used various types of aircraft, including P-12's, P-26's, P-36's, and P-39's, prior to World War II; equipped with P-40's in 1941. Redesignated 16th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1939, and 16th Fighter Group in 1942. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on 1 Nov 1943.

Squadrons. 24th: 1932-1943. 29th: 1933-1943. 43d: 1940-1943. 44th: 1938-1939. 74th: 1934-1938. 78th: 1932-1937.

17th Bombardment Group

Authorized as 17th Observation Group on 18 Oct 1927. Redesignated 17th Pursuit Group in 1929. Activated on 15 Jul 1931. Redesignated 17th Attack Group in 1935, and 17th Bombardment Group (Medium) in 1939. Trained and participated in maneuvers, using P-12 and P-26 (1931-1932), A-17 (1933-1939), and B-18 (1940-1941) aircraft. Used B-25's for patrol duty on the west coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and later patrolled the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic coast. Converted to B-26's in the summer of 1942.

Moved to North Africa late in 1942 and began operations on 30 Dec. Served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war, being assigned first to Twelfth AF, then to Fifteenth (Nov 1943), and again to Twelfth (Jan 1944). Flew interdictory and close-support missions, bombing bridges, rail lines, marshalling yards, harbors, shipping, gun emplacements, troop concentrations, and other targets. Helped to bring about the defeat of Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943; assisted in the reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun 1943; participated in the invasions of Sicily in Jul and of Italy in Sep 1943; and took part in the drive toward Rome, receiving a DUC for a bombing attack on airdromes at Rome on 13 Jan 1944. Also received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for operations in Italy, Apr-Jun 1944. Took part in the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, and continued bombardment operations in northern Italy, France, and later in Germany. Received second DUC for bombing attacks on enemy defenses near Schweinfurt on 10 Apr 1945. Assisted in the disarmament of Germany after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 26 Nov 1945. Redesignated 17th Bombardment Group (Light). Activated on 19 May 1947. Apparently did not become operative. Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948. Activated in Korea on io May 1952. Assigned to Far East Air Forces and equipped with B-26's for service in the Korean War. Engaged in interdiction and provided close support for UN ground forces until the armistice in Jul 1953. Moved to Japan in Oct 1954; returned to the US, Mar-Apr 1955. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with B-57 aircraft. Redesignated 17th Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955.

Squadrons. 34th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 37th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 73d: 1947-1948; 1952-. 95th: 1931-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-. 432d: 1942-1945.

18th Fighter Group

Organized as 18th Pursuit Group in Hawaii in Jan 1927. Redesignated 18th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1939, and 18th Fighter Group in 1942. Before World War II the group engaged in routine flying and gunnery training and participated in joint Army-Navy maneuvers, using DH-4, PW-9, P-12, P-26, P-36, and other aircraft. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 Dec 1941, the group, which had recently converted to P-40's, sustained severe losses. The two planes that its pilots were able to get into the air during the attack were quickly shot down. The group, assigned to Seventh AF in Feb 1942, had to be re-equipped before it could resume training and begin patrol missions.

Moved to the South Pacific in Mar 1943. Assigned to Thirteenth AF. Began operations from Guadalcanal. Flew protective patrols over US bases in the Solomons; later, escorted bombers to the Bismarcks, supported ground forces on Bougainville, and attacked enemy airfields and installations in the northern Solomons and New Britain. Used P-38, P-39, P-61, and P-70 aircraft. Moved to New Guinea in Aug 1944. Equipped with P-38's. Escorted bombers to targets in the southern Philippines and Borneo, and attacked enemy airfields and installations in the Netherlands Indies. Received a DUC for actions at Ormoc Bay: on 10 Nov 1944 the group withstood intense flak and vigorous opposition from enemy interceptors to attack a Japanese convoy that was attempting to bring in additional troops for use against American forces that had landed on Leyte; on the following day a few of the group's planes returned to the same area, engaged a large force of enemy fighters, and destroyed a number of them. Moved to the Philippines in Jan 1945. Supported ground forces on Luzon and Borneo, attacked shipping in the central Philippines, covered landings on Palawan, attacked airfields and railways on Formosa, and escorted bombers to such widely-scattered targets as Borneo, French Indochina, and Formosa.

Remained in the Philippines as part of Far East Air Forces after the war. Flew patrols and trained with F-80's. Lost all personnel in Mar 1947 but was remanned in Sep 1947. Equipped first with F-47's, later with F-51's, and still later (1949) with F-80's. Redesignated 18th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950.

Moved to Korea in Jul 1950 and entered combat, using F-51's. Supported UN ground forces and attacked enemy installations and supply lines. Maj Louis Sebille was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his action on 5 Aug 1950: although his plane was badly damaged by flak while attacking a concentration of enemy trucks, Maj Sebille continued his strafing passes until he crashed into an armored vehicle. The group converted to F-86's early in 1953 and remained in Korea for some time after the war. Moved to Okinawa in Nov 1954.

Squadrons. 6th: 1927-1943. 12th: 1943-. 19th: 1927-1943. 36th: 1931-1932. 44th: 1941-1942, 1943-. 55th: 1931. 67th: 1945-. 68th: 1945-. 70th: 1943-1945. 73d: 1929-1931, 1941-1942. 74th: 1929-1932. 78th: 1940-1943. 333d: 1942-1943. 419th: 1943-1944.

19th Bombardment Group

Authorized as 19th Observation Group on 18 Oct 1927. Redesignated 19th Bombardment Group in 1929. Activated on 24 Jun 1932. Redesignated 19th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in 1939. Equipped first with B-10's, later with B-18's, and still later (in 1941) with B-17's. Moved to the Philippine Islands, Sep-Nov 1941.

On 7 Dec 1941 (8 Dec in the Philippines), when the Japanese first attacked Clark Field, the group suffered numerous casualties and lost many planes. The 93rd squadron, however, was on maneuvers at Del Monte and therefore missed the attack. Supplies and headquarters were hastily moved from Clark Field to comparatively safe points nearby, and planes that had not been too heavily damaged were given emergency repairs and dispatched to Del Monte. There the 19th began reconnaissance and bombardment operations against Japanese shipping and landing parties. Sustaining heavy losses, the group ceased these actions after about two weeks, and the ground personnel joined infantry units in fighting the invaders. Some of the men were evacuated, some escaped, but most were either killed or captured. Meanwhile, late in Dec 1941 the air echelon moved to Australia to transport medical and other supplies to the Philippine Islands and evacuate personnel from that area. The men in Australia moved to Java at the end of 1941 and, flying B-17, LB-30, and B-24 aircraft, earned a DUC for the group by attacking enemy aircraft, ground installations, warships, and transports during the Japanese drive through the Philippines and Netherlands Indies early in 1942. The men returned to Australia from Java early in Mar 1942, and later that month the group evacuated Gen Douglas MacArthur, his family, and key members of his staff from the Philippines to Australia. After a brief rest the group resumed combat operations, participating in the Battle of the Coral Sea and raiding Japanese transportation, communications, and ground forces during the enemy's invasion of Papua. From 7 to 12 Aug 1942 the 19th bombed airdromes, ground installations, and shipping near Rabaul, New Britain, being awarded another DUC for these missions. Capt Harl Pease Jr was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during 6-7 Aug 1942: when one engine of his bomber failed during a mission over New Britain, Capt Pease returned to Australia to obtain another plane; unable to find one fit for combat, he selected the most serviceable plane at the base and rejoined his squadron for an attack on a Japanese airdrome near Rabaul; by skillful flying lie maintained his position in the formation and withstood enemy attacks until his bombs had been released on the objective; in the air battle that continued after the bombers left the target, Capt Pease's aircraft fell behind the formation and was lost. The group returned to the US late in 1942 and served as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 19th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 1 Apr 1944. Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Dec 1944-Feb 1945, for duty with Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 12 Feb 1945 with an attack against islands by striking Tokyo on 25 Feb 1945. Conducted daylight raids against strategic objectives, bombing aircraft factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, and other targets in Japan. Participated in incendiary operations, receiving one DUC for its low-altitude attacks on the urban industrial areas of Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe, and Osaka, in Mar 1945, and another DUC for striking the industrial section of Kobe on 5 Jun. Struck airfields from which the enemy was launching kamikaze planes against the invasion force at Okinawa, Apr-May 1945. Dropped supplies to Allied prisoners and took part in show-of-force missions over Japan after the war. Remained overseas as part of Far East Air Forces. Trained, participated in sea-search operations, and flew photographic-mapping missions. Redesignated 19th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Aug 1948.

On 28 Jun 1950 the group flew its first mission against the North Korean forces that had invaded the Republic of Korea. It moved to Okinawa early in Jul 1950 and continued operations against the enemy until 1953. Targets included troops, supply dumps, airfields, steel mills, hydroelectric plants, and light metal industries. Inactivated on Okinawa on 1 Jun 1953.

Squadrons. 14th: 1941-1942. 23d: 1935-1938. 28th: 1941-1944; 1944-1953. 30th: 1932-1944; 1944-1953. 32d: 1932-1941. 76th: 1932-1936. 93d: 1939-1944; 1944-1953. 435th: (formerly 40th): 1941-1944.

20th Fighter Group

Authorized on the inactive list as 20th Balloon Group on 18 Oct 1927. Redesignated 20th Pursuit Group in 1929. Activated on 15 Nov 1930. Redesignated 20th Pursuit Group (Fighter) in 1939, 20th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) in 1941, and 20th Fighter Group in 1942. Equipped successively with P-12, P-16, and P-36 aircraft prior to World War II; used P-39's and P-40's during the early part of the war; converted to P-38's in Jan 1943. Trained, participated in maneuvers and tactical exercises, and took part in aerial reviews and demonstrations during the period 1930-1939. Provided personnel for and helped to train new units during 1940-1941. Served as an air defense organization after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Began intensive training late in 1942 for combat duty overseas.

Moved to England in Aug 1943 and became part of Eighth AF. Entered combat with P-38's late in Dec 1943 and for several months was engaged primarily in escorting heavy and medium bombers to targets on the Continent. Frequently strafed targets of opportunity while on escort missions. Retained escort as its primary function until the end of the war, but in Mar 1944 began to fly fighter-bomber missions, which became almost as frequent as escort operations. Strafed and dive-bombed airfields, trains, vehicles, barges, tugs, bridges, flak positions, gun emplacements, barracks, radio stations, and other targets in France, Belgium, and Germany. Became known as the "Loco Group" because of its numerous and successful attacks on locomotives. Received a DUC for performance on 8 Apr 1944 when the group struck airfields in central Germany and then, after breaking up an attack by enemy interceptors, proceeded to hit railroad equipment, oil facilities, power plants, factories, and other targets. Flew patrols over the Channel during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. Supported the invasion force later that month by escorting bombers that struck interdictory targets in France, Belgium, and Holland, and by attacking troops, transportation targets, and airfields. Converted to P-51's in Jul 1944 and continued to fly escort and fighter-bomber missions as the enemy retreated across France to the Siegfried Line. Participated in the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944. Escorted bombers to Germany and struck rail lines, trains, vehicles, barges, power stations, and other targets in and beyond the Siegfried Line during the period Oct-Dec 1944. Took part in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by escorting bombers to the battle area. Flew patrols to support the airborne attack across the Rhine, Mar 1945. Carried out escort and fighter-bomber missions as enemy resistance collapsed in Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945.

Activated on 29 Jul 1946. Equipped first with P-51's and later with F-84's. Redesignated 20th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950. Moved to England in 1952 and became part of the United States Air Forces in Europe. Commanders. Col Kenneth R Powell, 21 Apr 1944; Col Charles E Taylor, 14 Jun 1945; Lt Col Charles E Parsons, 15 Oct 1945; Col William Eades, 25 Nov 1945; Col Lester S Harris, Feb-10 Oct 1946. Col Paul P Douglas Jr, 1 Jan1953; Col Verl D Luehring, 26 Apr 1954; Col R C Franklin Jr, 27 Apr 1955; Lt Inactivated in England on 8 Feb 1955.

Squadrons. 24th: 1930-1932. 55th: 1930-1931, 1932-1945; 1946-1955. 74th: 1932. 77th: 1930-1932, 1932-1945; 1946-1955. 78th: 1931-1932. 79th: 1933-1945; 1946-1955. 87th: 1935-1936.

21st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 21st Bombardment Group (Medium) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Feb 1942. Began training with B-25's; later converted to B-26's. Served as an operational training unit in Third AF; also flew some antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf of Mexico. Disbanded on 10 Oct 1943.

Squadrons. 313th: 1942-1943. 314th: 1942-1943. 315th: 1942-1943. 398th: 1942-1943.

21st Fighter Group

Constituted as 21st Fighter Group on 31 Mar 1944. Activated in Hawaii on 21 Apr 1944. Assigned to Seventh AF and served as part of the defense force for the Hawaiian Islands. Equipped first with P-39, later with P-38, and still later (Jan 1945) with P-51 aircraft. Moved to Iwo Jima, Feb-Mar 1945. Sustained some casualties when Japanese troops attacked the group's camp on the night of 26/27 Mar 1945, but flew first combat mission the following day, bombing and strafing airfields on Haha Jima. Flew its first mission to Japan on 7 Apr, being awarded a DUC for escorting B-29's that struck the heavily-defended Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo. Operations from Iwo Jima included attacking airfields that the enemy was using to launch suicide planes against the Allied forces on Okinawa; striking enemy barracks, airfields, and shipping in the Bonins and Japan; and escorting B-29's that bombed Japanese cities. Assigned to Twentieth AF during the summer of 1945. Trained, participated in aerial reviews, and served as a part of the defense force for Iwo Jima, Saipan, and Guam after the war. Re-equipped with P-47's during the summer of 1946. Inactivated on Guam on 10 Oct 1946.

Redesignated 21st Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated in the US on 1 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped for a few months with F-51's, later with F-86's. Moved to France, Nov-Dec 1954, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe.

Squadrons. 46th: 1944-1946. 72d: 1944-1946; 1953-. 416th: 1953-. 531st: 1944-1946; 1953-.

22nd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 22nd Bombardment Group (Medium) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Trained with B-18 and B-26 aircraft, and used the latter to fly antisubmarine patrols off the west coast, Dec 1941-Jan 1942. Moved to the Southwest Pacific early in 1942, became part of Fifth AF, and served in combat in that area until V-J Day. Attacked enemy shipping, installations, and airfields in New Guinea and New Britain and supported ground forces in New Guinea, using B-26's until Oct 1943 when B-25's were added. Cortinued to support the Allied offensive in New Guinea, striking troop concentrations, installations, and shipping, being awarded a DUC for knocking out enemy entrenchments (5 Nov 1943) that were preventing the advance of Australian ground forces. Redesignated 22nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Feb 1944. Equipped with B-24's, bombed Japanese airfields, shipping, and oil installations in Borneo, Ceram, and Halmahera. Began attacking the southern Philippines in Sep 1944 to neutralize Japanese bases in preparation for the invasion of Leyte. From Dec 1944 to Aug 1945, struck airfields and installations on Luzon, supported Australian ground forces on Borneo, and bombed railways and industries in Formosa and China. Moved to Okinawa in Aug 1945 and flew some armed reconnaissance missions over southern Japan.

Remained in the theater after the war as part of Far East Air Forces. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the Philippines in Nov 1945. Redesignated 22nd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Apr 1946. Transferred to Okinawa in May 1946, remanned in Jun, and equipped with B-29's. Moved to the US in May 1948. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 22nd Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jul 1948. Moved temporarily to Okinawa in Jul 1950 and attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Began combat immediately, and until Oct 1950 attacked marshalling yards, bridges, highways, airfields, and industries and supported UN ground forces in Korea. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 2d: 1940-1952. 19th: 1940- 1952. 33d: 1940-1952. 408th: 1942-1952.

23rd Fighter Group

Constituted as 23rd Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 17 Dec 1941. Redesignated 23rd Fighter Group in May 1942. Activated in China on 4 Jul 1942. Chennault's American Volunteer Group supplied experienced pilots and a name - "Flying Tigers." Using P-40's and later P-51's, the 23rd group provided air defense for the Chinese terminus of the Hump route from India; conducted a counter-air campaign to whittle down Japanese air strength by destroying enemy planes in the air and on the ground; strafed and bombed Japanese forces, installations, and transportation; escorted bombers; and flew reconnaissance missions. It intercepted Japanese planes that attempted to bomb Allied airfields; attacked Japanese airdromes; strafed and bombed river craft, troop concentrations, supply depots, and railroads; and protected bombers that attacked Hong Kong, Canton, Shanghai, and other targets. Its area of operations extended beyond China to Burma, French Indochina, and Formosa. The "Flying Tigers" operated against the Japanese during the enemy's drive toward Changsha and Chungking in May 1943, supported Chinese forces during the Japanese offensive in the Tungting Hu region in Nov 1943, and took part in the effort to halt a Japanese force that pushed down the Hsiang Valley in Jun 1944. In the latter battle the group, despite bad weather and heavy flak, repeatedly struck boats, trucks, aircraft, troops, and other objectives, receiving a DUC for its operations. The 23rd helped to turn the enemy's offensive in the spring of 1945 and then harassed the retreating Japanese by strafing and bombing their columns. Remained in China until Dec 1945. Moved to the US. Inactivated on 5 Jan 1946.

Activated on 10 Oct 1946 on Guam. Assigned to Far East Air Forces and equipped with P-47 aircraft. Moved to the Panama Canal Zone in Apr 1949. Inactivated on 24 Sep 1949.

Redesignated 13th Fighter-Interceptor Group. Activated in the US on 12 Jan 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86's. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 23rd Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped with F-89 aircraft.

Squadrons. 16th: 1942-1943. 74th: 1942-1946; 1946-1949; 1951-1952. 75th: 1942-1946; 1946-1949; 1951-1952; 1955-. 76th: 1942-1946; 1946-1949; 1955-. 132d: 1951. 134th: 1951.

24th Pursuit Group

Constituted as 24th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 16 Aug 1941. Activated in the Philippine Islands on 1 Oct 1941. Augmented by two attached squadrons (21st and 34th) and equipped with P-35 and P-40 aircraft, this group comprised the entire pursuit force in the Philippines in Dec 1941. When enemy aircraft were reported to be approaching Luzon on the morning of 8 Dec (7 Dec in the US), the 24th group attempted to intercept but failed because radar and visual sighting facilities were inadequate. Later that day, after the group's planes either had landed for refueling or had run so low on fuel that they could not fight, the Japanese attacked and inflicted heavy losses on the organization. In the days that followed, the group's strength declined rapidly, but the 24th flew some patrol and reconnaissance missions, engaged the enemy in the air, and attacked enemy airfields and shipping. By late in Dec the ground personnel were absorbed by infantry units and some pilots were evacuated to Australia. One of these pilots was Lt Boyd D "Buzz" Wagner, who already had become the first AAF ace of World War II. The remaining pilots continued operations in the Philippines with the few planes that were left. Eventually all of the men, except the few who had gone to Australia, were either killed or captured by the enemy. Although not remanned, the group was carried on the list of active organizations until after the war. Inactivated on 2 Apr 1946.

Squadrons. 3d: 1941-1946. 17th: 1941-1946. 20th: 1941-1946.

25th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 25th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Trained with A-17's and B-18's. Moved to the Caribbean late in 1940. Redesignated 25th Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1942. Flew antisubmarine patrols, escorted convoys, and served as part of the defense force of the area. Aircraft: B-18's (1940-1942), A-20's (1942-1943), and B-25's (1943-1944). Returned to the US early in 1944, assigned to Second AF, and equipped with B-17's. Disbanded on 20 Jun 1944.

Squadrons. 10th: 1940-1943. 12th: 1940-1944. 35th: 1940-1944. 59th: 1943-1944. 417th: 1942-1944.

25th Bombardment Group (Reconnaissance)

Constituted as 25th Bombardment Group (Reconnaissance) on 17 Jul 1944. Activated in England on 9 Aug 1944. Served with Eighth AF until V-E Day. Used various aircraft, including B-17's, B-24's, B-25's, B-26's, P-38's, and L-5's. Operations included reconnaissance over the waters adjacent to the British Isles and occasionally to the Azores to obtain meteorological data; flights over the Continent for weather information needed in planning operations; night photographic missions to detect enemy activity; and daylight photographic and mapping missions over the Continent. Occasionally engaged in scout missions to target areas for last-minute weather information that was furnished to approaching bomber formations, on-the-scene visual evaluation of bombardment strikes, and electronic-countermeasure missions in which chaff was spread to confuse enemy defenses during Allied attacks. Moved to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 8 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 652d: 1944-1945. 653d: 1944-1945. 654th: 1944-1945.

26th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 26th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Assigned to First and later to Third AF. Redesignated 26th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 26th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Participated in the Carolina Maneuvers in the fall of 1941; flew antisubmarine patrols off the east coast after the US entered the war; took part in the Tennessee Maneuvers in the fall of 1942; later participated in exercises and provided air support for training ground forces. Aircraft: O-46's, O-47's, O-52's, L-4's, A-20's, B-25's, and P-39's. Disbanded on 11 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted, redesignated 26th Reconnaissance Group, and allotted to the reserve, on 27 Dec 1946. Activated on 23 Oct 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 4th: 1947-1949. 10th: 1947-1949. 14th: 1942-1943. 72d: 1943. 91st: 1943. 101st: 1941-1943. 103d: 1941-1943. 152d: 1941-1943.

27th Fighter Group

Constituted as 27th Bombardment Group (Light) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Sailed for the Philippine Islands on 1 Nov 1941 and arrived at Manila on 20 Nov. The group's planes (A-24's), which had not arrived by 7 Dec, were diverted to Australia after the Japanese attack on the Philippines. The group's commander and 20 pilots who were flown from Luzon to Australia to get the aircraft did not return because of the deterioration of the situation in the Philippines; some of these pilots saw service in Java, Feb-May 1942, before they were assigned to another group. The men left on Luzon served as infantrymen in the battles of Bataan and Corregidor; though a few managed to escape, most were either killed or taken prisoners of war by the Japanese. The 27th group was transferred, without personnel and equipment, from Australia to the US in May 1942.

Remanned and equipped with A-20's. Trained in the US until Nov 1942. Moved to North Africa. Converted to A-36 aircraft. Began operations with Twelfth AF in Jun 1943 and served in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war. Converted to P-40's in Jan 1944 and to P-47's in Jun 1944. Redesignated 27th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 17th Fighter Group in May 1944. Participated in the reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa. Supported ground forces during the conquest of Sicily. Covered the landings at Salerno and received a DUC for preventing three German armored divisions from reaching the Salerno beachhead, 10 Sep 1943. Supported Fifth Army during the Allied drive toward Rome. Took part in the invasion Southern France and assisted Seventh Army's advance up the Rhone Valley, receiving a DUC for helping to disrupt the German retreat, 4 Sep 1944. Took part in the interdiction of the enemy's communications in northern Italy, and assisted in the Allied drive from France into Germany during the last months of the war. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe and equipped with P-47's. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped with P-51's in 1947, F-81's in 1948, and F-84's in 1950. Redesignated 27th Fighter-Escort Group in Feb 1950. Moved to the Far East late in 1950 for temporary duty with Far East Air Forces during the Korean War. Operated first from a base in Korea and later from Japan, supporting ground forces, escorting bombers, and flying armed reconnaissance missions and counter-air patrols. Returned to the US in Jul 1951. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 15th: 1940-1941. 465th: 1942. 522nd (formerly 16th): 1940-1945; 1946-1952. 523rd (formerly 17th): 1940-1945; 1946-1952. 524th (formerly 91st): 1941-1945; 1946-1952.

28th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 28th Composite Group on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group (Composite) in Dec 1943. Aircraft included P-38's, P-39's, P-40's, B-26's and LB-30's during 1941-1943, and B-24's and B-25's during 1944-1945.

Operated in Alaska from Feb 1941 until after the war. Trained for Arctic warfare in 1941 and served as part of the defense system for the region. Helped to force the withdrawal of Japanese ships that attacked Dutch Harbor in Jun 1942. Flew missions against Kiska until the Japanese evacuated that island in Aug 1943. Bombed and strafed shipping, harbor facilities, canneries, fisheries, and military installations in the Kurils. Also flew photographic reconnaissance missions to obtain material for planning operations. Received a DUC for the period Apr 1944-Aug 1945 when the group's attacks on the Kurils caused Japan to divert some of her air power to that northern area, thus weakening Japanese opposition to Allied forces in the south. Flew its last bombing mission on 13 Aug 1945 but continued reconnaissance operations in the Kurils after the war. Inactivated in Alaska on 20 October 1945.

Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 4 Aug 1946 as part of Strategic Air Command. Equipped with B-29 aircraft. Was stationed in Alaska from Oct 1946 to Apr 1947. Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Redesignated 28th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in May 1949 and equipped with RB-36's in Jul. Redesignated 28th Strategic Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1950, and 28th Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Heavy) in Jul 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 11th Pursuit: 1942. 18th Pursuit: 1941-1942. 34th Pursuit: 1940. 36th: 1940-1943. 37th: 1940-1941. 73d: 1941-1943. 77th: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 404th: 1942-1945. 717th: 1946-1952. 718th: 1946-1952.

29th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 29th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Equipped with B-17's and B-18's. Trained and took part in aerial reviews. Flew patrol missions in the Caribbean area, Dec 1941-Jun 1942. Equipped with B-24's in 1942. Functioned as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 29th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 1 Apr 1944. Prepared for overseas duty with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Dec 1944-Feb 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Flew its first mission against Japan with an attack on Tokyo on 25 Feb 1945. Conducted a number of missions against strategic targets in Japan, operating in daylight and at high altitude to bomb factories, refineries, and other objectives. Beginning in Mar 1945, carried out incendiary raids on area targets, flying at night and at low altitude to complete the assignments. S/Sgt Henry E Erwin was awarded the Medal of Honor for action that saved his B-29 during a mission over Koriyama, Japan, on 12 Apr 1945. When a phosphorus smoke bomb exploded in the launching chute and shot back into the plane, Sgt Erwin picked up the burning bomb, carried it to a window, and threw it out. During the Allied assault on Okinawa, the group bombed airfields from which the enemy was sending out suicide planes against the invasion force. Received a DUC for an attack on an airfield at Omura, Japan, on 31 Mar 1945. Received second DUC for strikes on the industrial area of Shizuoka, the Mitsubishi aircraft plant at Tamashima, and the Chigusa arsenal at Nagoya, in Jun 1945. After the war, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners and participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan. Inactivated on Guam on 20 May 1946.

Squadrons. 6th: 1940-944; 1944-1946. 43rd (formerly 29th) 1940-1944; 1944-1946. 52d: 1940-1944; 1944-1946. 411th: 1942-1944. 761st (later 9th Reconnaissance): 1945-1946.

30th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 30th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18's and A-29's. Equipped with B-24's for operations. Patrolled the west coast, 1942-1943, and trained crews for other organizations. Moved to Hawaii in Oct 1943, assigned to Seventh AF, and sailed for the Central Pacific in Nov. Began operations from the Ellice Islands in Nov 1943. Assisted the invasion of the Gilberts by attacking enemy installations on those islands and by raiding airfields in the Marshalls to help prevent the launching of Japanese planes against the amphibious assault on Tarawa. After moving to the Gilberts in Jan 1944, bombed installations in the Marshall Islands in preparation for the invasion. Moved to Kwajalein in Mar 1944 and raided airfields and navy bases in the Truk Islands to keep them neutralized before and during the amphibious attack on the Marianas; also bombed Wake Island, Guam, and Saipan. Moved to Saipan in Aug 1944 and attacked airfields and shipping in the Bonin and Volcano Islands until Iwo Jima was occupied early in 1945. Struck bypassed islands in the Carolines and Marianas. Returned to Oahu in Mar 1945. Trained and flew patrol missions. Inactivated in Hawaii on 25 Jun 1946.

Squadrons. 21st: 1941-1943. 27th: 1941-1946. 38th: 1941-1946. 392d: 1942-1945. 819th: 1943-1945.

31st Fighter Group

Constituted as 31st Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Trained with P-39's and participated in maneuvers. Redesignated 31st Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to England, May-Jun 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF and equipped with Spitfires. Entered combat in Aug 1942. Supported a raid made by Canadian, British, American, and French forces at Dieppe on 19 Aug. Escorted bombers and flew patrol and diversionary missions until Oct. Assigned to Twelfth AF for the invasion of North Africa, the pilots of the group flying Spitfires from Gibraltar to Algeria on 8 Nov 1942 and the ground echelon landing at Arzeu beach the same day. Attacked motor transports, gun positions, and troop concentrations during the three-day campaign for Algeria and French Morocco. Helped to defeat Axis forces in Tunisia by supporting ground troops and providing cover for bomber and fighter aircraft. During May and Jun 1943, provided escort for bombers on raids to Pantelleria and cover for naval convoys in the Mediterranean. Supported the landings on Sicily in July and took part in the conquest of that island. Covered the landings at Salerno early in Sep 1943 and at Anzio in Jan 1944. Also operated in close support of Allied ground forces in Italy and flew patrol and escort missions.

Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Apr 1944, converted to P-51's, and thereafter engaged primarily in escort work. Received a DUC for a mission on 21 Apr 1944 when the group, despite the severe weather that was encountered, provided cover for a force of heavy bombers during a raid on production centers in Rumania. On numerous other occasions escorted bombers that attacked objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. In addition provided escort for reconnaissance aircraft and for C-47's engaged in the airborne operation connected with the invasion of Southern France. Also flew strafing missions against airdromes and communications targets. Took part in an operation in which a task force from Fifteenth AF attacked targets in Rumania while flying to Russia on 22 Jul 1944 and while returning to Italy on 26 Jul; on 25 Jul, after escorting P-38's from a base in Russia for a raid on an airdrome in Poland, the 31st group made attacks on a convoy of German trucks and on a force of German fighter-bombers, being awarded a DUC for its performance. Strafed rail and highway traffic in northern Italy in Apr 1945 when Allied forces were engaged in their final offensive in that area. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with P-51's. Converted to F-84's in 1948. Redesignated 31st Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950. Assigned to Strategic Air Command in Jul 1950. Redesignated 315t Fighter-Escort Group. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 39th: 1940-1942. 40th: 1940-1942. 41st: 1940-1942. 307th: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 308th: 1942-1945; 1946- 1952. 309th: 1942-1945; 1946-1952.

32nd Fighter Group

Constituted as 32nd Pursuit Group on 22 Nov 1940. Activated in Panama on 1 Jan 1941. Redesignated 32nd Fighter Group in May 1942. Trained and served as part of the defense force for the Panama Canal, using P-26, P-36, P-38, P-39, and P-40 aircraft. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on 1 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted and redesignated 32nd Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 11 Dec 1956. Activated in the US on 8 Feb 1957. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 51st: 1941-1943. 52d: 1941-1943. 53d: 1941-1943.

33rd Fighter Group

Constituted as 33rd Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Began training with P-39's but soon changed to P-40's. Served as part of the defense force for the east coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 33rd Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to North Africa, part of the group (including the pilots and their planes) arriving with the invasion force on 8 Nov 1942, and the remainder arriving shortly afterwards. Operated with Twelfth AF in the Mediterranean theater until Feb 1944. Provided close support for ground forces and flew bombing and strafing missions against personnel concentrations, port installations, fuel dumps, bridges, highways, and rail lines during the campaigns in North Africa. Received a DUC for action on 15 Jan 1943: when enemy aircraft attempted to knock out the group's base in Tunisia, the 33rd drove off the enemy's escort and destroyed most of the bombers. Took part in the reduction of Pantelleria and flew patrol missions while Allied troops landed after the enemy's garrison had surrendered. Participated in the invasion and conquest of Sicily. Supported landings at Salerno, Allied operations in southern Italy, and the beachhead at Anzio.

Moved to India in Feb 1944. Assigned to Tenth AF. Trained with P-38 and P-47 aircraft. Moved to China in Apr, became part of Fourteenth AF, continued training, and flew some patrol and interception missions. Returned to India in Sept 1944 and, as part of Tenth AF, flew dive-bombing and strafing missions in Burma until the Allied campaigns in that area had been completed. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 8 Dec 1945.

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe and equipped with P-51's. Transferred, less personnel and equipment, to the US in 1947. Remanned and equipped with P-51's; converted to F-84's in Jun 1948 and F-86's in Feb 1949. Redesignated 33d Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 33rd Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 58th: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 59th: 1941-1945; 1946-1952. 60th: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-.

34th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 34th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Using B-17's, trained and participated in maneuvers until Dec 1941. Flew patrol missions along the east coast after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Later became part of the defense force for the west coast. Served as a replacement training unit from mid-1942 until the end of 1943, and then began preparing for overseas duty with B-24's. Moved to England in Apr 1944 for operations with Eighth AF.

Entered combat in May 1944. Helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by bombing airfields in France and Germany, and supported the landing in Jun by attacking coastal defenses and communications. Continued to take part in the campaign in France by supporting ground forces at St Lo, 24-25 Jul, and by striking V-weapon sites, gun emplacements, and supply lines throughout the summer of 1944. Converted to B-17's and engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic objectives from Oct 1944 to Feb 1945. Targets included marshalling yards in Ludwigshafen, Hamm, Osnabruck, and Darmstadt; oil centers in Bielefeld, Merseburg, Hamburg, and Misburg; factories in Berlin, Dalteln, and Hannover; and airfields in Munster, Neumunster, and Frankfurt. During this period the group also supported ground forces during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. In Mar 1945, with few industrial targets remaining and with Allied armies advancing across Germany, the 34th turned almost solely to interdicting enemy communications and supporting Allied ground forces. After V-E Day it carried food to flooded areas of Holland and transported prisoners of war from German camps to Allied centers. Returned to the US in the summer of 1945. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Squadrons. 4th: 1941-1945. 7th: 1941-1945. 18th: 1941-1945. 391st: 1942-1945.

35th Fighter Group

Constituted as 35th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Trained with P-35, P-36, P-39, and P-40 aircraft. Two squadrons (21st and 34th) moved to the Philippines in Nov 1941. Headquarters and another squadron (70th) sailed for Manila on 5 Dec but because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor they returned to the US where the squadron flew some patrols. Headquarters and the 70th squadron sailed for Australia on 12 Jan 1942. Three days later all the combat squadrons were relieved and three others, still in the US, were assigned. Headquarters reached Australia in Feb 1942 and moved on to India. Meanwhile the squadrons had moved from the US to Australia and were training for combat with P-39's. Headquarters was transferred back to Australia, without personnel and equipment, in May 1942.

Redesignated 35th Fighter Group. Served in combat with Fifth AF, operating successively from bases in Australia, New Guinea, Owi, Morotai, and the Philippines. First used P-38's and P-39's; equipped with P-47's late in 1943 and with P-51's in Mar 1945. Helped to halt the Japanese advance in Papua and took part in the Allied offensive that recovered the rest of New Guinea, flying protective patrols over Port Moresby, escorting bombers and transports, attacking Japanese airfields and supply lines, and providing cover for Allied landings. In 1944 began long-range missions against enemy airfields and installations in the southern Philippines, Halmahera, and Borneo, preparatory to the US invasion of the Philippines. Beginning in Jan 1945, operated in support of ground forces on Luzon. Also escorted bombers and completed some fighter sweeps to Formosa and China. Bombed and strafed railways and airfields in Kyushu and Korea after moving to Okinawa in Jun 1945. Moved to Japan in Oct 1945 and, as part of Far East Air Forces, trained, took part in maneuvers, and flew surveillance patrols over Honshu. Redesignated 35th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Equipped with F-80's.

Entered combat in the Korean War in Jul 1950 and almost immediately began converting from F-80's to F-51's. Operated from bases in Japan and Korea in support of UN ground forces, bombing and strafing enemy supply lines, troop concentrations, and communications. Transferred without personnel and equipment to Japan in May 1951. Remanned and equipped with F-51's and F-80's. Provided air defense for Japan. Converted to F-86 aircraft in 1955.

Squadrons. 18th: 1940. 20th: 1940. 21st: 1940-1942. 34th: 1940-1942. 39th: 1942-. 40th: 1942-. 41st: 1942-. 70th: 1941-1942.

36th Fighter Group

Constituted as 36th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Activated on 1 Feb 1940. Trained with P-36's. Moved to Puerto Rico in Jan 1941. Equipped with P-39 and P-40 aircraft. Served as part of the defense force for the Caribbean area and Panama Canal, and flew antisubmarine patrols. Redesignated 36th Fighter Group in May 1942. Returned to the US, May-Jun 1943. Trained with P-47's.

Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Served in combat in the European theater from May 1944 to May 1945. Operated primarily as a fighter-bomber organization, strafing and dive-bombing armored vehicles, trains, bridges, buildings, factories, troop concentrations, gun emplacements, airfields, and other targets. Also flew some escort missions. Began operations from England in May 1944 with armed reconnaissance, escort, and interdictory missions in preparation for the invasion of Normandy. Participated in the invasion in Jun 1944 by patrolling the air over the landing zone and by flying close-support and interdictory missions. Moved to France, Jul-Aug 1944. Supported the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and the thrust of Third Army towaril Germany in Aug and Sep. Received a DUC for operations on 1 Sep 1944 when, in a series of missions, the group attacked German columns south of the Loire in order to disrupt the enemy's retreat across central France to Dijon. Moved to Belgium in Oct and supported Ninth Army. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 194~-Jan 1945, by flying armed reconnaissance and close-support missions. Aided First Army's push across the Roer River in Feb 1945. Supported operations at the Remagen bridgehead and during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar. Received second DUC for performance on 12 Apr 1945 when the group, operating through intense antiaircraft fire, relentlessly attacked airfields in southern Germany, destroying a large hangar and numerous aircraft. Remained in Europe for several months after V-E Day.

Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Feb 1946, the group's squadrons being inactivated in Mar. Headquarters was transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the Panama Canal Zone in Sep, and the squadrons were activated in Oct. Equipped with P-47's; converted to F-80's in Dec 1947. Moved to Germany, Jul-Aug 1948, and became part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Redesignated 36th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950, and 36th Fighter-Day Group in Aug 1954. Equipped successively with F-80, F-84, F-86, and F-100 aircraft after arriving in Europe in 1948.

Squadrons. 22d: 1940-1946, 1946. 23d: 1940-1946, 1946-. 32d: 1940-1943; 1955-. 53d: 1943-1946, 1946.

37th Fighter Group

Constituted as 37th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 22 Dec 1939. Inactivated in the Panama Canal Zone on 1 Feb 1940. Redesignated 37th Fighter Group in May 1942. Served as part of the defense force for the Panama Canal. Equipped first with P-26's, later with P-40's. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on 1 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted and redesignated 37th Fighter-Bomber Group, on 3 Mar 1953. Activated in the US on 8 Apr 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Inactivated on 25 Jun 1953.

Squadrons. 28th: 1940-1943; 1953. 30th: 1940-1943; 1953. 31st: 1940-1943. 33d: 1953.

38th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 38th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, B-25, and B-26 aircraft. The ground echelon moved to Australia, Jan-Feb 1942, while the air echelon remained in the US for further training. Air echelons of two squadrons arrived in Hawaii in May 1942 and took part in the Battle of Midway; they did not rejoin the group and eventually were reassigned. Air echelons of the other squadrons arrived in Australia in Aug 1942. Assigned to Fifth AF and equipped with B-25's, the group operated from bases in Australia, New Guinea, and Biak, Sep 1942-Oct 1944, attacking Japanese airfields and shipping and supporting ground forces in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Maj Ralph Cheli was awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 18 Aug 1943: while leading the 405th squadron to attack a heavily defended airdrome on New Guinea, his plane was severely hit by enemy fire; rather than disrupt the formation, Maj Cheli remained in position and led the attack on the target before his bomber crashed into the sea. The group was awarded a DUC for bombing and strafing Japanese troops and fortifications on Cape Gloucester, New Britain, Dec 1943, preparatory to the Allied invasion. Received another DUC for two missions over New Guinea, 16 and 17 Jun 1944, against Japanese airfields, merchant ships, and naval vessels. Moved to the Moluccas in Oct 1944 and bombed airfields, ground installations, harbors, and shipping in the southern Philippines in support of the US invasion of Leyte. Struck a large enemy convoy in Ormoc Bay in Nov 1944 to prevent the landing of reinforcements, being awarded a DUC for the mission. After moving to the Philippines in Jan 1945, supported US ground forces on Luzon, bombed industries on Formosa, and attacked shipping along the China coast. Stationed temporarily on Palawan in Jun 1945 for participation in the preinvasion bombing of Japanese installations on Borneo. Moved to Okinawa in Jul 1945 and conducted several attacks on industries, railways, and shipping in southern Japan. Moved to Japan in Nov 1945 as part of Far East Air Forces. Redesignated 38th Bombardment Group (Light) in May 1946. Equipped with A-26 aircraft. Inactivated in the Far East on 1 Apr 1949.

Activated in France on 1 Jan 1953. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Equipped with B-26 and later with B-57 aircraft. Redesignated 38th Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955.

Squadrons. 69th: 1941-1943. 70th: 1941-1943. 71st: 1941-1949; 1953-. 89th: 1946-1949. 405th: 1942-1949; 1953-. 822d: 1943-1946; 1953-. 823d: 1943-1946.

39th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 39th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's. Patrolled the northwest coast of the US after the nation entered the war. Equipped with B-24's in 1942. Served as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 39th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 1 Apr 1944. Trained with B-29's. Moved to Guam early in 1945 for duty with Twentieth AF. Bombed enemy-held Maug early in Apr 1945. Conducted its first mission against the Japanese home islands by hitting the Hodagaya chemical plant at Koriyama on 12 Apr. Supported the Allied invasion of Okinawa, Apr-May 1945, by attacking airfields that served as bases for kamikaze pilots. Bombed military and industrial targets in Japan and participated in incendiary raids on urban areas from mid-May until the end of the war. Received a DUC for an attack against the Otake oil refinery and storage area on Honshu in May 1945. Received second DUC for bombing industrial and dock areas in Yokohama and manufacturing districts in Tokyo, 23-29 May 1945. Dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners and took part in show-of-force missions over Japan after V-J Day. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 27 Dec 1945.

Squadrons. 60th: 1941-1944; 1944-1945. 61st: 1941-1944; 1944-1945. 62d: 1941-1944; 1944-1945. 402d: 1942-1944; 1944.

40th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 40th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 22 Nov 1940. Activated in Puerto Rico on 1 Apr 1941. Redesignated 40th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in May 1942. Trained and patrolled the Caribbean area, using B-17 and B-26 aircraft. Operated first from Puerto Rico and later from the Panama Canal Zone.

Moved to the US in Jun 1943. Redesignated 40th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Nov 1943. After training with B-29's, moved to India, via Africa, Mar-Jun 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF in Jun 1944. Transported supplies over the Hump to staging bases in China before entering combat with a strike on railroad shops at Bangkok, Thailand, on 5 Jun 1944. On 15 Jun participated in the first AAF attack on Japan since the Doolittle raid in 1942. Operating from bases in India, and at times staging through fields in China, the group struck such targets as transportation centers, naval installations, iron works, and aircraft plants in Burma, Thailand, China, Japan, Indonesia, and Formosa, receiving a DUC for bombing iron and steel works at Yawata, Japan, on 20 Aug 1944. From a staging field in Ceylon, it mined waters near the port of Palembang, Sumatra, in Aug 1944.

Moved to Tinian, Feb-Apr 1945, for further operations against Japan. Made daylight attacks from high altitude on strategic targets, participated in incendiary raids on urban areas, and dropped mines in Japanese shipping lanes. Received a DUC for attacking naval aircraft factories at Kure, oil storage facilities at Oshima, and the industrial area of Nagoya, in May 1945. Raided light metal industries in Osaka in Jul 1945, being awarded another DUC for this mission. After V-J Day, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners in Japan, Korea, and Formosa, and took part in show-of-force missions. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 1 Oct 1946.

Squadrons. 25th: 1943-1946. 29th: 1941-1943. 44th: 1941-1946. 45th: 1941-1946. 74th: 1942-1943. 343d: 1945-1946. 395th: 1942-1946.

41st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 41st Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18's and A-29's; later equipped with B-25's. Patrolled the west coast during 1942 and 1943. Moved to Hawaii in Oct 1943 and assigned to Seventh AF. Completed final training and moved to Tarawa in the Central Pacific in Dec 1943. Attacked enemy installations, airfields, and shipping in the Marshalls in preparation for the invasion by US forces, and after Feb 1944 staged through captured fields on Eniwetok to attack shipping in the Caroline Islands. In Apr 1944 moved to Makin where its missions were directed primarily against shipping and bypassed islands in the Marshalls and Carolines. Returned to Hawaii in Oct 1944 for training with rockets and new B-25's. Moved to Okinawa, May-Jun 1945. Bombed airfields, railways, and harbor facilities on Kyushu until Aug 1945. Also flew some missions against airfields in China. Moved to Manila in Dec 1945. Inactivated in the Philippines on 27 Jan 1946.

Squadrons. 46th: 1941-1943. 47th: 1941-1946. 48th: 1941-1946. 76th: 1943. 396th: 1942-1946. 406th: 1943. 820th: 1943-1946.

42nd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 42nd Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18, B-25, and B-26 aircraft. Patrolled the west coast during 1942. Moved to the Pacific theater, Mar-Apr 1943, and assigned to Thirteenth AF. Entered combat in Jun 1943, using B-25's and operating from bases in the Solomon Islands. Attacked Japanese airfields, personnel areas, gun positions, and shipping in the central Solomons. Engaged primarily in the neutralization of enemy airfields and harbor facilities on New Britain from Jan to Jul 1944, but also supported ground forces on Bougainville and attacked shipping in the northern Solomons and the Bismarcks. Later, beginning in Aug 1944, bombed airfields and installations on New Guinea, Celebes, and Halmahera, and flew photographic reconnaissance missions, while operating from bases in New Guinea and Morotai. Moved to the Philippines in Mar 1945. Attacked shipping along the China coast, struck targets in French Indochina, bombed airfields and installations in the Philippines, and supported ground operations on Mindanao. Also supported Australian forces on Borneo during May and Jun 1945, receiving a DUC for its preinvasion bombing of Balikpapan, 23-30 Jun. Brought its combat service to an end, Jul and Aug 1945, by attacking isolated Japanese units on Luzon. Ferried troops and equipment to Manila after the war. Moved to Japan in Jan 1946 as part of the occupation force. Inactivated in Japan on 10 May 1946.

Squadrons. 69th: 1943-1946. 70th: 1943-1946. 75th: 1941-1946. 76th: 1941-1943. 77th: 1941-1942. 100th: 1945. 390th: 1942-1946. 406th: 1942-1943.

43rd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 43rd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-17, B-18, A-29, and LB-30 aircraft. Flew some antisubmarine patrols along the New England coast, Dec 1941-Feb 1942.

Moved to the Southwest Pacific, via Capetown, Feb-Mar 1942. Became part of Fifth AF. Equipped first with B-17's, but converted to B-24's, May-Sep 1943. Operated from Australia, New Guinea, and Owi Island, Aug 1941-Nov 1944, making numerous attacks on Japanese shipping in the Netherlands East Indies and the Bismarck Archipelago. Experimented with skip bombing and used this method for some shipping strikes, including attacks on Japanese vessels during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, 2-4 Mar 1943; received a DUC for participation in this latter action in which repeated air attacks destroyed a large enemy convoy carrying reinforcements to New Guinea. Other operations during this period included support for ground forces on New Guinea; attacks on airfields and installations in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Celebes, Halmahera, Yap, Palau, and the southern Philippines; and long-range raids against oil refineries on Ceram and Borneo. Capt Jay Zeamer Jr, pilot, and 2nd Lt Joseph R Sarnoski, bombardier, each won the Medal of Honor for action during a photographic mapping mission over the Solomon Islands on 16 Jun 1943: when the mission was nearly completed, their aircraft was assaulted by about 20 interceptors; although painfully wounded, Lt Sarnoski remained at the nose guns and fired at the enemy until he died at his post; sustaining severe injuries, Capt Zeamer maneuvered the plane until the enemy had broken combat, then directed the flight to a base more than 500 miles away. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, the group atttacked shipping along the Asiatic coast; struck industries, airfields, and installations in China and Formosa; and supported ground forces on Luzon. Moved to Ie Shima in Jul 1945 and conducted missions against airfields and railways in Japan and against shipping in the Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. Returned to the Philippines in in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 29 Apr 1946.

Redesignated 43rd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Oct 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 43rd Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jul 1948. Equipped first with B-29's, then with B-50's. Trained and conducted long-range test missions, including the first nonstop flight around the world (26 Feb-2 Mar 1949), accomplished in "Lucky Lady II," a B-50 commanded by Capt James G Gallagher. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 63d: 1941-1946; 1946-1952. 64th: 1941-1946; 1946-1952. 65th: 1941-1946; 1946-1952. 403d: 1942-1946.

44th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-24's. Became an operational training unit in Feb 1942. Also served on antisubmarine duty. In Jul 1942 began intensive preparations for combat. Moved to England, Aug-Oct 1942, for service with Eighth AF. Operations consisted primarily of assaults against strategic targets in France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Italy Rumania, Austria, Poland, and Sicily. Pounded submarine installations, industrial establishments, airfields, harbors, shipyards, and other objectives in France and Germany, Nov 1942-Jun 1943. Received a DUC for an extremely hazardous mission against naval installations at Kiel on 14 May 1943: with its B-24's carrying incendiaries to be dropped after three B-17 groups had released high explosive bombs, the 44th flew in the wake of the main formation; thus the B-24's were particularly vulnerable because they had no protection from fire power of the main force, and this vulnerability increased when the group had to open its own formation for the attack; but the 44th blanketed the target with incendiaries in spite of the concentrated flak and continuous interceptor attacks it encountered. Late in Jun 1943 a large detachment moved to North Africa to help facilitate the invasion of Sicily by bombing airfields and marshalling yards in Italy. The detachment also participated in the famous low-level raid on the Ploesti oil fields on 1 Aug 1943. The group was awarded a DUC for its part in this raid and its commander, Col Leon Johnson, was awarded the Medal of Honor for his daring and initiative in leading his men into smoke, flame, and alerted fighter and antiaircraft opposition over the target, which already had been bombed in error by another group. Before returning to England at the end of Aug, the detachment bombed an aircraft factory in Austria and supported ground forces in Sicily. In Sep the group struck airfields in Holland and France and convoys in the North Sea. Also in Sep, a detachment was sent to North Africa to support the Salerno operations. The detachment returned to England in Oct and from Nov 1943 to Apr 1945, the entire group carried out operations against targets in western Europe, concentrating on airfields, oil installations, and marshalling yards. Took part in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Sometimes flew support and interdictory missions. Struck airfields, railroads, and V-weapon sites in preparation for the Normandy invasion; supported the invasion in Jun 1944 by attacking strong points in the beachhead area and transportation targets behind the front lines. Aided the Caen offensive and the St Lo breakthrough in Jul. Dropped food, ammunition, and other supplies to troops engaged in the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Helped to check the enemy offensive during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by striking bridges, tunnels, choke points, rail and road junctions, and communications in the battle area. Attacked airfields and transportation in support of the advance into Germany, and flew a resupply mission during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Jun 1945. Redesignated 44th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Trained with B-29's. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 12 Jul 1946.

Activated on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Not manned during 1947 and 1948. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 44th Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated on 2 Jan 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 66th: 1941-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 67th: 1941-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 68th: 1941-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 404th: 1942. 506th: 1943-1946.

45th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 45th Bombardment Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with B-18's and A-20's. Redesignated 45th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Dec 1941. Flew patrol and search missions off the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, serving with First AF and later with AAF Antisubmarine Command. Used B-18, B-34, and DB-7 aircraft for operations. Inactivated on 8 Dec 1942.

Squadrons. 7th Antisubmarine (formerly 78th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 8th Antisubmarine (formerly 79th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 9th Antisubmarine (formerly 80th Bombardment): 1941-1942. 10th Antisubmarine (formerly 433rd Bombardment): 1941-1942.

46th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 46th Bombardment Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with A-20's and Harold L Mace, 13 Sep 1943; Lt Col Rob participated in maneuvers. Flew some antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf of Mexico early in 1942. Assigned to Second AF in August and to Third AF in Nov 1942. Served as an operational training unit until late in 1943, then became a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 50th: 1941-1944. 51st: 1941-1944. 53d: 1941-1944. 87th: 1941-1944.

47th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 47th Bombardment Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Patrolled the west coast for several weeks after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, then trained for duty overseas. Moved to North Africa, Oct-Nov 1942. Assigned to Twelfth AF. Served in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war, using A-20's and (after Jan 1945) some A-26's for support and interdictory operations in which the group attacked such targets as tanks, convoys, bivouac areas, troop concentrations, supply dumps, roads, pontoon bridges, rail lines, and airfields. Also flew numerous night intruder missions after Jun 1944. Began operations by flying low-level missions against the enemy in North Africa during the period Dec 1942-May 1943. When Axis forces broke through at Kasserine Pass in Feb 1943, the 47th Group, though undermanned and undersupplied, flew eleven missions on 22 Feb to attack the advancing armored columns and thus to help stop the enemy's offensive - an action for which the group was awarded a DUC. Remained active in combat during Mar and Apr 1943 while training for medium-level bombardment. Participated in the reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun 1943 and the invasion of Sicily in Jul. Bombed German evacuation beaches near Messina in Aug. Supported British Eighth Army during the invasion of Italy in Sep. Assisted the Allied advance toward Rome, Sep 1943-Jun 1944. Supported the invasion of Southern France, Aug-Sep 1944. Attacked German communications in northern Italy, Sep 1944-Apr 1945. Received second DUC for performance from 21 to 24 Apr 1945 when, in bad weather and over rugged terrain, the group maintained operations for 60 consecutive hours, destroying enemy transportation in the Po Valley to prevent the organized withdrawal of German forces. Returned to the US in July 1945. Trained and participated in maneuvers. Equipped with B-45's in 1948. Inactivated on 2 Oct 1949.

Activated on 12 Mar 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with B-45's. Moved to England, May-Jun 1952, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated on 8 Feb 1955.

Squadrons. 84th: 1941-1949; 1951-1955. 85th: 1941-1949; 1951-1955. 86th: 1941-1949; 1954-1955. 97th: 1941-1946. 422d: 1953-1954.

48th Fighter Group

Constituted as 48th Bombardment Group (Light) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 48th Bombardment Group (Dive) in Sep 1942, and 48th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Used A-20's and B-18's during 1941, and A-20, A-24, A-31, A-35, A-36, P-39, P-40, and other aircraft between 1942 and 1944. Served as a replacement training unit, participated in maneuvers, and for a brief time engaged in coastal patrol work.

Moved overseas, arriving in England in Mar 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Trained with P-47's. Began operations on 20 Apr 1944 by making a fighter sweep over the coast of France. Redesignated 48th Fighter Group in May 1944. Flew escort and dive-bombing missions to help prepare for the invasion of Normandy. Bombed bridges and gun positions on 6 Jun and attacked rail lines and trains, motor transports, bridges, fuel dumps, and gun positions during the remainder of the Normandy campaign. Moved to France, Jun-Jul 1944. Helped Allied forces break through the German lines at St Lo in Jul, supported the Allied drive across France in Aug and Sep, and assisted the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Cited by the Belgian Government for close cooperation with Allied armies during the period Jun-Sep 1944. Moved to Belgium and operated from there in the fall and winter of 1944-1945, being awarded second Belgian citation for operations during that time. Received a DUC for action on 6 Dec 1944: facing intense enemy fire while flying below a heavy overcast, the group struck buildings, entrenchments, and troop concentrations to assist the advance of ground forces against an enemy stronghold north of Julich. Supported ground operations during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and received third Belgian citation for relentless assaults against the enemy during that battle. Continued tactical air operations from bases on the Continent, supporting ground forces until the end of the war. During combat, also flew patrol, escort,weather reconnaissance, and leaflet missions; on one occasion carried blood plasma that was dropped in belly tanks to ground troops. Moved to the US during Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 48th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated in France on 10 Jul 1952. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Equipped with F-84's and later with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 492d (formerly 55th): 1941-1945; 1952-. 493rd (formerly 56th): 1941-1945; 1952-. 494th (formerly 57th): 1941-1945; 1952-. 495th (formerly 88th): 1941-1944.

49th Fighter Group

Constituted as 49th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-35's. Moved to Australia, Jan-Feb 1942, and became part of Fifth AF. Redesignated 49th Fighter Group in May 1942. Received P-40's in Australia and, after training for a short time, provided air defense for the Northern Territory, being awarded a DUC for engaging the enemy in frequent and intense aerial combat while operating with limited materiel and facilities, Mar-Aug 1942.

Moved to New Guinea in Oct 1942 to help stall the Japanese drive southward from Buna to Port Moresby. Engaged primarily in air defense of Port Moresby; also escorted bombers and transports, and attacked enemy installations, supply lines, and troop concentrations in support of Allied ground forces. Participated in the Allied offensive that pushed the Japanese back along the Buna trail, took part in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea (Mar 1943), fought for control of the approaches to Huon Gulf, and supported ground forces during the campaign in which the Allies eventually recovered New Guinea. Covered landings on Noemfoor and had a part in the conquest of Biak. After having used P-38, P-40, and P-47 aircraft, was equipped completely in Sep 1944 with P-38's, which were used to fly long-range escort and attack missions to Mindanao, Halmahera, Ceram, and Borneo. Arrived in the Philippines in Oct 1944, shortly after the assault landings on Leyte. Engaged enemy fighters, attacked shipping in Ormoc Bay, supported ground forces, and covered the Allied invasion of Luzon. Maj Richard I Bong, who became AAF's top ace of World War II, was awarded the Medal of Honor for voluntarily flying in combat from 10 Oct to 15 Nov 1944, a period for which he was credited with the destruction of eight enemy aircraft in the air. For intensive operations against the Japanese on Leyte, the group was awarded a DUC. Other missions from the Philippines included strikes against industry and transportation on Formosa and against shipping along the China coast. Moved to Okinawa in A ug 1945 and to Japan in Sep. Trained, took part in maneuvers, and flew surveillance patrols, as part of Far East Air Forces. Equipped with P-51's in 1946, with F-80's being added in 1948. Redesignated 49th Fighter-Bomber Group in Feb 1950.

Began operations in the Korean War in Jun 1950. Covered the evacuation of civilian personnel from Kimpo and Suwon. Then flew missions in support of UN ground forces, hitting gun positions, troop concentrations, and other objectives. Later, struck interdiction targets in North Korea. In combat, operated first from Japan and later from, Korea, beginning operations with F-51's and F-80's and completing conversion to F-84's in Sep 1951. Remained in Korea for a time after the armistice. Returned to Japan in Nov 1953.

50th Fighter Group

Constituted as 50th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 50th Fighter Group in May 1942. Functioned as part of the Fighter Command School, testing equipment and conducting training in air defense operations; also trained pilots and furnished cadres to night fighter units. Later operated with AAF School of Applied Tactics, training personnel in fighter tactics under simulated combat conditions. Used P-40's and P-47's, plus some DB-7's, P-51's, and P-70's.

Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF and, using P-47's, began operations by making a fighter sweep over France on 1 May. Engaged primarily in escort and dive-bombing missions for the next month. Covered the beach during the invasion of Normandy on 6 and 7 Jun, and moved to the Continent late that month. Attacked bridges, roads, vehicles, railways, trains, gun emplacements, and marshalling yards during the Normandy campaign. Bombed targets in the St Lo region in Jul and supported the subsequent drive across France. Assisted in stemming the German offensive in the Saar-Hardt area early in Jan 1945, engaged in the offensive that reduced the Colmar bridgehead in Jan and Feb 1945, and supported the drive that breached the Siegfried Line and resulted in the movement of Allied forces into southern Germany in Mar and Apr 1945. Received a DUC for close cooperation with Seventh Army in Mar during the assault on the Siegfried Line; in spite of the hazards of enemy opposition and difficult weather conditions, the group struck enemy defenses and isolated battle areas by destroying bridges, communications, supply areas, and ammunition dumps. Received second DUC for a mission on 25 Apr 1945 when, despite intense antiaircraft fire, the group destroyed or damaged many enemy aircraft on an airfield southeast of Munich. Ended operations in May 1945. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 1 Jun 1949. Redesignated 50th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Mar 1950. Ordered into active service on 1 Jun 1951. Inactivated on 2 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 50th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 1 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with F-51's; converted to F-86's early in 1953. Moved to Germany, Jul-Aug 1953, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe.

Squadrons. 10th: 1941-1945; 1953-. 11th: 1941-1942. 12th: 1941-1942. 81st: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 1953-. 313th: 1942-1945. 417th: 1953-. 445th: 1943-1944.

51st Fighter Group

Constituted as 51st Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Assigned to Fourth AF and equipped with P-40's. Redesignated 51st Pursuit Group (Fighter) in Mar 1941. While training for combat, served as part of the defense force for the west coast. Left the US in Jan 1942, stopped in Australia and Ceylon, and arrived in India in Mar 1942. Assigned to Tenth AF. Redesignated 51st Fighter Group in May 1942. Defended the Indian terminus of the Hump route and airfields in that area. Flew strafing, bombing, reconnaissance, and patrol missions in support of Allied ground troops during a Japanese offensive in northern Burma in 1943. Moved to China in Oct 1943 and assigned to Fourteenth AF. Used P-38's, P-40's, and (in 1945) P-51's to defend the eastern end of the route over the Hump, guard air bases in the Kunming area, harass Japanese shipping in the Red River delta, and support Chinese ground forces in their drive along the Salween River. Returned to India in the fall of 1945 and sailed for the US in Nov. Inactivated on 13 Dec 1945.

Activated on Okinawa on 15 Oct 1946. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Equipped with P-47's and P-61's in 1946, and with F-80 and F-82 aircraft in 1948. Trained, served as part of the occupation force, and provided air defense for the Ryukyus. Redesignated 51st Fighter-Interceptor Group in Feb 1950. Moved to Japan in Sep 1950 and, operating from bases in Japan and Korea, served in combat against Communist forces until the end of the Korean War. Used F-80's until Nov 1951 and then converted to F-86 aircraft. Supported ground forces and flew patrol, escort, interdictory, and reconnaissance missions. Frequently engaged the enemy's jet (MIG) fighters and reported numerous victories in aerial combat, Capt Joseph McConnell Jr becoming the leading ace of the Korean War. Returned to Okinawa in Aug 1954.

Squadrons. 16th: 1941-1945; 1946. 25th: 1941-1945; 1946. 26th: 1941-1945; 1946. 449th: 1943-1945.

52nd Fighter Group

Constituted as 52nd Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 52nd Fighter Group in May 1942. Trained with P-39 and P-40 aircraft, and participated in maneuvers. Moved to the British Isles, the air echelon arriving in Jul 1942 and the ground echelon in Aug. Received Spitfire aircraft and, as part of Eighth AF, flew missions from England to France during Aug and Sep. The pilots of the group flew Spitfires from Gibraltar to Algeria during the invasion of North Africa on 8 Nov 1942; the remainder of the group, moving by ship from England, arrived after the campaign for Algeria-French Morocco had ended. Assigned first to Twelfth AF and later (after May 1944) to Fifteenth, the group served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war. Flew escort, patrol, strafing, and reconnaissance missions to help defeat Axis forces in Tunisia. Took part in the conquest of Sicily. Attacked railroads, highways, bridges, coastal shipping, and other targets to support Allied operations in Italy. Converted to P-51's during Apr-May 1944 and afterwards engaged primarily in escorting bombers that attacked objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, and Yugoslavia. Received a DUC for a mission of 9 Jun 1944 when the group protected bombers that struck aircraft factories, communications centers, and supply lines in Germany. In addition to escorting bombers of Fifteenth AF, the group made strafing attacks on important targets in Italy, France, central Europe, and the Balkans. Received second DUC for a strafing raid in which the group destroyed a great number of fighter and transport planes on a landing ground in Rumania on 31 Aug 1944. Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Activated in Germany on 9 Nov 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe and organized as an all-weather fighter group. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947. Redesignated 52nd Fighter Group (All Weather) in May 1948, and 52nd Fighter-Interceptor Group in May 1951. Equipped with P-61's in 1947, F-82's in 1948, and F-94's in 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 52nd Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 2d: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 4th: 1941-1945. 5th: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-.

53rd Fighter Group

Constituted as 53rd Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 53rd Fighter Group in May 1942. Trained with P-35's and P-40's. Moved to the Panama Canal Zone in Dec 1941 and equipped with P-39's for operations as part of the defense force for the canal. Returned to the US in Nov 1942 and assigned to Third AF. Trained replacement pilots in P-39, P-47, and P-51 aircraft. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 53rd Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped first with F-86's, later with F-89's.

Squadrons. 13th: 1941-1944; 1955-. 14th: 1941-1944; 1955-. 15th: 1941-1944. 438th: 1943-1944.

54th Fighter Group

Constituted as 54th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's. Served as a part of the defense force for the northwest Pacific coast during the first few months of the war. Redesignated 54th Fighter Group in May 1942. The air echelon, equipped with P-39's, served in Alaska against the Japanese forces that invaded the Aleutian Islands during the summer of 1942, and for these operations the group received a DUC. The air echelon returned to the US in Dec 1942 and rejoined the group, which had been assigned to Third AF, and which became a replacement training unit for P-51 pilots. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 54th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 42d: 1941-1944; 1955-. 56th: 1941-1944. 57th: 1941-1944.

55th Fighter Group

Constituted as 55th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-43's. Redesignated 55th Fighter Group in May 1942. Converted to P-38's and prepared for combat. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Began operations with P-38's on 15 Oct 1943; converted to P-51's in Jul 1944. Engaged primarily in escorting bombers that attacked such targets as industries and marshalling yards in Germany, and airfields and V-weapon sites in France. Provided cover for B-17's and B-24's that bombed aircraft plants during Big Week in Feb 1944, gun emplacements during the St Lo breakthrough in Jul 1944, and transportation facilities during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Also patrolled the air over the Channel and bombed bridges in the Tours area during the invasion of the Continent in Jun 1944; patrolled the Arnhem sector to support the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep 1944; strafed trucks, locomotives, and oil depots near Wesel when the Allies crossed the Rhine in Mar 1945. Received a DUC for eight missions to Germany between 3 and 13 Sep 1944 when the group not only destroyed enemy fighters in the air to protect the bombers it was escorting, but also descended to low levels, in spite of intense antiaircraft fire, to strafe airdromes and to destroy enemy aircraft on the ground. Received second DUC for operations on 19 Feb 1945 when the organization flew a sweep over Germany to hit railway tracks, locomotives, oil cars, goods wagons, troop cars, buildings, and military vehicles. Flew last combat mission on 21 Apr 1945. Moved to Germany in Jul 1945 as part of the occupation forces. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Trained with P-51 and P-80 aircraft. Inactivated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 55th Reconnaissance Group (Very Long Range, Mapping). Activated in the US on 24 Feb 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1948. Aircraft included RB-17's and B-29's and RB-29's. Inactivated on 14 Oct 1949.

Redesignated 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Medium). Activated in Puerto Rico on 1 Nov 1950. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped with RB-29 and RB-50 aircraft. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 7th Geodetic: 1949. 37th: 1941-1943. 38th: 1941-1946; 1949; 1950-1952. 54th: 1941-1942. 338th: 1942-1946; 1949; 1950-1952. 343d: 1943-1946; 1947-1949; 1950-1952.

56th Fighter Group

Constituted as 56th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Equipped with P-39's and P-40's. Trained, participated in maneuvers, served as an air defense organization, and functioned as an operational training unit. Redesignated 56th Fighter Group in May 1942. Received P-47's in Jun and began training for combat. Moved to England, Dec 1942-Jan 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Continued training for several weeks. Entered combat with a fighter sweep in the area of St Omer on 13 Apr 1943, and during the next two years destroyed more enemy aircraft in aerial combat than any other fighter group of Eighth AF. Flew numerous missions over France, the Low Countries, and Germany to escort bombers that attacked industrial establishments, V-weapon sites, submarine pens, and other targets on the Continent. Also strafed and dive-bombed airfields, troops, and supply points; attacked the enemy communications; and flew counter-air patrols. Engaged in counter-air and interdictory missions during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. Supported Allied forces for the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Helped to defend the Remagen bridgehead against air attacks in Mar 1945. Received a DUC for aggressiveness in seeking out and destroying enemy aircraft and for attacking enemy air bases, 20 Feb-9 Mar 1944. Received another DUC for strikes against antiaircraft positions while supporting the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944. Flew last combat mission on 21 Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945.

Activated on 1 May 1946. Equipped with P-47 and P-51 aircraft; converted to F-80's in 1947. Redesignated 56th Fighter Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Converted to F-86 aircraft. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 56th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 61st: 1941-1945; 1946-1952. 62d: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 63d: 1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-.

57th Fighter Group

Constituted as 57th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Trained with P-40's. Served as part of the defense force on the east coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Redesignated 57th Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to the Middle East, Jul-Aug 1942. Trained with RAF. Began operations in Oct 1942. Took part in the Battle of El Alamein and, as part of Ninth AF, supported British Eighth Army's drive across Egypt and Libya, escorting bombers and flying strafing and dive-bombing missions against airfields, communications, and troop concentrations until the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia in May 1943. Received a DUC for performance on 18 Apr 1943 when the group destroyed more than 70 of the enemy's transport and fighter planes in an aerial battle over the Gulf of Tunis. Participated in the reduction of Pantelleria (May-Jun 1943) and the conquest of Sicily (Jul-Aug 1943). Received another DUC for front-line operations in direct support of British Eighth Army from the Battle of El Alamein to the capitulation of enemy forces in Sicily. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and continued operations in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war. Supported British Eighth Army's landing at Termoli and subsequent operations in Italy (Oct 1943-Feb 1944) by flying dive-bombing, strafing, patrol, and escort missions. Converted to P-47's early in 1944 and used the new aircraft for interdictory operations in Italy, receiving a DUC for a series of devastating attacks on rail lines, trains, motor vehicles, bridges, and other targets in the Florence-Arezzo area on 14 Apr 1944. Participated in the French campaign against Elba in Jun 1944 and in the invasion of Southern France in Aug. Engaged in interdictory and support operations in northern Italy from Sep 1944 to May 1945. Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Activated in Alaska on 15 Aug 1946. Assigned to Alaskan Air Command. Redesignated 57th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Equipped successively with P-38, P-51, F-80, and F-94 aircraft. Inactivated in Alaska on 13 Apr 1953.

Squadrons. 64th: 1941-1945; 1946-1953. 65th: 1941-1945; 1946-1953. 66th: 1941-1945; 1946-1953.

58th Fighter Group

Constituted as 58th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 15 Jan 1941. Redesignated 58th Fighter Group in May 1942. Used P-35, P-36, P-39, and P-40 aircraft while serving as a replacement training unit for pilots until 1943. Prepared for combat with P-47's. Moved to New Guinea, via Australia, Oct-Dec 1943. Assigned to Fifth AF. Began operations in Feb 1944, flying protective patrols over US bases and escorting transports. After that, covered bombers on raids over New Guinea, attacked Japanese airfields and installations, and escorted convoys to the Admiralty Islands. Moved to Noemfoor in Aug 1944, and until Nov bombed and strafed enemy airfields and installations on Ceram, Halmahera, and the Kai Islands. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, conducted fighter sweeps against enemy airfields, supported ground forces, and flew patrols over convoy and transport routes. Received a DUC for strafing a Japanese naval force off Mindoro on 26 Dec 1944 to prevent destruction of the American base on that island. Moved to Okinawa in Jul 1945 and attacked railways, airfields, and installations in Korea and Kyushu before V-J Day. Remained in the theater after the war as part of Far East Air Forces. Flew some reconnaissance and surveillance missions over Japan. Moved to Japan in Oct and returned to the Philippines in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 27 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 58th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated in Korea on 10 Jul 1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Command but attached to Far East Air Forces for operations in the Korean War. Using F-84's, bombed and strafed enemy airfields and installations and supported UN ground forces. Remained in Korea after the armistice. Equipped with F-86's in 1954.

Squadrons. 67th: 1941-1942. 68th: 1941-1942. 69th: 1941-1946; 1952-. 310th: 1942-1946; 1952-. 311th: 1942-1946; 1952-.

59th Fighter Group

Constituted as 59th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Assigned to First AF. Participated in maneuvers and after the outbreak of war engaged in patrol activity along the east coast of the US. Used BC-1A, L-59, O-46, O-47, O-49, and O-52 aircraft. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1942.

Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated 59th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 19th Fighter Group in Aug 1943. Trained pilots, using P-39 aircraft, with part of the group converting to P-40's in Apr 1944. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 34th (formerly 126th): 1941-1942; 1943. 103d: 1941-1942. 447th: 1943-1944. 488th (formerly 9th): 1942; 1943-1944. 489th (formerly 104th): 1941-1942; 1943-1944. 490th (formerly 119th): 1942; 1943-1944.

60th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 60th Transport Group on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 1 Dec 1940. Prepared for duty overseas with C-47's. Moved to England in Jun 1942. Redesignated 60th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Received additional training in England, then assigned to Twelfth AF for operations in the Mediterranean theater. Flew its first mission on 8 Nov 1942, transporting paratroops from England and dropping them at Oran during the early hours of the invasion of North Africa. Operated from bases in Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily, and Italy until after V-E Day. Participated in the battle for Tunisia, dropping paratroops near the combat area on two occasions. Trained with gliders during Jun 1943, then towed gliders to Syracuse and dropped paratroops behind enemy lines at Catania when the Allies invaded Sicily in Jul. Dropped paratroops at Megava during the airborne invasion of Greece in Oct 1944. When not engaged in airborne operations, the group transported men and supplies and evacuated wounded personnel. Flew to northern Italy in Oct 1943 to drop supplies to men who had escaped from prisoner-of-war camps. Received a DUC for supporting the partisans in the Balkans, Mar-Sep 1944: flew at night, unarmed, over unfamiliar and mountainous enemy territory and landed on small, poorly-constructed airfields to provide guns, ammunition, clothing, food, medical supplies, gas, oil, jeeps, mail, and mules for underground forces in Yugoslavia, Albania, and Greece; evacuated wounded partisans and escaped prisoners; also dropped propaganda leaflets. Moved to Trinidad in Jun 1945 and assigned to Air Transport Command. Inactivated on 31 Jul s945.

Activated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Equipped first with C-47's, then (late in 1948) with C-54's. Participated in the Berlin airlift, Jun 1948-Sep 1949. Redesignated 60th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jul 1948, 60th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Nov 1948, and 60th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Nov 1949. Re-equipped with C-82 aircraft in 1949 and with C-119's in 1953.

Squadrons. 10th: 1940-1945; 1946. 11th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 12th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 28th: 1942-1945.

61st Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 61st Transport Group on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 1 Dec 1940. Redesignated 61st Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Used C-47's to prepare for operations with Twelfth AF. Moved to North Africa in May 1943 and, after a period of special training, began operations on the night of 9 Jul by dropping paratroops near Gela during the invasion of Sicily. Received a DUC for completing a reinforcement mission two nights later when the group sustained heavy attack by ground and naval forces. Moved to Sicily, Aug-Sep 1943, for participation in the invasion of Italy; dropped paratroops north of Agropoli on 13 Sep 1943 and flew a reinforcement mission to the same area on 14 Sep. Also transported cargo and evacuated patients while in the Mediterranean theater. Joined Ninth AF in England in Feb 1944 to prepare for the Normandy invasion. Received a DUC for dropping paratroops and supplies near Cherbourg on 6 and 7 Jun 1944. Dropped British paratroops at Arnhem on 17 Sep 1944 during the air attack on Holland; released gliders carrying reinforcements to that area on succeeding days. Moved to France in Mar 1945 for the airborne assault across the Rhine, dropping British paratroops near Wesel on 24 Mar. Also provided transport services in the European theater, hauling gasoline, ammunition, food, medicine, and other supplies, and evacuating wounded personnel. Moved to Trinidad in May 1945. Assigned to Air Transport Command. Used C-47's to transport troops returning to the US. Inactivated in Trinidad on 31 Jul 1945.

Activated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Redesignated 61st Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jul 1948, and 61st Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Aug 1948. Participated in the Berlin Airlift from Jun 1948 to May 1949, using C-54's to ferry coal, flour, and other cargo into West Berlin. Moved to the US shortly after the outbreak of war in Korea for duty with Military Air Transport Service. Operated on the northern route to Japan, transporting supplies for UN forces in Korea. Moved to Japan in Dec 1950, attached to Far East Air Forces, and engaged in transport operations between Japan and Korea. Returned to the US in Nov 1952 to join Tactical Air Command, to which the group had been assigned in Oct 1951. Converted from C-54 to C-124 aircraft.

Squadrons. 13th: 1940-1942. 14th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 15th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 53d: 1942-1945; 1946-. 59th: 1942-1945.

62nd Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 62nd Transport Group on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 11 Dec 1940. Transported military freight and supplies in North and South America and trained with C-47 and C-53 aircraft. Redesignated 62nd Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and engaged in further training. Assigned to Twelfth AF and moved to North Africa to take part in the battle for Tunisia. Began operations on 29 Nov 1942 by dropping paratroops to attack enemy airdromes in Tunisia. Trained with gliders for several months, then towed gliders to Syracuse and also dropped paratroops behind enemy lines at Catania during the Allied invasion of Sicily in Jul 1943. Operated from bases in Sicily and Italy from Sep 1943 until after the war. Dropped paratroops in northern Italy in Jun 1944 to harass the retreating enemy and to prevent the Germans from destroying bridges over which their forces had withdrawn. Flew two missions in connection with the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, releasing gliders and paratroops in the battle area. Transported paratroops and towed gliders to Greece during the Allied assault in Oct 1944. In addition to the airborne operations, the group transported men and supplies in the Mediterranean theater and to the front lines during the campaigns for Tunisia, Italy, and southern France. Also evacuated wounded personnel and flew missions behind enemy lines in Italy and the Balkans to haul guns, ammunition, food, clothing, medical supplies, and other materials to the partisans and to drop propaganda leaflets. Aided in the redeployment of personnel after the war and also hauled freight and mail. Inactivated in Italy on 14 Nov 1945.

Activated in the US on 7 Sep 1946. Redesignated 62nd Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1948, and 62nd Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Oct 1949. Used C-82, C-54, and C-124 aircraft. Carried out some special missions that included aiding flood-stricken areas in Oregon in 1948, dropping food to cattle snowbound in Nevada in 1949, flying to Japan with mail for troops in Korea in 1952, and participating in the air lift of medical supplies to flooded areas in Pakistan in 1954. Received the AFOUA for transporting French troops and equipment from France to Indochina, Apr-May 1954.

Squadrons. 4th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 7th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 8th: 1940-1945; 1946-. 51st: 1942-1945.

63rd Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 63rd Transport Group on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 1 Dec 1940. Trained with C-33, C-34, and C-50 aircraft; later equipped with C-47's and C-53's. Transported supplies, materiel, and personnel in the US and the Caribbean area. Became part of Air Transport Command (later I Troop Carrier Command) in Apr 1942. Redesignated 63rd Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Became a training organization, preparing cadres for troop carrier groups. Began training replacement crews in Jul 1943. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted, allotted to the reserve, and redesignated 63rd Troop Carrier Group (Medium), on 10 May 1949. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 9 May 1951.

Redesignated 63rd Troop Carrier Group (Heavy). Activated on 20 Jun 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with C-124's. Trained, transported personnel and supplies, and participated in exercises and maneuvers with airborne troops. In 1955 transported construction equipment from bases in Canada to points north of the Arctic Circle for use in setting up a warning network in the Canadian Arctic; for this operation, accomplished in severe weather and without adequate navigational equipment, the group received an AFOUA.

Squadrons. 3d: 1940-1944; 1949-1951; 1953-. 6th: 1940-1942. 9th: 1940-1943; 1949-1951; 1953-. 52d: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1953-. 60th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951.

64th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 64th Transport Group on 20 Nov 1940. Activated on 4 Dec 1940. Used C-47's for training and flying transport missions in the US. Redesignated 64th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Moved to England in Aug 1942 and received additional training. Assigned to Twelfth AF. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Nov-Dec 1942. Flew first mission on 11 Nov, landing paratroops at Maison Blanche. Dropped paratroops to capture airfields during the battle for Tunisia. Released paratroops near Gela and Catania when the Allies invaded Sicily in Jul 1943. Dropped paratroops near Avellino during the invasion of Italy in Sep 1943 to destroy a bridge on the enemy's supply line to Salerno. Participated in the assault on southern France in Aug 1944 by releasing gliders and paratroops in the battle zone. Supported the partisans in northern Italy early in 1945 by dropping paratroops, supplies, and propaganda leaflets behind enemy lines. When not engaged in airborne operations, the group continually transported men and supplies to the front lines and evacuated wounded personnel. Most of the group was on detached service in the CBI theater, Apr-Jun 1944, while a skeleton force remained in Sicily. With its squadrons operating from separate bases in India, the 64th group aided the Allied offensive in Burma, being awarded a DUC for flying unarmed over rugged enemy territory to carry food, clothing, medical supplies, guns, ammunition, and mules to the combat zone and to evacuate wounded personnel. Moved to Trinidad in Jun 1945. Assigned to Air Transport Command. Inactivated on 31 Jul 1945.

Activated in the US on 19 May 1947. Not manned during 1947-1948. Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 64th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated on 14 Jul 1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Used C-82 aircraft and later (after Jul 1953) C-119's. Inactivated on 21 Jul 1954.

Squadrons. 16th: 1940-1945; 1947-1948. 17th: 1940-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-1954. 18th: 1940-1945; 1952-1954. 35th: 1942-1945; 1952-1954. 54th: 1942.

65th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 65th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Equipped with O-47's, O-49's, O-52's, and other observation aircraft. Supported ground units during the Carolina Maneuvers in the fall and winter of 1941. Flew antisubmarine patrols off the east coast after Pearl Harbor. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1942.

Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Redesignated 65th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943. Served as a training organization for crews that changed from observation aircraft to B-25's. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943.

Reconstituted, allotted to the reserve, and activated, on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 65th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Equipped with C-46's. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1953.

Squadrons. 2d: 1947-1949; 1952-1953. 13th: 1947-1949; 1952-1953. 14th: 1947-1949; 1952-1953. 18th: 1942; 1943. 105th: 1941-1942; 1943. 112th: 1941-1942. 121st: 1941-1942.

66th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 66th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Redesignated 66th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 66th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Equipped at various times with O-46, O-47, A-20, P-39, P-40, B-25, L-5, and L-6 aircraft. Supported ground units on maneuvers, including the Carolina Maneuvers of 1942, the Tennessee Maneuvers of 1942 and 1943, and the Second Army Maneuvers of 1943-1944. Trained personnel in aerial reconnaissance and artillery adjustment methods. Also flew antisubmarine patrols off the east coast, Jan-Aug 1942. Disbanded on 20 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 66th Reconnaissance Group, allotted to the reserve, and activated, on 27 Dec 1946. Equipped with RB-26's and RF-80's. Redesignated 66th Strategic Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 16 May 1951.

Redesignated 66th Tactical Reconnaissance Group. Activated on 1 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with RB-26's and RF-80's. Moved to Germany, Jun-Jul 1953, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Transitioned to RB-57's and RF-84's, 1954-1955.

Squadrons. 18th: 1947-1949. 19th Liaison: 1942-1943. 19th Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. 20th: 1947-1949, 1949-1951. 23d: 1943. 30th: 1947-1951; 1953-. 97th: 1941-1943. 106th: 1941-1943. 118th: 1941-1943. 302d: 1953-. 303d: 1953-.

67th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 67th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Flew antisubmarine patrols along the east coast of the US after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Began training in Jan 1942 for duty overseas. Moved to the European theater, Aug-Oct 1942. Assigned first to Eighth and later (Oct 1943) to Ninth AF. Redesignated 67th Reconnaissance Group in May 1943, 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Nov 1943, and 67th Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Trained in England for more than a year before beginning operations in Dec 1943. Used P-38's, P-51's, and F-5's to fly artillery-adjustment, weather-reconnaissance, bomb-damage assessment, photographic-reconnaissance, and visual-reconnaissance missions. Received a DUC for operations along the coast of France, 15 Feb-20 Mar 1944, when the group flew at low altitude in the face of intense flak to obtain photographs that aided the invasion of the Continent. Flew weather missions, made visual reconnaissance for ground forces, and photographed enemy positions to support the Normandy campaign and later to assist First Army and other Allied forces in the drive to Germany. Took part in the offensive against the Siegfried Line, Sep-Dec 1944, and in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. From Jan to May 1945, photographed dams on the Roer River in preparation for the ground offensive to cross the river, and aided the Allied assault across the Rhine and into Germany. Returned to the US, Jul-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Activated on 19 May 1947. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with RB-26's and RF-80's. Redesignated 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in June 1948. Inactivated on 28 Mar 1949.

Activated in Japan on 25 Feb 1951. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Moved to Korea in Mar 1951 and served in the Korean War until the armistice. Used RB-26, RF-51, RF-80, RF-86, and RF-84 aircraft. Made photographic reconnaissance of front lines, enemy positions, and installations; took pre-strike and bomb damage assessment photographs; made visual reconnaissance of enemy artillery and naval gun positions; and flew weather missions. Received an AFOUA for the period 1 Dec 1952-30 Apr 1953 when, in the face of enemy opposition and adverse weather, the group performed reconnaissance missions on a 24-hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week basis to provide valuable intelligence for UN forces. Returned to Japan, Nov-Dec 1954.

Squadrons. 11th: 1946; 1947-1949; 1953-. 12th: 1942-1944; 1947-1949; 1951-. 15th (formerly Observation): 1944; 1951-. 15th (formerly Photographic): 1947. 30th: 1944-1945. 33d: 1944, 1945. 45th: 1951-. 107th: 1941-1945. 109th: 1941-1945. 113th: 1941-1942. 153d: 1941-1944. 161st: 1945.

68th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 68th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Redesignated 68th Reconnaissance Group in May 1943, and 68th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Nov 1943. Flew patrols over the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mexican border after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Began training in Feb 1942 for duty overseas. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Oct-Nov 1942, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Shortly after the group began operations most of its squadrons were detached for separate duty in order to carry out diverse activities over a wide area. Operating from bases in North Africa until Nov 1943, the group, or elements of the group, engaged in patrolling the Mediterranean; strafing trucks, tanks, gun positions, and supply dumps to support ground troops in Tunisia; training fighter pilots and replacement crews; and flying photographic and visual reconnaissance missions in Tunisia, Sicily, and Italy to provide information needed to adjust artillery fire. Moved to Italy and assigned to Fifteenth AF, in Nov 1943. Continued visual and photographic reconnaissance and began flying weather reconnaissance missions in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, and the Balkans. Also engaged in electronic-countermeasure activities, investigating radar equipment captured from the enemy, flying ferret missions along the coasts of Italy and southern France, and accompanying bomber formations to detect approaching enemy fighters. Used P-38, P-39, P-40, P-51, A-20, A-36, B-17, and B-24 aircraft for operations. Returned to North Africa in Apr 1944. Disbanded on 15 Jun 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 68th Reconnaissance Group, and allotted to the reserve, on 10 Mar 1947. Activated in the US on 9 Apr 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 68th Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Medium). Activated on 10 Oct 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Trained with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 16th: 1942-1944. 24th: 1947-1949; 1951-1952. 51st: 1947-1949; 1951-1952. 52d: 1947-1949; 1951-1952. 111th: 1942-1944. 122d: 1941-1944. 125th: 1941-1942. 127th: 1941-1942. 154th: 1941-1944.

69th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 69th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 3 Sep 1941. Redesignated 69th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 69th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Used O-38, O-46, O-47, O-52, L-1, L-2, L-3, L-4, L-5, L-49, P-39, P-40, B-25, A-20, and other aircraft. Flew antisubmarine patrols along the Pacific coast after Pearl Harbor. Engaged primarily in air-ground training during 1943 and 1944. Began training with F-6's in Jan 1945 for duty overseas. Moved to France, Feb-Mar 1945. Assigned to Ninth AF. Flew visual-reconnaissance and photographic missions to provide intelligence for ground and air units. Redesignated 69th Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Trained with F-6 and A-26 aircraft. Inactivated on 29 Jul 1946.

Squadrons. 10th: 1942-1946. 22d: 1945-1946. 31st: 1942-1945, 1945-1946. 34th: 1945. 37th: 1943-1944. 39th: 1946. 82d: 1941-1942. 101st (formerly 39th): 1944-1945. 102d: 1942-1944. 111th: 1945. 115th: 1941-1943.

70th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 70th Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 13 Sep 1941. Redesignated 70th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 70th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft: O-46's, O-47's, B-25's, A-20's, P-39's, L-2's, L-4's, L-5's, and L-6's. Provided artillery adjustment, reconnaissance, and fighter and bomber support to ground forces in training and on maneuvers along the west coast. Also flew antisubmarine patrols off the west coast from 7 Dec 1941 through Sep 1942. Disbanded on 30 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted, redesignated 70th Reconnaissance Group, and allotted to the reserve, on 10 Mar 1947. Activated on 26 Apr 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 26th Tactical Reconnaissance: 1942-1943. 26th Photographic Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. 57th: 1947-1949. 61st: 1947-1949. 112th: 1943. 116th: 1941-1943. 123d: 1941-1943.

71st Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 71st Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Oct 1941. Trained with B-25, P-38, P-39, and P-40 aircraft. Flew antisubmarine patrols off the west coast, Dec 1941-Jan 1943. Redesignated 71st Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, 71st Tactical Reconnaissance Group in May 1944, and 71st Reconnaissance Group in May 1945.

Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Sep-Nov 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Equipped with B-25, P-38, P-39, L-4, L-5, and later some L-6 aircraft. Based on New Guinea and Biak, flew reconnaissance missions over New Guinea, New Britain, and the Admiralties to provide target and damage-assessment photographs for air force units. Also bombed and strafed Japanese installations, airfields, and shipping; supported Allied forces on New Guinea and Biak; flew courier missions; participated in rescue operations; and hauled passengers and cargo. Moved to the Philippines in Nov 1944. Flew reconnaissance missions over Luzon to provide information for US forces as to Japanese troop movements, gun positions, and supply routes. Also supported ground forces on Luzon, photographed and bombed airfields in Formosa and China, and attacked enemy shipping off the Asiatic coast. Maj William A Shomo was awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 11 Jan 1945: sighting a formation of thirteen Japanese aircraft while leading a two-plane flight, Maj Shomo attacked the superior enemy force and destroyed seven planes. After moving to Ie Shima in Aug 1945, the group attacked transportation targets on Kyushu and flew over southern Japan to locate prisoner of war camps, to assess bomb damage, and to obtain information on Japanese military movements. Moved to Japan in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1946.

Activated in Japan on 28 Feb 1947. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Manned in Nov 1947 and equipped with RB-17, RB-29, RF-51, RF-61, and RF-80 aircraft. Photographed areas of Japan and South Korea. Redesignated 71st Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1948. Inactivated in Japan on 1 Apr 1949.

Squadrons. 8th: 1947-1949. 17th: 1942-1946. 25th Liaison: 1942-1945. 25th Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. 82d: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 102d: 1941-1942. 110th: 1941-1946. 128th: 1941-1942.

72nd Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 72nd Observation Group on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 26 Sep 1941. Redesignated 72nd Reconnaissance Group in 1943. Used O-47, O-49, O-52, L-1, L-4, B-18, P-39, and other aircraft. Moved to the Panama Canal Zone, Dec 1941-Jan 1942. Flew patrol missions, carried mail, searched for missing aircraft, provided reconnaissance support to ground forces, and occasionally did photographic-mapping work. Disbanded in the Canal Zone on 1 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted and allotted to the reserve, on 13 May 1947. Activated on 12 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 1st: 1941-1943. 4th: 1942-1943. 39th: 1942-1943. 60th: 1947-1949. 73d Fighter: 1947-1949. 108th: 1941-1943. 124th: 1941.

74th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 74th Observation Group on 5 Feb 1942 and activated on 27 Feb. Redesignated 74th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 74th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Equipped at various times with O-52's, L-1's, L-4's, L-5's, B-25's, A-20's, P-39's, P-40's, and P-51's. Flew reconnaissance, mapping, artillery adjustment, bombing, dive-bombing, and strafing missions to support ground units in training or on maneuvers; trained personnel in aerial reconnaissance, medium bombardment, and fighter techniques. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 74th Reconnaissance Group, allotted to the reserve, and activated, on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 5th: 1943. 8th: 1945. 11th: 1942-1945. 13th: 1942-1945. 21st: 1947-1949. 22nd Tactical Reconnaissance: 1942-1945. 22nd Photographic Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. 33rd (formerly 31st): 1947-1949. 36th: 1943-1944. 101st: 1945.

75th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 75th Observation Group on 5 Feb 1942 and activated on 27 Feb. Redesignated 75th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 75th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Used B-25's, A-20's, L-1's, L-2's, L-4's, O-47's, O-52's, P-9's, P-40's, and P-51's. Until the fall of 1942 the group aided ground units with their training by flying reconnaissance, artillery adjustment, strafing, and dive-bombing missions; one squadron (124th) flew antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf of Mexico. In the fall of 1942 the group participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers. Beginning early in 1943 it functioned primarily as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 21st: 1942-1944. 30th: 1942-1944. 124th: 1942-1944. 127th: 1942-1943.

76th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 76th Observation Group on 5 Feb 1942 and activated on 27 Feb. Redesignated 76th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 76th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft included P-39's, P-40's, A-20's, B-25's, L-1's, L-4's, L-5's, and L-6's. Trained in aerial reconnaissance and air support techniques and aided ground units in their training, Feb 1942-May 1943; assisted Second Army on maneuvers, May-Sep 1943; participated in maneuvers with ground forces in the California-Arizona desert training area beginning in Sep 1943. Disbanded on 15 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 20th: 1942-1943. 23d: 1942-1943, 1943-1944. 24th: 1942-1943. 70th: 1943. 91st: 1943. 97th: 1943-1944. 101st: 1943-1944. 102d: 1944. 106th: 1943. 121st: 1943.

77th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 77th Observation Group on 5 Feb 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. Redesignated 77th Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 77th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft included P-39's, P-40's, A-20's, B-25's, O-47's, O-52's, and L-5's. Supported ground units in training by flying reconnaissance, artillery adjustment, fighter, and bomber missions, and in the process trained reconnaissance personnel who later served overseas. One squadron (113th) flew antisubmarine patrols over the Gulf of Mexico from Mar until Jun 1942 when it was relieved by another squadron (128th). Still another squadron (120th) patrolled the Mexican border, Mar-Jul 1942. A detachment of the 77th served in India from Feb until Jul 1943. The group was disbanded on 30 Nov 1943.

Squadrons. 5th: 1942-1943. 27th: 1942-1943. 35th: 1943. 113th: 1942-1943. 120th: 1942-1943. 125th: 1942-1943. 128th: 1942-1943.

78th Fighter Group

Constituted as 78th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 78th Fighter Group in May 1942. Trained for combat with P-38's and served as part of the air defense organization. Moved to England, Nov-Dec 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF. Lost its P-38's and most of its pilots in Feb 1943 when they were assigned to Twelfth AF for service in North Africa. Began operations from England with P-47's in Apr 1943, converted to P-51's in Dec 1944, and continued combat until Apr 1945. Flew many missions to escort bombers that attacked industries, submarine yards and docks, V-weapon sites, and other targets on the Continent. Also engaged in counter-air activities and on numerous occasions strafed and dive-bombed airfields, trains, vehicles, barges, tugs, canal locks, barracks, and troops. In addition to other operations, participated in the intensive campaign against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944; helped to prepare the way for the invasion of France; supported landings in Normandy in Jun 1944; contributed to the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944; participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and supported the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Received a DUC for activities connected with the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944 when the group covered troop carrier and bombardment operations and carried out strafing and dive-bombing missions. Received second DUC for destroying numerous aircraft on five airfields near Prague and Pilsen on 16 Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945.

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe for duty with the occupation force. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947 and had few, if any, personnel assigned until Nov 1948. Equipped with F-84's in the spring of 1949. Redesignated 78th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 78th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 82d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 83d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-. 84th: 1942-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-.

79th Fighter Group

Constituted as 79th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 79th Fighter Group in May 1942. Moved to the Middle East, Oct-Nov 1942, and became part of Ninth AF. Trained with P-40's while moving westward in the wake of the British drive across Egypt and Libya to Tunisia. Although many of the group's pilots flew combat missions with other organizations, the 79th group itself did not begin operations until Mar 1943. By escorting bombers, attacking enemy shipping, and supporting ground forces, the 79th took part in the Allied operations that defeated Axis forces in North Africa, captured Pantelleria, and conquered Sicily, the group being awarded a DUC for its support of British Eighth Army during that period, Mar-Aug 1943. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and continued to support British Eighth Army by attacking troop concentrations, gun positions, bridges, roads, and rail lines in southern Italy. Operated in the area of the Anzio beachhead, Jan-Mar 1944. Participated in the drive on Rome, Mar-Jun 1944, and converted to P-47's during that time. Flew escort and strafing missions in southern France during Aug and Sep 1944, and afterward engaged in interdictory and close support operations in northern Italy. Received second DUC for numerous missions flown at minimum altitude in intense flak to help pierce the enemy line at the Santerno River in Italy, 16-20 Apr 1945. Remained overseas as part of United States Air Forces in Europe after the war. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Jun 1947. Inactivated on 15 Jul 1947.

Redesignated 79th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 85th: 1942-1947. 86th: 1942-1947; 1955-. 87th: 1942-1947.

80th Fighter Group

Constituted as 80th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on Feb 1942. Redesignated 80th Fighter Group in May 1942. Used P-47's to train for combat and to serve as part of the defense force for the northeastern US. Sailed for India, via Brazil, Cape of Good Hope, and Ceylon, in May 1943. Assigned to Tenth AF. Began operations in Sep 1943 with P-38 and P-40 aircraft; later used P-47's. Supported Allied ground forces during the battle for northern Burma and the push southward to Rangoon, bombing and strafing troop concentrations, supply dumps, lines of communication, artillery positions, and other objectives. Defended the Indian terminus of the Hump route by striking Japanese airfields and by patrolling Allied airfields to safeguard them from attack. Received a DUC for intercepting a formation of enemy planes and preventing its attack on a large oil refinery in Assam, India, on 27 Mar 1944. Returned to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 3 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 88th: 1942-1945. 89th: 1942-1945. 90th: 1942-1945. 459th: 1943-1944.

81st Fighter Group

Constituted as 81st Pursuit Group (Intercepter) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 81st Fighter Group in May 1942. Trained with P-39's. Moved overseas, Oct 1942-Feb 1943, the ground echelon arriving, in French Morocco with the force that invaded North Africa on 8 Nov, and the air echelon, which had trained for a time in England, arriving in North Africa between late Dec 1942 and early Feb 1943. Began combat with Twelfth AF in Jan 1943. Supported ground operations during the Allied drive against Axis forces in Tunisia. Patrolled the coast of Africa and protected Allied shipping in the Mediterranean Sea, Apr-Jul 1943. Provided cover for the convoys that landed troops on Pantelleria on II Jun and on Sicily on 10 Jul 1943. Supported the landings at Anzio on 22 Jan 1944 and flew patrols in that area for a short time. Moved to India, Feb-Mar 1944, and began training with P-40 and P-47 aircraft. Moved to China in May and became part of Fourteenth AF. Continued training and on occasion flew patrol and escort missions before returning to full-time combat duty in Jan 1945. Attacked enemy airfields and installations, flew escort missions, and aided the operations of Chinese ground forces by attacking troop concentrations, ammunition dumps, lines of communications, and other targets to hinder Japanese efforts to move men and materiel to the front. Inactivated in China on 27 Dec 1945.

Activated in Hawaii on 15 Oct 1946. Equipped with P-51's; converted to F-47's early in 1948. Moved to the US in 1949 and converted to jet aircraft, receiving F-80's at first but changing to F-86's soon afterward.

Redesignated 81st Fighter-Interceptor Group in Jan 1950. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1951. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Redesignated 81st Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1954. Inactivated in England on 8 Feb 1955.

Squadrons. 78th: 1952-1955. 91st: 1942-1945; 1946-1955. 92d: 1942-1945; 1946-1955. 93d: 1942-1945; 1946-1951. 116th: 1951-1952.

emblem USAAF 82nd Fighter Group 82d Fighter Group

Constituted as 82nd Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 9 Feb 1942. Redesignated 82nd Fighter Group in May 1942. Trained with P-38's. Moved to Northern Ireland during Sep-Oct 1942 for further training. Moved to North Africa in Dec 1942 and served with Twelfth AF until Nov 1943. Took part in the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia, the reduction of Pantelleria, the conquest of Sicily, and the invasion of Italy. Operated against the enemy's air transports; flew dive-bombing and strafing missions; escorted medium bombers in their attacks on enemy shipping and their raids on Naples and Rome; and gave direct support to the ground forces during the invasion of Italy. Received a DUC for a low-level strafing raid against enemy aircraft concentrations at Foggia on 25 Aug 1943. Received second DUC for performance on 2 Sep 1943 when the group protected a formation of bombers that encountered strong opposition from enemy interceptors during an attack on marshalling yards near Naples.

Moved to Italy in Oct 1943. Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov. Continued to function occasionally as a fighter-bomber organization, supporting Allied armies, flying interdictory missions, and attacking strategic targets. Received third DUC for performance on 10 Jun 1944 when the 82nd Group braved head-on attacks by hostile fighters to dive-bomb an oil refinery at Ploesti and then strafed targets of opportunity while returning to base. Engaged primarily in escort work, however, from Oct 1943 to May 1945, covering the operations of heavy bombers that attacked aircraft industries, oil refineries, and other targets in France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Inactivated in Italy on 9 Sep 1945.

Activated in the US on 12 Apr 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with P-51's. Assigned to Continental Air Command in Aug 1949. Inactivated on 2 Oct 1949.

Redesignated 82nd Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-94 aircraft.


emblem USAAF 95th Fighter Squadron emblem USAAF 95th Fighter Squadron emblem USAAF 96th Fighter Squadron emblem USAAF 97th Fighter Squadron


Squadrons. 95th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 96th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-. 97th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-.

83rd Fighter Group

Constituted as 83rd Fighter Group on 18 Sep 1943 and activated on 25 Sep. Assigned to First AF. Served as a replacement training unit to train pilots for duty in P-47's. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 83rd Fighter-Day Group, and assigned to Tactical Air Command, on 24 Feb 1956. Activated on 8 Jul 1956.

(This group is not related to an 83rd Pursuit Group (Interceptor) that was constituted on 13 Jan 1942; activated at New Orleans by Third AF on 9 Feb 1942; assigned the 301st, 302nd, and 303rd squadrons; and disbanded a few days later in order to bring AAF within the authorized number of pursuit groups.)

Squadrons. 448th: 1943-1944. 532d: 1943-1944; 1956-. 533d: 1943-1944; 1956-. 534th: 1943-1944; 1956-.

84th Fighter Group

Constituted as 84th Bombardment Group (Light) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 10 Feb 1942. Redesignated 84th Bombardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942, and 84th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF and later (Nov 1943) to Second AF. Aircraft included A-24's (1942-1943) and P-47's (1943-1944). Served as an operational training and a replacement training unit. Also participated occasionally in demonstrations and maneuvers. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 84th Fighter Group (All Weather), and allotted to the reserve, on 26 May 1949. Activated on 1 Jun 1949. Ordered into active service on 1 Jun 1951. Inactivated on 2 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 84th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 491st (formerly 304th): 1942-1944. 496th (formerly 301st): 1942-1944; 1949-1951. 497th (formerly 302nd): 1942-1944; 1955-. 498th (formerly 303rd): 1942-1944; 1955-.

85th Fighter Group

Constituted as 85th Bombardment Group (Light) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 10 Feb 1942. Redesignated 85th Bombardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942, and 85th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF, then to Second, and again to Third. Equipped first with V-72 aircraft; converted to A-24's in Aug 1942, A-36's early in 1943, and P-40's early in 1944, receiving a few P-47's in Mar 1944. Participated in maneuvers in California during fall and winter of 1942-1943 and in Kentucky in April 1943. Afterward served as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 499th (formerly 305th): 1942-1944. 500th (formerly 306th): 1942-1944. 501st (formerly 307th): 1942-1944. 502nd (formerly 308th) 1942-1944.

86th Fighter Group

Constituted as 86th Bombardment Group (Light) on 13 Jan 1942. Activated on 10 Feb 1942. Redesignated 86th Bombardment Group (Dive) in Sep 1942, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 86th Fighter Group in May 1944. Moved to North Africa, Mar-May 1943. Trained until Jul, then began combat with Twelfth AF. Engaged primarily in close support of ground forces, with the group moving forward to bases in Sicily, Italy, Corsica, France, and Germany as the battle line changed. Also flew patrol and interdictory missions. Used A-36, P-40, and P-47 aircraft to attack convoys, trains, ammunition dumps, troop and supply columns, shipping, bridges, rail lines, and other objectives. Participated in the softening up of Sicily and supported the invasion by Seventh Army in Jul 1943. Provided cover for the landings at Salerno in Sep 1943. Assisted the Allied advance toward Rome during Jan-Jun 1944. Supported the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. Operated against enemy communications in northern Italy from Sep 1944 to Apr 1945. Attacked enemy transportation in Germany during Apr and May 1945. Received two DUC's: for action on 25 May 1944 when the group repeatedly dived through intense flak to destroy enemy vehicles and troops as German forces tried to stop the Allies short of Rome; for activity against convoys and airfield installations in northern Germany on 20 Apr 1945 to disorganize the enemy's withdrawal from that area. Remained in Germany after the war as part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Feb 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Activated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Redesignated 86th Composite Group in May 1947, 86th Fighter Group in Jan 1948, 86th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1950, and 86th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Aug 1954. Equipped successively with F-47, F-84, and F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 45th: 1947-1948. 311th: 1942-1943. 525th (formerly 309th): 1942-1946; 1946-. 526th (formerly 310th): 1942-1946; 1946-. 527th (formerly 312th): 1942-1946; 1946-1947, 1948-.

87th Fighter Group

Constituted as 87th Fighter Group on 24 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Assigned to First AF. Trained replacement pilots, using P-47's. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted on 16 May 1949 and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Redesignated 87th Fighter-Escort Group in Mar 1950. Ordered into active service on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 25 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 87th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Jun 1952. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1953.

(This group is not related to an 87th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) that was constituted on 13 Jan 1942; activated at Selfridge Field by Third AF on 10 Feb 1942; assigned the 304th, 305th, and 306th squadrons; and disbanded a few days later in order to bring AAF within the authorized number of pursuit groups.)

Squadrons. 450th: 1943-1944. 535th: 1943-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-1953. 536th: 1943-1944; 1952-1953. 537th: 1943-1944; 1952-1953.

88th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 88th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Jul 1942, but not manned until Sep. Equipped with B-17's. Served for a short time as an operational training unit and afterward as a replacement training unit. Assigned to Second and later to Third AF. Inactivated on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 316th: 1942-1944. 317th: 1942-1944. 318th: 1942-1944. 399th: 1942-1944.

89th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 89th Transport Group on 19 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Feb 1942. Assigned to Air Transport Command (later I Troop Carrier Command) in Apr 1942. Redesignated 89th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Provided transition training for pilots, using DC-3's and later C-47's. Began training replacement crews in Mar 1944. Disbanded on 14 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted, allotted to the reserve, and redesignated 89th Troop Carrier Group (Medium), on 10 May 1949. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 10 May 1951.

Redesignated 89th Fighter-Bomber Group and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 24th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 25th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 26th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 27th: 1942. 28th: 1942. 30th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951. 31st: 1942-1944.

90th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 90th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Apr 1942. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Moved to Hawaii in Sep 1942 and assigned to Seventh AF. Completed training, moved to the Southwest Pacific in Nov 1942, and assigned to Fifth AF. Entered combat immediately, and from Nov 1942 to Jan 1945 operated from Australia, New Guinea, and Biak, attacking enemy airfields, troop concentrations, ground installations, and shipping in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Palau, and the southern Philippines. Received a DUC for strikes, conducted through heavy flak and fighter opposition, on Japanese airfields at Wewak, New Guinea, in Sep 1943. Other operations included participation in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea in Mar 1943 and long-range raids on oil refineries at Balikpapan, Borneo, in Sep and Oct 1943. Moved to the Philippines in Jan 1945. Supported ground forces on Luzon, attacked industries on Formosa, and bombed railways, airfields, and harbor facilities on the Asiatic mainland. Moved to Ie Shima in Aug 1945, and after the war flew reconnaissance missions over Japan and ferried Allied prisoners from Okinawa to Manila. Returned to the Philippines in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 27 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 90th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Probably not manned during 1947 and 1948. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 90th Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated on 2 Jan 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 319th: 1942-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 320th: 1942-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 321st: 1942-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 400th: 1942-1946.

91st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 91st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Apr 1942. Trained with B-17's. Moved to England, Aug-Oct 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization throughout the war. Entered combat in Nov 1942 and concentrated its attacks on submarine pens, ship-building yards, harbors, and dock facilities until mid-1943. During this period, also struck airdromes, factories, and communications. Attacked the navy yard at Wilhelmshaven on 27 Jan 1943 when heavy bombers of Eighth AF first penetrated Germany. Received a DUC for bombing marshalling yards at Hamm on 4 Mar 1943 in spite of adverse weather and heavy enemy opposition. From the middle of 1943 until the war ended, engaged chiefly in attacks on aircraft factories, airdromes, and oil facilities. Specific targets included airfields at Villacoublay and Oldenburg, aircraft factories in Oranienburg and Brussels, chemical industries in Leverkusen and Peenemunde, ball-bearing plants in Schweinfurt, and other industries in Ludwigshafen, Berlin, Frankfurt, and Wilhelmshaven. On 11 Jan 1944 organizations of Eighth AF went into central Germany to attack vital aircraft factories; participating in this operation, the 91st group successfully bombed its targets in spite of bad weather, inadequate fighter cover, and severe enemy attack, being awarded a DUC for the performance. Expanding its operations to include interdictory and support missions, the group contributed to the Normandy invasion by bombing gun emplacements and troop concentrations near the beachhead area in Jun 1944; aided the St Lo breakthrough by attacking enemy troop positions, 24-25 Jul 1944; supported troops on the front lines near Caen in Aug 1944; attacked communications near the battle area during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and assisted the push across the Rhine by striking airfields, bridges, and railroads near the front lines in the spring of 1945. Evacuated prisoners from German camps after the war ended. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 91st Reconnaissance Group. Activated on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group in Nov 1948. Used a variety of aircraft, including B-17's and RB-17's, B-29's and RB-29's, and B-50's. Redesignated 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Medium) in Jul 1950. Equipped with RB-45's. Inactivated on 28 May 1952.

Squadrons. 7th Geodetic: 1949-1950. 91st: 1949-1950. 322d: 1942-1945; 1947-1948, 1949-1952. 324th: 1942-1945; 1947-1952. 401st: 1942-1945.

92d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 92nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Mar 1942. Trained with B-17's and performed antisubmarine duty. Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Flew a few combat missions in Sep and Oct 1942, then trained replacement crews. Began bombardment of strategic objectives in May 1943 and engaged primarily in such operations throughout the war. Targets from May 1943 to Feb 1944 included shipyards at Kiel, ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, submarine installations at Wilhelmshaven, a tire plant at Hannover, airfields near Paris, an aircraft factory at Nantes, and a magnesium mine and reducing plant in Norway. Flight Officer John C Morgan, co-pilot, received the Medal of Honor for action aboard a B-17 during a mission over Europe, [26] Jul 1943: when the aircraft was attacked by enemy fighters, the pilot suffered a brain injury which left him in a crazed condition; for two hours Morgan flew in formation with one hand at the controls and the other holding off the struggling pilot who was attempting to fly the plane; finally another crew member was able to relieve the situation and the B-17 made a safe landing at its base. Although handicapped by weather conditions, enemy fire, and insufficient fighter protection, the group bombed aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944 and received a DUC for the mission. Took part in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. After that, attacked V-weapon sites in France; airfields in France, Germany, and the Low Countries; and industrial targets in France, Germany, and Belgium, making concentrated strikes on oil and transportation facilities after Oct 1944. In addition to strategic missions, performed some interdictory and support operations. Assisted the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 by hitting gun emplacements, junctions, and marshalling yards in the beachhead area. Supported ground forces at St Lo during the breakthrough in Jul 1944. Bombed gun positions and bridges to aid the airborne assault on Holland in Sep 1944. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by attacking bridges and marshalling yards in and near the battle area. Bombed airfields near the landing zone to cover the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Moved to France in Jun 1945 and transported troops from Marseilles to Casablanca for return to the US. Inactivated in France on 28 Feb 1946.

Redesignated 92nd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 4 Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Redesignated 92nd Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Temporarily stationed in Japan and attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Served in combat against the communist forces from 12 Jul to 20 Oct 1950. Bombed strategic and interdictory targets, including factories, refineries, iron works, airfields, bridges, tunnels, troop concentrations, barracks, marshalling yards, road junctions, rail lines, supply dumps, docks, and vehicles. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1950. Redesignated 92nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Jun 1951. Converted to B-36 aircraft. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 325th: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 326th: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 327th: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 407th: 1942-1946.

93rd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 93rd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Mar 1942. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Engaged in antisubmarine operations over the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, May-Jul 1942.

Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 9 Oct 1942 by attacking steel and engineering works at Lille. Until Dec 1942, operated primarily against submarine pens in the Bay of Biscay. A large detachment was sent to North Africa in Dec 1942, the group receiving a DUC for operations in that theater, Dec 1941-Feb 1943, when, with inadequate supplies and under the most difficult desert conditions, the detachment struck heavy blows at enemy shipping and communications. The detachment returned to England, Feb-Mar 1943, and until the end of Jun the group bombed engine repair works, harbors, power plants, and other targets in France, the Low Countries, and Germany. A detachment returned to the Mediterranean theater, Jun-Jul 1943, to support the invasion of Sicily and to participate in the famous low-level attack on enemy oil installations at Ploesti on 1 Aug. Having followed another element of the formation along the wrong course to Ploesti, the 93rd hit targets that had been assigned to other groups, but it carried out its bombing of the vital oil installations despite heavy losses inflicted by attacks from the fully-alerted enemy and was awarded a DUC for the operation. Lt Col Addison E Baker, group commander, and Maj John L Jerstad, a former member of the group who had volunteered for this mission, were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for action in the Ploesti raid: refusing to make a forced landing in their damaged B-24, these men, as pilot and co-pilot of the lead plane, led the group to bomb the oil facilities before their plane crashed in the target area. After the detachment returned to England in Aug 1943, the group flew only two missions before the detachment was sent back to the Mediterranean to support Fifth Army at Salerno during the invasion of Italy in Sep 1943. The detachment rejoined the group in Oct 1943, and until Apr 1945 the 93rd concentrated on bombardment of strategic targets such as marshalling yards, aircraft factories, oil refineries, chemical plants, and cities in Germany. In addition it bombed gun emplacements, choke points, and bridges near Cherbourg during the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944; attacked troop concentrations in northern France during the St Lo breakthrough in Jul 1944; transported food, gasoline, water, and other supplies to the Allies advancing across France, Aug-Sep 1944; dropped supplies to airborne troops in Holland on 18 Sep 1944; struck enemy transportation and other targets during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and flew two missions on 24 Mar 1945 during the airborne assault across the Rhine, dropping supplies to troops near Wesel and bombing a night-fighter base at Stormede. Ceased operations in Apr 1945. Returned to the US, May-Jun 1945.

Redesignated 93rd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Jul 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Trained with B-29's. Redesignated 93rd Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Converted to B-50 aircraft in 1949. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 328th: 1942-1952. 329th: 1942-1952. 330th: 1942-1952. 409th: 1942-1946.

94th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 94th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Jun 1942. Trained for duty overseas with B-17's. Moved to England, Apr-May 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Served chiefly as a strategic bombardment organization throughout the war. Flew its first mission on 13 Jun 1943, bombing an airdrome at St Omer. After that, attacked such strategic objectives as the port of St Nazaire, shipyards at Kiel, an aircraft component parts factory at Kassel, a synthetic rubber plant at Hannover, a chemical factory at Ludwigshafen, marshalling yards at Frankfurt, oil facilities at Merseburg, and ball-bearing works at Eberhausen. Withstood repeated assaults by enemy interceptors to bomb an aircraft factory at Regensburg on 17 Aug 1943, being awarded a DUC for the mission. Braving adverse weather, heavy flak, and savage fighter attacks, the group completed a strike against an aircraft parts factory in Brunswick on 11 Jan 1944 and received another DUC for this operation. Took part in the campaign of heavy bombers against the enemy aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Sometimes operated in support of ground forces and flew interdictory missions. Prior to D-Day in Jun 1944, helped to neutralize V-weapon sites, airdromes, and other military installations along the coast of France. On 6 Jun bombed enemy positions in the battle area to support the invasion of Normandy. Struck troops and gun batteries to aid the advance of the Allies at St Lo in Jul and at Brest in Aug. Covered the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Hit marshalling yards, airfields, and strong points near the combat area during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed transportation, communications, and oil targets in the final push over the Rhine and across Germany. After V-E Day, dropped leaflets to displaced persons and German civilians. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 21 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 94th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 29 May 1947. Redesignated 94th Bombardment Group (Light) in Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 20 Mar 1951.

Redesignated 94th Tactical Reconnaissance Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Redesignated 94th Bombardment Group (Tactical) in May 1955.

Squadrons. 331st: 1942-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-. 332d: 1942-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-. 333d: 1942-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-1955. 410th: 1942-1945; 1947-1951.

95th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 95th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Jun 1942. Used B-17's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to England, Mar-May 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 13 May 1943 by attacking an airfield at St Omer. During the next two months, made repeated attacks against V-weapon sites and airfields in France. Began bombing strategic objectives in Germany in Jul 1943 and engaged primarily in such operations until V-E Day. Targets included harbors, industries, marshalling yards, and cities. Received a DUC for maintaining a tight defensive formation in spite of severe assault by enemy fighters and bombing the aircraft assembly plant at Regensburg on 17 Aug 1943. Withstanding concentrated attacks by fighters during the approach to the target and intense antiaircraft fire directly over the objective, the group effectively bombarded marshalling yards at Munster on 10 Oct 1943, being awarded a DUC for the performance. Participated in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Received another DUC for action during an attack by AAF bombers on Berlin on 4 Mar 1944: while many participating organizations, because of weather conditions, either abandoned the operation or struck other targets, the 95th proceeded to Berlin and successfully bombed a suburb of the German capital despite snowstorms, dense clouds, and severe enemy attack. The group interrupted its strategic operations to strike coastal defenses and communications during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; hit enemy troop concentrations and thus assist the Allied breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944; drop ammunition, food, and medical supplies to Polish troops in Warsaw on 18 Sep 1944; attack enemy transportation during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and bomb airdromes in support of the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew its last combat mission, an attack on marshalling yards at Oranienburg, on 20 Apr 1945. Dropped food to the Dutch during the first week in May. After V-E Day, transported liberated prisoners and displaced persons from Austria to France and England. Returned to the US, Jun-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 95th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 29 May 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 334th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 335th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 336th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 412th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

96th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 96th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Jul 1942. Trained with B-17's and also served as an operational training unit. Moved to England, Apr-May 1943, for duty with Eighth AF. Entered combat in May 1943 and functioned primarily as a strategic bombardment organization throughout the war. Attacked shipyards, harbors, railroad yards, airdromes, oil refineries, aircraft factories, and other industrial targets in Germany, France, Holland, Belgium, Norway, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Received a DUC for withstanding severe assault by enemy fighters to bomb the vital aircraft factories at Regensburg on 17 Aug 1943. Received another DUC for leading the 45th Wing a great distance through heavy clouds and intense antiaircraft fire to raid important aircraft component factories in Poland on 9 Apr 1944. Other significant targets included airdromes in Bordeaux and Augsburg; marshalling yards in Kiel, Hamm, Brunswick, and Gdynia; aircraft factories in Chemnitz, Hannover, and Diosgyor; oil refineries in Merseburg and Brux; and chemical works in Weisbaden, Ludwigshafen, and Neunkirchen. In addition to strategic operations, missions included bombing coastal defenses, railway bridges, gun emplacements, and field batteries in the battle area prior to and during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; attacking enemy positions in support of the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944; aiding the campaign in France in Aug by striking roads and road junctions, and by dropping supplies to the Maquis; and attacking, during the early months of 1945, the communications supplying German armies on the western front. After V-E Day, flew food to Holland and hauled redeployed personnel to French Morocco, Ireland, France, and Germany. Returned to the US in Dec. Inactivated on 21 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 96th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 29 May 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 337th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 338th: 1942-1945; 1947. 339th: 1942-1945; 1947. 413th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 546th: 1947-1949. 547th: 1947-1949.

97th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 97th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 3 Feb 1942. Trained with B-17's; also flew some antisubmarine patrols. Moved to England, May-Jul 1942, for duty with Eighth AF. Entered combat on 17 Aug 1942 by bombing a marshalling yard at Rouen, the first mission flown by AAF's heavy bombers based in England. After that, attacked airfields, marshalling yards, industries, naval installations, and other targets in France and the Low Countries. Moved to the Mediterranean theater in Nov 1942, being assigned first to Twelfth and later (Nov 1943) to Fifteenth AF. Struck shipping in the Mediterranean and airfields, clocks, harbors, and marshalling yards in North Africa, southern France, Sardinia, Sicily, and southern Italy, Nov 1942-May 1943, in the campaign to cut supply lines to German forces in North Africa. Helped to force the capitulation of Pantelleria in Jun 1943. Bombed in preparation for and in support of the invasions of Sicily and southern Italy in the summer and fall of 1943. From Nov 1943 to Apr 1945, engaged chiefly in long-range missions to targets in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Greece, attacking oil refineries, aircraft factories, marshalling yards, and other strategic objectives. Received a DUC for leading a strike against an aircraft factory at Steyr on 24 Feb 1944 during Big Week, the intensive air campaign against the German aircraft industry. 2nd Lt David R Kingsley, bombardier, was awarded the Medal of Honor for saving the life of a wounded gunner on 23 Jun 1944: during a mission to Ploesti, Kingsley's B-17 was seriously crippled and the tail gunner was injured; when the crew was ordered to bail out, Kingsley gave his parachute to the gunner, whose own had been damaged, and assisted him in bailing out; Kingsley died a few moments later when his bomber crashed and burned. The group received its second DUC for a devastating raid against one of the Ploesti refineries on 18 Aug 1944. Other operations of the 97th included pounding enemy communications, transportation, and airfields in support of Allied forces at Anzio and Cassino; bombing coastal defenses in preparation for the invasion of Southern France; and assisting US Fifth and British Eighth Army in their advance through the Po Valley. Inactivated in Italy on 29 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 97th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 4 Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped with B-29's. Redesignated 97th Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Converted to B-50's in 1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 340th: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 341st: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 342d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 414th: 1942-1945.

98th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 98th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 3 Feb 1942. Trained with B-24's. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Jul-Aug 1942, and served in that area until the end of the war. Assigned to Ninth AF in Nov 1942, to Twelfth AF in Sep 1943, and to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943. Entered combat in Aug 1942. Bombed shipping and harbor installations in Libya, Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, Crete, and Greece to cut enemy supply lines to Africa. Also hit airdromes and rail facilities in Sicily and Italy. Received a DUC for action against the enemy in the Middle East, North Africa, and Sicily from Aug 1942 to Aug 1943. Awarded another DUC for participation in the low-level assault on oil refineries at Ploesti on 1 Aug 1943: although its target had already been attacked by another group, the 98th proceeded through dense smoke and intense flak to bomb its assigned objective. Col John R Kane, group commander, received the Medal of Honor for leading the 98th to complete this attack despite the hazards of oil fires, delayed-action bombs, and alerted defenses. Afterward the group flew many long-range missions to Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Balkans to bomb such strategic targets as industries, airdromes, harbors, and communications, and engaged primarily in such operations until Apr 1945. 1st Lt Donald D Pucket, one of the group's pilots, was awarded the Medal of Honor for action during a mission against oil refineries at Ploesti on 9 Jul 1944: just after bombing the target, Lt Pucket's plane was crippled by antiaircraft fire and crew members were wounded; he calmed the crew, administered first aid, surveyed the damage, and, realizing it was impossible to reach friendly territory, gave the order to abandon ship; refusing to desert three men who were unable to leave the bomber, Lt Pucket stayed with the plane that a few moments later crashed on a mountainside. In addition to strategic operations, the 98th also flew interdictory and support missions. Aided Allied forces at Anzio and Cassino. Participated in the invasion of Southern France. Assisted the Russian advance in the Balkans. Returned to the US, Apr-May 1945. Redesignated 98th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in May. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Activated on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Trained with B-29's. Redesignated 98th Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Moved to Japan in Aug 1950 and attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Engaged primarily in interdicting enemy communications but also operated in support of UN ground forces. Targets included marshalling yards, oil centers, rail facilities, bridges, roads, troop concentrations, airfields, and military installations. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952 while on temporary duty in Japan.

Squadrons. 343d: 1942-1945; 1947-1952. 344th: 1942-1945; 1947-1952. 345th: 1942-1945; 1947-1952. 415th: 1942-1945.

99th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 99th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Jun 1942. Trained with B-17's. Moved to North Africa, Feb-May 1943, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Entered combat in Mar 1943 and bombed such targets as airdromes, harbor facilities, shipping, railroads, viaducts, and bridges in Tunisia, Sardinia, Sicily, Pantelleria, and Italy until Dec 1943. Received a DUC for performance on 5 Jul 1943 when the group helped to neutralize fighter opposition prior to the invasion of Sicily by penetrating enemy defenses to bomb planes, hangars, fuel supplies, and ammunition dumps at the Gerbini airfield. Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943 and moved to Italy in Dec. Flew long-range missions to attack such strategic objectives as oil refineries, marshalling yards, aircraft factories, and steel plants in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received another DUC for withstanding severe fighter assaults to bomb the vital aircraft factory and facilities at Wiener Neustadt on 23 Apr 1944. Other operations included assisting ground forces at Anzio and Cassino, Feb-Mar 1944; participating in the preinvasion bombing of southern France, Aug 1944; and supporting the Allied offensive in the Po Valley, Apr 1945. Inactivated in Italy on 8 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 99th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 29 May 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 346th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 347th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 348th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 416th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

100th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 100th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Jun 1942. Used B-17's to prepare for duty overseas. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Operated chiefly as a strategic bombardment organization until the war ended. From Jun 1943 to Jan 1944, concentrated its efforts against airfields in France and naval facilities and industries in France and Germany. Received a DUC for seriously disrupting German fighter plane production with an attack on an aircraft factory at Regensburg on 17 Aug 1943. Bombed airfields, industries, marshalling yards, and missile sites in western Europe, Jan-May 1944. Operations in this period included participation in the Allied campaign against enemy aircraft factories during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Completed a series of attacks against Berlin in Mar 1944 and received a DUC for the missions. Beginning in the summer of 1944, oil installations became major targets. In addition to strategic operations, the group engaged in support and interdictory missions, hitting bridges and gun positions in support of the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944; bombing enemy positions at St Lo in Jul and at Brest in Aug and Sep; striking transportation and ground defenses in the drive against the Siegfried Line, Oct-Dec 1944; attacking marshalling yards, defended villages, and communications in the Ardennes sector during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and covering the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for attacking heavily defended installations in Germany and for dropping supplies to French Forces of the Interior, Jun-Dec 1944. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 21 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 100th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 29 May 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 349th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 350th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 351st: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 418th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

301st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 301st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 3 Feb 1942. Trained with B-17's. Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat in Sep 1942 and attacked submarine pens, airfields, railroads, bridges, and other targets on the Continent, primarily in France. Operated with Twelfth AF after moving to North Africa in Nov 1942. Bombed docks, shipping facilities, airdromes, and railroad yards in Tunisia, Sicily, and Sardinia. Attacked enemy shipping between Tunisia and Sicily. Received a DUC for action on 6 Apr 1943 when the group withstood intense antiaircraft fire from shore defenses and nearby vessels to attack a convoy of merchant ships off Bizerte and thus destroy supplies essential to the Axis defense of Tunisia. Assaulted gun positions on Pantelleria during May-Jun 1943. Flew numerous missions to Italy, Jul-Oct 1943. Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943, moved to Italy in Dec, and afterward directed most of its attacks against such strategic targets as oil centers, communications, and industrial areas in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received another DUC for a mission to Germany on 25 Feb 1944 when, in spite of vicious encounters with enemy fighters, the group bombed aircraft production centers at Regensburg. Other operations for the group during 1944-1945 included flying missions in support of ground forces in the Anzio and Cassino areas, supporting the invasion of Southern France, knocking out targets to assist the Russian advance in the Balkans, and aiding the Allied drive through the Po Valley. Returned to the US in July 1945. Redesignated 301st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1945.

Activated on 4 Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped with B-29's. Redesignated 301st Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 32d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 352d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 353d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 354th: 1942. 419th: 1942-1945.

302d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 302nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Jun 1942. Assigned to Second AF, later (Dec 1943) to First AF. Using B-24's, served first as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 10 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 302nd Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Redesignated 302nd Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Jan 1950. Ordered to active duty on 1 Jun 1951. Inactivated on 8 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 302nd Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 355th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 356th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 357th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1952-. 420th: 1942.

303rd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 303rd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 3 Feb 1942. Prepared for combat with B-17's. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat in Nov 1942 and raided targets such as airdromes, railroads, and submarine pens in France until 1943. Began bombardment of industries, marshalling yards, cities, and other strategic objectives in Germany in Jan 1943, and engaged primarily in such operations until V-E Day. Took part in the first penetration into Germany by heavy bombers of Eighth AF by striking the U-boat yard at Wilhelmshaven on 27 Jan 1943. Other targets included ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, shipbuilding yards at Bremen, a synthetic rubber plant at Huls, an aircraft engine factory at Hamburg, industrial areas of Frankfurt, an airdrome at Villacoublay, and a marshalling yard at Le Mans. Flying through intense antiaircraft fire during an attack on Vegesack on 18 Mar 1943, 1st Lt Jack W Mathis, the leading bombardier of his squadron, was knocked from his bombsight; although mortally wounded, he returned to his position and released the bombs; for this action, which ensured an accurate attack against the enemy, Lt Mathis was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. T/Sgt Forrest L Vosler, radio operator and gunner, received the Medal of Honor for a mission to Bremen on 20 Dec 1943: after bombing the target, Sgt Vosler's plane was hit by antiaircraft fire that knocked out two engines, damaged the radio equipment, seriously injured the tail gunner, and wounded Sgt Vosler in the legs and thighs; the burst of another 20-mm shell nearly blinded the sergeant; nevertheless, he maintained a steady stream of fire to protect the tail of the aircraft; when the pilot announced that the plane would ditch, Sgt Vosler, working entirely by touch, repaired the radio and sent out distress signals; after the plane went down in the Channel, the sergeant secured the tail gunner and himself on the wing; Sgt Vosler's radio signals brought help, and the entire crew was rescued. The organization received a DUC for an operation on 11 Jan 1944 when, in spite of continuous attacks by enemy fighters in weather that prevented effective fighter cover from reaching the group, it successfully struck an aircraft assembly plant at Oschersleben. Sometimes the group engaged in support and interdictory missions. Attacked gun emplacements and bridges in the Pas de Calais area during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944. Bombed enemy troops to support the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944. Struck airfields, oil depots, and other targets during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed military installations in the Wesel area to aid the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission, an attach on armament works in Pilsen, on 25 Apr 1945. Moved to French Morocco, May-Jun 1945. Inactivated on 25 Jul 1945.

Redesignated 303rd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. There is no evidence that the group was manned during 1947 and 1948. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 303rd Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated on 4 Sep 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 358th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 359th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 360th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 427th: 1942-1945.

304th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 304th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Jul 1942. Assigned to Second AF. Received personnel in Sep and began training on the west coast. Later, operated with AAF Antisubmarine Command, using such planes as B-17's, B-18's, B-24's, B-34's, and A-20's to fly patrols along the east coast. Also trained crews for duty overseas. Inactivated on 30 Dec 1942.

Squadrons. 1st Antisubmarine (formerly 361st Bombardment): 1942. 18th Antisubmarine (formerly 362nd Bombardment): 1942. 19th Antisubmarine (formerly 363rd Bombardment): 1942. 421st Bombardment: 1942.

305th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 305th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Mar 1942. Trained for duty overseas with B-17's. Moved to England, Aug-Oct 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat on 17 Nov 1942 and operated chiefly as a strategic bombardment organization until Apr 1945. Until mid-1943, attacked such targets as submarine pens, docks, harbors, shipyards, motor works, and marshalling yards in France, Germany, and the Low Countries. Bombed the navy yards at Wilhelmshaven on 27 Jan 1943 when heavy bombers of Eighth AF made their first penetration into Germany. Received a DUC for a mission on 4 Apr 1943 when an industrial target in Paris was bombed with precision in spite of pressing enemy fighter attacks and heavy flak. During the second half of 1943, began deeper penetration into enemy territory to strike heavy industry. Significant objectives included aluminum, magnesium, and nitrate works in Norway, industries in Berlin, oil plants at Merseburg, aircraft factories at Anklam, shipping at Gdynia, and ball-bearing works at Schweinfurt. Received another DUC for withstanding severe opposition to bomb aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944. Participated in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. 1st Lt William R Lawley Jr, and 1st Lt Edward S Michael, pilots, each received the Medal of Honor for similar performances on 20 Feb and 11 Apr 1944, respectively; in each case a B-17 was severely damaged by fighters after it had bombed a target in Germany, crew members were wounded, and the pilot himself was critically injured; recovering in time to pull his aircraft out of a steep dive, and realizing that the wounded men would be unable to bail out, each pilot flew his plane back to England and made a successful crash landing. In addition to bombardment of strategic targets, the group often flew interdictory missions and supported infantry units. Prior to the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944, it helped to neutralize enemy installations such as V-weapon sites, airfields, and repair shops; and on D-Day, 6 Jun, bombed enemy strongholds near the battle area. Attacked enemy positions in advance of ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944. Struck antiaircraft batteries to cover the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep. Took part in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by bombing military installations in the battle zone. Supported the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Sometimes flew missions at night to bomb enemy installations or to drop propaganda leaflets. Flew its last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945. Remained in the theater as part of United States Air Forces in Europe after V-E Day; and, from stations in Belgium and Germany, engaged in photographic mapping missions over parts of Europe and North Africa. Inactivated in Germany on 25 Dec 1946.

Redesignated 305th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Few, if any, personnel were assigned. Inactivated on 6 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 305th Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated on 2 Jan 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 364th: 1942-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 365th: 1942-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 366th: 1942-1946; 1947-1948; 1951-1952. 422d: 1942-1946.

306th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 306th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Mar 1942. Trained for combat with B-17's. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and assigned to Eighth AF. During combat, Oct 1942-Apr 1945, operated primarily against strategic targets, striking locomotive works at Lille, railroad yards at Rouen, submarine pens at Bordeaux, shipbuilding yards at Vegesack, ball-bearing works at Schweinfurt, oil plants at Merseburg, marshalling yards at Stuttgart, a foundry at Hannover, a chemical plant at Ludwigshafen, aircraft factories at Leipzig, and other objectives on the Continent. Took part in the first penetration into Germany by heavy bombers of Eighth AF on 27 Jan 1943 by attacking U-boat yards at Wilhelmshaven. Sgt Maynard H Smith received the Medal of Honor for his performance on 1 May 1943: when the aircraft on which he was a gunner was hit by the enemy and fires were ignited in the radio compartment and waist sections, the sergeant threw exploding ammunition overboard, manned a gun until the German fighters were driven off, administered first aid to the wounded tail gunner, and extinguished the fire. Without fighter escort and in the face of powerful opposition, the 306th completed an assault against aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944, being awarded a DUC for the mission. Received another DUC for action during Big Week, the intensive campaign against the German aircraft industry, 2~25 Feb 1944: although hazardous weather forced supporting elements to abandon the mission, the group effectively bombarded an aircraft assembly plant at Bernberg on 22 Feb. Often supported ground forces and attacked interdictory targets in addition to its strategic operations. Helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by striking airfields and marshalling yards in France, Belgium, and Germany; backed the assault on 6 Jun 1944 by raiding railroad bridges and coastal guns. Assisted ground forces during the St Lo breakthrough in Jul. Covered the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep. Helped stop the advance of German armies in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by attacking airfields and marshalling yards. Bombed enemy positions in support of the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Remained in the theater after V-E Day as part of United States Air Forces in Europe, and engaged in special photographic mapping duty in western Europe and North Africa. Inactivated in Germany on 25 Dec 1946.

Redesignated 306th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated in the US on 1 Jul 1947. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Not manned until Aug 1948. Redesignated 306th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Aug 1948. Equipped with B-29's and later with B-50's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 367th: 1942-1946; 1947-1952. 368th: 1942-1946; 1947-1952. 368th: 1942-1946; 1947-1952. 423d: 1942-1946.

307th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 307th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Apr 1942. Trained and flew patrols off the west coast, first in B-17's and later in B-24's. Moved to Hawaii, Oct-Nov 1942, and assigned to Seventh AF. Trained and flew patrol and search missions. Attacked Wake Island, Dec 1942-Jan 1943, by staging through Midway. Moved to Guadalcanal in Feb 1943 and assigned to Thirteenth AF. Served in combat, primarily in the South and Southwest Pacific, until the war ended. Attacked Japanese airfields, installations, and shipping in the Solomons and Bismarcks. Helped to neutralize enemy bases on Yap and in the Truk and Palau Islands. Received a DUC for an unescorted, daylight attack on heavily defended airfields in the Truk Islands on 29 Mar 1944. Supported operations in the Philippines by striking Japanese shipping in the southern Philippines and by bombing airfields on Leyte, Luzon, Negros, Ceram, and Halmahera. Also took part in Allied air operations against the Netherlands Indies by hitting airfields, shipping, and installations. Received a DUC for an unescorted mission against vital oil refineries at Balikpapan, Borneo, on 3 Oct 1944. Supported Australian forces on Borneo and bombed targets in French Indochina during the last three months of the war. Flew patrol missions along the Asiatic mainland and ferried liberated prisoners from Okinawa to Manila after V-J Day. Returned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 18 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 307th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 4 Aug 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Equipped with B-29's. Trained and developed antisubmarine tactics. Redesignated 307th Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1948. Based temporarily on Okinawa and attached to Far East Air Forces for operations during the Korean War. Attacked strategic objectives in North Korea, Aug-Sep 1950. After that, struck interdictory targets, including communications and supply centers, and supported UN ground forces by hitting gun emplacements and troop concentrations. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 370th: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 371st: 1942-1946; 1946-1952. 372d: 1942-1945; 1946-1952. 424th: 1942-1945.

308th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 308th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Apr 1942. Trained with B-24's. Moved to China early in 1943, with the air echelon flying its planes by way of Africa, and the ground echelon traveling by ship across the Pacific. Assigned to Fourteenth AF. Made many trips over the Hump to India to obtain gasoline, oil, bombs, spare parts, and other items the group needed to prepare for and then to sustain its combat operations. The 308th Group supported Chinese ground forces; attacked airfields, coalyards, docks, oil refineries, and fuel dumps in French Indochina; mined rivers and ports; bombed shops and docks at Rangoon; attacked Japanese shipping in the East China Sea, Formosa Strait, South China Sea, and Gulf of Tonkin. Received a DUC for an unescorted bombing attack, conducted through antiaircraft fire and fighter defenses, against docks and warehouses at Hankow on 21 Aug 1943. Received second DUC for interdiction of Japanese shipping during 1944-1945. Maj Horace S Carswell Jr was awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 26 Oct 1944 when, in spite of intense antiaircraft fire, he attacked a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea; his plane was so badly damaged that when he reached land he ordered the crew to bail out; Carswell, however, remained with the plane to try to save one man who could not jump because his parachute had been ripped by flak; before Carswell could attempt a crash landing, the plane struck a mountainside and burned. The group moved to India in Jun 1945. Ferried gasoline and supplies over the Hump. Sailed for the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 308th Reconnaissance Group (Weather). Activated on 17 Oct 1946. Assigned to Air Weather Service and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 5 Jan 1951.

Redesignated 308th Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated on 10 Oct 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29 aircraft. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 53d: 1946-1947. 59th: 1946-1947. 373d: 1942-1945; 1951-1952. 374th: 1942-1946; 1947-1950; 1951-1952. 375th: 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 425th: 1942-1946. 512th: 1947-1948, 1949. 513th: 1947-1948, 1949-1950.

309th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 309th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Mar 1942. Assigned to Third AF. Trained medium bombardment groups and later trained replacement crews, using B-25 aircraft in both the operational and the replacement training programs. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 309th Troop Carrier Group (Medium), and allotted to the reserve, on 16 May 1949. Activated on 26 Jun 1949. Inactivated on 20 Feb 1951.

Redesignated 309th Troop Carrier Group (Assault, Fixed Wing). Activated on 8 Jul 1955. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Using C-122 and C-123 aircraft, the group trained to airlift troops, equipment, and supplies for assault landings.

Squadrons. 376th: 1942-1944; 1949-1951; 1955-. 377th: 1942-1944; 1949-1950; 1955-. 378th: 1942-1944; 1955-. 426th: 1942-1944.

310th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 310th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Mar 1942. Used B-25's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Oct-Dec 1942, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Engaged primarily in support and interdictory operations in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, and southern France; also flew some missions to Austria and Yugoslavia. Attacked harbors and shipping to help defeat Axis forces in North Africa, Dec 1942 May 1943. Bombed airdromes, landing grounds, and gun emplacements on Pantelleria, Lampedusa, and Sicily, May-Jul 1943. Supported the Allied landing at Salerno, Sep 1943. Assisted the drive toward Rome, Jan-Jun 1944. Supported the invasion of Southern France, Aug 1944. Struck German communications - bridges, rail lines, marshalling yards, viaducts, tunnels, and road junctions - in Italy, Aug 1943-Apr 1945. Also dropped propaganda leaflets behind enemy lines. Received a DUC for a mission to Italy on 27 Aug 1943 when, in spite of persistent attacks by enemy interceptors and antiaircraft artillery, the group effectively bombed marshalling yards at Benevento and also destroyed a number of enemy planes. Received second DUC for another mission in Italy on 10 Mar 1945 when the group, maintaining a compact formation in the face of severe antiaircraft fire, bombed the railroad bridge at Ora, a vital link in the German supply line. Inactivated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 310th Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 379th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 380th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 381st: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 428th: 1942-1945.

311th Fighter Group

Constituted as 311th Bombardment Group (Light) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. Redesignated 311th Bombardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942, 311th Fighter-Bomber Group in Sep 1943, and 311th Fighter Group in May 1944. Trained with V-72 aircraft. Moved to India, via Australia, Jul-Sep 1943. Assigned to Tenth AF. Operating from India and using A-36's and P-51's, the group supported Allied ground forces in northern Burma; covered bombers that attacked Rangoon, Insein, and other targets; bombed enemy airfields at Myitkyina and Bhamo; and conducted patrol and reconnaissance missions to help protect transport planes that flew the Hump route between India and China. Moved to Burma in Jul 1944 and continued to support ground forces, including Merrill's Marauders; also flew numerous sweeps over enemy airfields in central and southern Burma. Moved to China in Aug 1944 and assigned to Fourteenth AF. Escorted bombers, flew interception missions, struck the enemy's communications, and supported ground operations, serving in combat until the end of the war. Ferried P-51's from India for Chinese Air Force in Nov 1945. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 101st Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Maine) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 4 Apr 1947. Ordered to active service on 1 Feb 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 101st Fighter-Interceptor Group in Feb 1951. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Relieved from active service, returned to ANG (Maine), and activated, on 1 Nov 1952. ANG allotment changed in 1954 (withdrawn from Maine on 30 Apr and allotted to Vt on 1 Jun). Extended federal recognition on 1 Jun 1954.

Squadrons. 136th: 1951-1952. 385th: 1942-1943. 528th (formerly 382nd, later 132nd): 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 529th (formerly 383rd, later 133rd): 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 530th (formerly 384th, later 134th): 1942-1946; 1951-1952.

312th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 312th Bombardment Group (Light) on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 15 Mar 1942. Redesignated 312th Bombardment Group (Dive) in Jul 1942. Trained with A-24, A-31, A-36, and P-40 aircraft. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Oct-Dec 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Redesignated 312th Bombardment Group (Light) in Dec 1943. Began operations in New Guinea, flying patrol and escort missions with P-40's. Completed conversion to A-20's in Feb 1944. Until Nov 1944, attacked airfields, troop concentrations, gun positions, bridges, and Warehouses on the northern and western coasts of New Guinea, and also supported amphibious operations on that island and in Palau. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, provided support for ground troops and struck airfields and transportation facilities. Received a DUC for completing eight strikes against butanol plants on Formosa from 25 Mar to 4 Apr 1945. Began transition to B-32's, and made test flights over Luzon and Formosa in Jun 1945. Redesignated 312th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Jul 1945. Moved to Okinawa in Aug 1945 and sailed for the US in Dec. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 312th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 30 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 312th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 1 Oct 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with F-84's. Converted to F-86's in 1955.

Squadrons. 386th: 1942-1945; 1947 1949; 1954-. 387th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949; 1954-. 388th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949; 1954-. 389th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

313th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 313th Transport Group on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. Redesignated 313th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Trained for overseas duty with C-47's and C-53's. Moved to North Africa, Apr-May 1943, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Trained for the invasion of Sicily and entered combat on the night of 9 Jul 1943 by dropping paratroops near Gela. Although attacked by ground and naval forces while carrying reinforcements to Sicily on the night of 11 Jul, the group completed the mission and received a DUC for the performance. Transported supplies and evacuated wounded in the Mediterranean area until late in Aug when the group moved to Sicily for the invasion of Italy. Dropped paratroops of 82d Airborne Division south of Salerno on the night of 13 Sep 1943 and flew a reinforcement mission the following night. Resumed transport activities in the theater until Feb 1944, and then joined Ninth AF in England. Prepared for the invasion of France and on D-Day 1944, released paratroops near Picauville; dropped reinforcements over the same area on 7 Jun, being awarded second DUC for its part in the invasion. Dropped paratroops near Arnheim and Nijmegen on 17 Sep during the airborne attack on Holland and released gliders carrying reinforcements to that area on 18 and 23 Sep. Moved to France, Feb-Mar 1945, and received C-46's for the airborne assault across the Rhine; dropped paratroops of 17th Airborne Division near Wesel on 24 Mar. When not engaged in airborne operations the group evacuated wounded personnel and ex-prisoners of war, and also transported cargo such as ammunition, gasoline, medical supplies, and food until after V-E Day. Returned to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945.

Activated in Austria on 30 Sep 1946. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe and equipped with C-47 and C-54 aircraft. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US on 25 Jun 1947 and assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with gliders and C-82's. Redesignated 313th Troop Carrier Group, (Heavy) in Jul 1948. Moved to Germany, Oct-Nov 1948, and joined United States Air Forces in Europe for participation in the Berlin airlift. Transported cargo such as coal, food, and medicine into West Berlin from Nov 1948 to Sep 1949. Redesignated 313th Troop Carrier Group (Special) in Feb 1949. Inactivated in Germany on 18 Sep 1949.

Redesignated 313th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in the US on 1 Feb 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with C-119's. Inactivated on 8 Jun 1955.

Squadrons. 29th: 1942-1945; 1946-1949; 1953-1955. 47th: 1942-1945; 1946-1949; 1953-1955. 48th: 1942-1945; 1946-1949; 1953-1955. 49th: 1942-1945.

314th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 314th Transport Group on 28 Jan 1942. Activated on 2 Mar 1942. Redesignated 314th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Used C-47's and C-53's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to the Mediterranean theater in May 1943 and assigned to Twelfth AF for participation in two airborne operations. Flew two night missions during the invasion of Sicily in Jul 1943: released paratroops of 82d Airborne Division near Gela on 9 Jul; dropped reinforcements in the area on 11 Jul, receiving a DUC for carrying out this second mission in spite of bad weather and heavy attack by ground and naval forces. Took part in the invasion of Italy by dropping paratroops and supplies near Salerno on 14 and 15 Sep 1943. Moved to England in Feb 1944 for operations with Ninth AF. Trained for the invasion of western Europe. Dropped paratroops in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and flew a resupply and reinforcement mission the following day, receiving a DUC for these operations. Released paratroops over Holland during the airborne attack in Sep and flew follow-up missions to provide reinforcements and supplies. Moved to France, Feb-Mar 1945. Released gliders carrying troops and equipment to the Wesel area on 24 Mar 1945 when the Allies launched the airborne assault across the Rhine. Continually transported freight in the Mediterranean and European theaters, when neither training for, nor participating in airborne operations; hauled supplies such as food, clothing, gasoline, aircraft parts, and ammunition. Also carried wounded personnel to rear-zone hospitals. After V-E Day, evacuated Allied prisoners from Germany, and later made scheduled flights to transport freight and personnel in Europe. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Feb 1946.

Moved to the Canal Zone, Sep-Oct 1946, and assigned to Caribbean Air Command. Operated air terminals in the Panama and Antilles areas, Redesignated 314th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Jun 1948. Returned to the US in Oct 1948 and assigned to Tactical Air Command. Redesignated 314th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Nov 1948. Trained with C-47, C-82, and C-119 aircraft.

Moved to Japan, Aug-Sep 1950, and attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Operated primarily with C-119 aircraft. Transported troops and supplies from Japan to Korea and evacuated wounded personnel. Participated in two major airborne operations: dropped paratroops and equipment over Sunchon in Oct 1950 in support of the UN assault on Pyongyang; dropped paratroops over Munsan-ni during the airborne attack across the 38th Parallel in Mar 1951. Remained in Japan after the armistice to transport supplies to Korea and evacuate prisoners of war.

Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Nov 1954. Manned, and equipped with C-119's. Received an AFOUA for an airborne exercise, Jan-Feb 1955, when the group transported elements of a regimental combat team from Tennessee to Alaska, dropped paratroops over the exercise area, and completed the return airlift.

Squadrons. 20th: 1946-1949. 30th: 1942. 31st: 1942. 32d: 1942-1945. 50th: 1942-1946, 1949-. 61st: 1943-1945, 1949-. 62d: 1943-1946, 1949-. 301st: 1945-1946. 302d: 1945-1946. 321st: 1945-1946, 1955-. 323d: 1945-1946. 334th: 1946-1949.

315th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 315th Transport Group on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 14 Feb. Redesignated 315th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Trained for combat operations with C-47's and C-53's. Departed the US, Oct-Nov 1942, for assignment to Eighth AF in England. Encountering bad weather while flying the North Atlantic route, the air echelon was detained for about a month in Greenland, where it searched for missing aircraft along the east coast and dropped supplies to crews. After the air and ground echelons were united in England in Dec, the group began ferrying cargo in the British Isles and training with airborne troops and gliders. A detachment was sent to Algeria in May 1943, and although not participating in the airborne phase of the invasions of Sicily and Italy, it did support those operations by transporting supplies in the theater. In Mar 1944 the detachment returned to England and rejoined the group, which had been assigned to Ninth AF in Oct 1943. Prepared for the invasion of the Continent, and dropped paratroops near Cherbourg early on D-Day in Jun 1944, receiving a DUC for its action in the Normandy invasion. Dropped paratroops of 82d Airborne Division on 17 Sep 1944 when the Allies launched the air attack on Holland; flew reinforcement missions on succeeding days, landing at Grave on 26 Sep to unload paratroops and supplies. Released British paratroops near Wesel during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Following each airborne operation, the group resumed transport activities, hauling cargo such as medical supplies, signal equipment, rations, and gasoline, and evacuating wounded personnel. Moved to France in Apr 1945. Transported cargo and evacuated prisoners of war until after V-E Day. Moved to Trinidad in May 1945 and assigned to Air Transport Command. Used C-47's to transport troops returning to the US. Inactivated in Trinidad on 31 Jul 1945.

Activated in the US on 19 May 1947. Apparently was not manned. Inactivated on 10 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 315th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in Japan on 10 Jun 1952. Assigned to Far East Air Forces for operations in the Korean War. Used C-46 aircraft to participate in the airlift between Japan and Korea. Transported cargo such as vegetables, clothing, ordnance supplies, and mail; evacuated patients and other personnel. Remained in the theater after the armistice and continued to fly transport missions until 1955. Inactivated in Japan on 18 Jan 1955.

Squadrons. 19th: 1952-1955. 33d: 1942. 34th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-1955. 35th: 1942. 43d: 1942-1945; 1947-1948; 1952-1955. 54th: 1942. 309th: 1944-1945. 310th: 1944-1945. 344th: 1952-1955.

316th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 316th Transport Group on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 14 Feb. Redesignated 316th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Trained with C-47 and C-5 aircraft. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, assigned to Ninth AF, and began operations in Nov 1942. Transported supplies and evacuated casualties in support of the Allied drive across North Africa. In May 1943 began training for the invasion of Sicily; dropped paratroops over the assault area on the night of 9 Jul. Carried reinforcements to Sicily on 11 Jul and received a DUC for carrying out that mission although severely attacked by ground and naval forces. Received another DUC for supporting aerial and ground operations in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Sicily, 25 Nov 1942-25 Aug 1943, by transporting reinforcements and supplies. Assigned to Twelfth AF and moved to Sicily to take part in the invasion of Italy; dropped paratroops over the beachhead south of the Sele River on the night of 14 Sep 1943. Transported cargo in the theater until Feb 1944, then joined Ninth AF in England and prepared for the inyasion of France. Dropped paratroops near Ste-Mere-Eglise on D-Day 1944 and flew a reinforcement mission on 7 Jun, receiving a third DUC for these operations. During the air attack on Holland in Sep 1944, dropped paratroops and released gliders carrying reinforcements. Dropped paratroops near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945 when the Allies made the airborne assault across the Rhine. Also provided transport services in Europe while not engaged in airborne operations. Hauled supplies such as ammunition, gasoline, water, and rations; evacuated wounded personnel to rear-zone hospitals.

Returned to the US in May 1945. Trained with C-82 and C-119 aircraft. Redesignated 316th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1948, 316th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in Oct 1949, and 316th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jan 1950. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Japan on 15 Nov 1954. Assigned to Far East Air Forces, manned, and equipped with C-119's.

Squadrons. 16th: 1950-1954. 36th: 1942-. 37th: 1942-. 38th: 1942. 44th: 1942-1945. 45th: 1942-1945. 75th: 1945-1949, 1952-. 77th: 1945-1946.

317th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 317th Transport Group on 2 Feb 1942 and activated on 22 Feb. Redesignated 317th Troop Carrier Group in Jul 1942. Trained with C-47's. Moved to Australia, Dec 1942-Jan 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Operated in New Guinea for a short time early in 1943. Received a DUC for making numerous flights in unarmed planes over the Owen Stanley Range, 30 Jan-1 Feb 1943, to transport reinforcements and supplies to Wau, New Guinea, where enemy forces were threatening a valuable Allied airdrome. Exchanged its new C-47's for old C-39's C-47's, C-49's, C-60's, B-17's, and LB-30's in New Guinea and began operating from Australia, where the group had maintained its headquarters. Flew troops and equipment to New Guinea, established courier and passenger routes in Australia and trained with airborne troops. Equipped with C-47's and moved to New Guinea in Sep 1943. Took part in the first airborne operation in the Southwest Pacific on 5 Sep, dropping paratroops at Nadzab, New Guinea, to cut supply line and seize enemy bases. Until Nov 1944, transported men and cargo to Allied bases on New Guinea, New Britain, Guadalcanal, and in the Admiralty Islands. Also dropped reinforcements and supplies to US forces on Noemfoor, 3-4 Jul 1944. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, transported supplies to ground forces on Luzon, Leyte, and Mindoro, and supplied guerrillas on Mindanao, Cebu, and Panay. Participated in two airborne operations during Feb 1945: on 3 and 4 Feb dropped paratroops south of Manila to seize highway routes to the city, and on 16 and 17 Feb dropped the 502d Regiment on Corregidor to open Manila Bay to US shipping; received a DUC for the latter operation, performed at low altitude over small drop zones in a heavily defended area. Completed two unusual missions on 12 and 15 Apr 1945 when this troop carrier organization bombed Carabao Island with drums of napalm. Dropped part of 511th Regiment near Aparri on 23 Jun 1945 to split Japanese forces in the Cagayen Valley and prevent a retreat to the hills in northern Luzon. Remained in the theater as part of Far East Air Forces after the war; used C-46 and C-47 aircraft, the latter being replaced in 1947 with C-54's. Flew courier and passenger routes to Japan, Guam, Korea, and the Philippines, and transported freight and personnel in the area. Redesignated 317th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in May 1948. Moved, via the US, to Germany in Sep 1948 and became part of United States Air Forces in Europe for service in the Berlin airlift. Used C-54's to transport coal, food, and other supplies to the blockaded city. Inactivated in Germany on 14 Sep 1949.

Redesignated 317th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in Germany on 14 Jul 1952. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe and equipped with C-119's.

Squadrons. 39th: 1942-1949; 1952-. 40th: 1942-1949; 1952-. 41st: 1942-1949; 1952-. 46th: 1942-1949.

318th Fighter Group

Constituted as 318th Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 2 Feb 1942. Redesignated 318th Fighter Group in May 1942. Activated in Hawaii on 15 Oct 1942. Assigned to Seventh AF. Trained and flew patrols, using P-39, P-40, and P-47 aircraft. Moved to the Marianas in Jun 1944. Supported ground forces on Saipan, Tinian, and Guam; attacked enemy airfields; flew protective patrols over US bases; and, using some P-38's acquired in Nov 1944, flew missions to the Volcano and Truk Islands to escort bombers and to attack Japanese bases. Moved to the Ryukyu Islands in Apr 1945. Used P-47's to bomb and strafe airfields, railroad bridges, and industrial plants in Japan, escort bombers to China, and provide air defense for US bases in the Ryukyus. Assigned to Eighth AF in Aug 1945, shortly after V-J Day. Moved to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 12 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 102d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Mass) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 22 Oct 1946. Redesignated 102d Fighter-Interceptor Group in Aug 1952.

Squadrons. 19th: 1943-1946. 44th: 1942-1943. 72d: 1942-1944. 73d: 1942-1946. 333d: 1943-1946.

319th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 319th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942 and activated on 26 Jun. Trained with B-26's. Moved via England to the Mediterranean theater, Aug-Nov 1942, with part of the group landing at Arzeu beach during the invasion of North Africa on 8 Nov. Operated with Twelfth AF until Jan 1945, except for a brief assignment to Fifteenth, Nov 1943-Jan 1944. Began combat in Nov 1942, attacking airdromes, harbors, rail facilities, and other targets in Tunisia until Feb 1943. Also struck enemy shipping to prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching the enemy in North Africa. After a period of reorganization and training, Feb-Jun 1943, the group resumed combat and participated in the reduction of Pantelleria and the campaign for Sicily. Directed most of its attacks against targets in Italy after the fall of Sicily in Aug 1943. Hit bridges, airdromes, marshalling yards, viaducts, gun sites, defense positions, and other objectives. Supported forces at Salerno in Sep 1943 and at Anzio and Cassino during Jan-Mar 1944. Carried out interdictory operations in central Italy to aid the advance to Rome, being awarded a DUC for a mission on 3 Mar 1944 when the group, carefully avoiding religious and cultural monuments, bombed rail facilities in the capital. Received another DUC for striking marshalling yards in Florence on 11 Mar 1944 to disrupt rail communications between that city and Rome. Received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for action in preparation for and in support of the Allied offensive in Italy, Apr-Jun 1944. From Jul to Dec 1944, bombed bridges in the Po Valley, supported the invasion of Southern France, hit targets in northern Italy, and flew some missions to Yugoslavia, converting in the meantime, in Nov, to B-25 aircraft. Returned to the US in Jan 1945. Redesignated 319th Bombardment Group (Light) in Feb. Trained with A-26 aircraft. Moved to Okinawa, Apr-Jul 1945, and assigned to Seventh AF. Flew missions to Japan and China, attacking airdromes, shipping, marshalling yards, industrial centers, and other objectives. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 18 Dec 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 2 Sep 1949.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 10 Oct 1949. Ordered to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 22 Mar 1951.

Redesignated 319th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 18 May 1955.

Squadrons. 46th: 1947-1949; 1949-1951; 1955-. 50th: 1947-1949; 1949-1951. 51st: 1947-1949; 1949-1951. 59th: 1947-1949; 1949-1951. 437th: 1942-1945. 438th: 1942-1945. 439th: 1942-1945. 440th: 1942-1945.

320th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 320th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942 and activated on 23 Jun. Trained with B-26 aircraft. Most of the group moved to North Africa via England, Aug-Dec 1942; crews flew their planes over the South Atlantic route and arrived in North Africa, Dec 1942-Jan 1943. Began combat with Twelfth AF in Apr 1943 and operated from bases in Algeria, Tunisia, Sardinia, and Corsica until Nov 1944. During the period Apr-Jul 1943, flew missions against enemy shipping in the approaches to Tunisia, attacked installations in Sardinia, participated in the reduction of Pantelleria, and supported the invasion of Sicily. Then bombed marshalling yards, bridges, airdromes, road junctions, viaducts, harbors, fuel dumps, defense positions, and other targets in Italy. Supported forces at Salerno and knocked out targets to aid the seizure of Naples and the crossing of the Volturno River. Flew missions to Anzio and Cassino and engaged in interdictory operations in central Italy in preparation for the advance toward Rome. Received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for action in preparation for and in support of Allied offensive operations in central Italy, Apr-Jun 1944. Received a DUC for a mission on 12 May 1944 when, in the face of an intense antiaircraft barrage, the group bombed enemy troop concentrations near Fondi in support of Fifth Army's advance toward Rome. From Jun to Nov 1944 operations included interdictory missions in the Po Valley, support for the invasion of Southern France, and attacks on enemy communications in northern Italy. Moved to France in Nov 1944 and bombed bridges, rail lines, gun positions, barracks, supply points, ammunition dumps, and other targets in France and Germany until V-E Day. Received a DUC for operations on 15 Mar 1945 when the group bombed pillboxes, trenches, weapon pits, and roads within the Siegfried Line to enable a breakthrough by Seventh Army. Moved to Germany in Jun 1945 and participated in the disarmament program. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec. Inactivated on 4 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 320th Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 9 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 441st: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 442d: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 443d: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 444th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

321st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 321st Bombardment Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942 and activated on 26 Jun. Prepared for overseas duty with B-25's. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Jan-Mar 1943, and assigned to Twelfth AF. Engaged primarily in support and interdictory operations, bombing marshalling yards, rail lines, highways, bridges, viaducts, troop concentrations, gun emplacements, shipping, harbors, and other objectives in North Africa, France, Sicily, Italy, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Sometimes dropped propaganda leaflets behind enemy lines. Took part in the Allied operations against Axis forces in North Africa during Mar-May 1943, the reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun, the invasion of Sicily in Jul, the landing at Salerno in Sep, the Allied advance toward Rome during Jan-Jun 1944, the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, and the Allied operations in northern Italy from Sep 1944 to Apr 1945. Received twc DUC's: for completing a raid on an air drome near Athens, 8 Oct 1943, in spite of intense flak and attacks by numerous enemy interceptors; and for bombing a battleship, a cruiser, and a submarine in Toulon harbor on 18 Aug 1944 to assist the Allied invasion of Southern France. Inactivated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 321st Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 29 Jun 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 445th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 446th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 447th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 448th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

322d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 322d Bombardment Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942. Activated on 17 Jul 1942. Trained with B-26 aircraft. Part of the group moved overseas, Nov-Dec 1942; planes and crews followed, Mar-Apr 1943. Operated with Eighth AF until assignment to Ninth in Oct 1943. Served in combat, May 1943-Apr 1945, operating from England, France, and Belgium. Began combat on 14 May when it dispatched 12 planes for a minimum-level attack on a power plant in Holland. Sent 11 planes on a similar mission three days later: one returned early; the others, with 60 crewmen, were lost to flak and interceptors. Trained for medium-altitude operations for several weeks and resumed combat on 17 Jul 1943. Received a DUC for the period 14 May 1943-24 Jul 1944, during which its combat performance helped to prove the effectiveness of the medium bombers. Enemy airfields in France, Belgium, and Holland provided the principal targets from Jul 1943 through Feb 1944, but the group also attacked power stations, shipyards, construction works, marshalling yards, and other targets. Beginning in Mar the 322d bombed railroad and highway bridges, oil tanks, and missile sites in preparation for the invasion of Normandy; on 6 Jun 1944 it hit coastal defenses and gun batteries; afterward, during the Normandy campaign, it pounded fuel and ammunition dumps, bridges, and road junctions. Supported the Allied offensive at Caen and the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Aided the drive of Third Army across France in Aug and Sep. Bombed bridges, road junctions, defended villages, and ordnance depots in the assault on the Siegfried Line, Oct-Dec 1944. Flew a number of missions against railroad bridges during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Then concentrated on communications, marshalling yards, bridges, and fuel dumps until its last mission on 24 Apr 1945. Moved to Germany in Jun 1945. Engaged in inventorying and disassembling German Air Force equipment and facilities. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 15 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 322d Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 9 Aug 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 322d Fighter-Day Group. Activated on 1 Jul 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped first with F-86 and later with F-100 aircraft.

Squadrons. 35th: 1947-1949. 449th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 450th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1954-. 451st: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1954-. 452d: 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1954-.

323d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 323d Bombardment Group (Medium) on 19 Jun 1942. Activated on 4 Aug 1942. Trained with B-26's. Moved to England, Apr-Jun 1943. Assigned first to Eighth AF and, in Oct 1943, to Ninth AF. Began operations in Jul 1943, attacking marshalling yards, air dromes, industrial plants, military installations, and other targets in France, Belgium, and Holland. Then carried out numerous attacks on V-weapon sites along the coast of France. Attacked airfields at Leeuwarden and Venlo in conjunction with the Allied campaign against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by bombing coastal defenses, marshalling yards, and airfields in France; struck roads and coastal batteries on 6 Jun 1944. Participated in the aerial barrage that assisted the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Flew its first night mission after moving to the Continent in Aug, striking enemy batteries in the region of St Malo. Carried out other night missions during the month to hit fuel and ammunition dumps. Eliminated strong points at Brest early in Sep and then shifted operations to eastern France to support advances against the Siegfried Line. Received a DUC for actions (24-27 Dec 1944) during the Battle of the Bulge when the group effectively hit transportation installations used by the enemy to bring reinforcements to the Ardennes. Flew interdictory missions into the Ruhr and supported the drive into Germany by attacking enemy communications. Ended combat in Apr 1945 and moved to Germany in May to participate in the disarmament program. Returned to the US in Dec. Inactivated on 12 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 323d Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 9 Sep 1947. Ordered to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 17 Mar 1951.

Redesignated 323d Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 8 Aug 1955. Assigned to Tactical Air Command.

Squadrons. 453d: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 1955-. 454th: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 1955-. 455th: 1942-1945; 1949-1951; 1955-. 456th: 1942-1945; 1947-1951.

324th Fighter Group

Constituted as 324th Fighter Group on 24 Jun 1942. Activated on 6 Jul 1942. Moved to the Middle East, Oct-Dec 1942, for operations with Ninth AF. Trained for several weeks with P-40 aircraft. While headquarters remained in Egypt, squadrons of the group began operating with other organizations against the enemy in Tunisia. Reunited in Jun 1943, the 324th group engaged primarily in escort and patrol missions between Tunisia and Sicily until Jul 1943. Received a DUC for action against the enemy from Mar 1943 to the invasion of Sicily. Trained during Jul-Oct 1943 for operations with Twelfth AF. Resumed combat on 30 Oct 1943 and directed most of its attacks against roads, bridges, motor transports, supply areas, rolling stock, gun positions, troop concentrations, and rail facilities in Italy until Aug 1944. Patrolled the beach and protected convoys during the assault on Anzio in Jan 1944. Aided the Allied offensive in Italy during May 1944, receiving another DUC for action from 12 to 14 May when the group bombed an enemy position on Monastery Hill (Cassino), attacked troops massing on the hill for counterattack, and hit a nearby stronghold to force the surrender of an enemy garrison. Continued to give close support to ground forces until the fall of Rome in Jun 1944. Converted to P-47's in Jul and supported the assault on southern France in Aug by dive-bombing gun position, bridges, and radar facilities, and by patrolling the combat zone. Attacked such targets as motor transports, rolling stock, rail lines, troops, bridges, gun emplacements, and supply depots after the invasion, giving tactical support to Allied forces advancing through France. Aided the reduction of the Colmar bridgehead Jan-Feb 1945, and supported Seventh Army's drive through the Siegfried defenses in Mar. Received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for supporting French forces during the campaigns for Italy and France, 1944-1945. Moved to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on Nov 1945.

Redesignated 103d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Conn) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 7 Aug 1946. Ordered to active duty on 1 Mar 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 103d Fighter-Interceptor Group in Mar 1951. Used F-47 aircraft. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Returned to the control of ANG (Conn) on 1 Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 118th: 1951-1952. 314th: 1942-1945. 315th: 1942-1945. 316th: 1942-1945.

325th Fighter Group

Constituted as 325th Fighter Group 01 24 Jun 1942. Activated on 3 Aug 1942. Trained with P-40's. Moved to North Africa during Jan-Feb 1943. Assigned to Twelfth AF. Entered combat on 17 Apr. Escorted medium bombers, flew strafing missions, and made sea sweeps from bases in Algeria and Tunisia. Participated in the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia, the reduction of Pantelleria, and the conquest of Sicily. Received a DUC for action over Sardinia on 30 Jul 1943 when the group, using diversionary tactics, forced a superior number of enemy planes into the air and destroyed more than half of them. Flew no combat missions from the end of Sep to mid-Dec 1943, a period in which the group changed aircraft and moved to Italy. Began operations with Fifteenth AF on 14 Dec, and afterward engaged primarily in escort operations, using P-47's until they were replaced by P-51's in May 1944. Escorted heavy bombers during long-range missions to attack the Messerschmitt factory at Regensburg, the Daimler-Benz tank factory at Berlin, oil refineries at Vienna, and other targets, such as airfields, marshalling yards, and communications in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, and Yugoslavia. Also covered operations of reconnaissance aircraft and strafed such targets as trains, vehicles, and airfields. Received second DUC for a mission on 30 Jan 1944 when the group flew more than 300 miles at very low altitude to surprise the enemy fighters that were defending German airdromes near Villaorba; by severely damaging the enemy's force, the 325th group enabled heavy bombers to strike vital targets in the area without encountering serious opposition. Continued combat operations until May 1945. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 28 Oct 1945.

Activated on 21 May 1947. Organized as an all-weather fighter group. Redesignated 325th Fighter Group (All Weather) in May 1498, and 325th Fighter-Interceptor Group in May 1951. Equipped with P-61's in 1947, F-82's in 1948, and F-94's in 1950. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952.

Redesignated 325th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 317th: 1942-1945; 1947-1952; 1955-. 318th: 1942-1945; 1947-1952; 1955-. 319th: 1942-1945; 1947-1952.

326th Fighter Group

Constituted as 326th Fighter Group on 24 Jun 1942. Activated on 19 Aug 1942. Assigned to First AF. Became part of the air defense force and also served as an operational training unit. Later became a replacement training unit, preparing pilots for combat duty in P-47's. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 326th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 320th: 1942-1943. 321st: 1942-1944; 1955-. 322d: 1942-1944. 442d: 1943. 538th: 1943-1944. 539th: 1943-1944.

327th Fighter Group

Constituted as 327th Fighter Group on 24 Jun 1942. Activated on 25 Aug 1942. Assigned to First AF. Became part of the air defense force and also served as an operational training unit, using P-40's until Feb 1943 when they were replaced by P-47's. In 1944 began training replacement pilots for combat duty. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 327th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 323d: 1942-1944; 1955-. 324th: 1942-1944. 325th: 1942-1944; 1955-. 443d: 1943-1944.

328th Fighter Group

Constituted as 328th Fighter Group 0 24 Jun 1942. Activated on 10 Jul 1942. Assigned to Fourth AF. Served as part of the air defense force and also trained replacement pilots in P-39 aircraft. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 328th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 326th: 1942-1944; 1955-. 327th: 1942-1944. 329th: 1942-1944. 444th: 1943-1944.

329th Fighter Group

Constituted as 329th Fighter Group on 24 Jun 1942. Activated on 10 Jul 1942. Assigned to Fourth AF. Used P-38's to train replacement pilots. Also provided cadres for fighter groups. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 329th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 330th: 1942-1944; 1955-. 331st: 1942-1944; 1955-. 332d: 1942-1944. 337th: 1942-1944.

330th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 330th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 1 Jul 1942 and activated on 6 Jul. Assigned to Second AF. Functioned as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit, using B-24 aircraft. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 330th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 1 Apr 1944. Prepared for combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Jan-Apr 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 12 Apr 1945 with an attack on the Hodogaya chemical plant at Koriyama, Japan. From Apr to May 1945, struck airfields from which the Japanese were launching suicide planes against the invasion force at Okinawa. After that, operations were principally concerned with incendiary attacks against urban-industrial areas of Japan. Received a DUC for incendiary raids on the industrial sections of Tokushima and Gifu and for a strike against the hydroelectric power center at Kofu, Japan, in Jul 1945. Received another DUC for attacking the Nakajima-Musashino aircraft engine plant near Tokyo in Aug 1945. Dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners and participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan after the war. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 3 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 330th Bombardment Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 330th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Inactivated on 14 Jul 1952.

Squadrons. 457th: 1942-1944; 1944-1945; 1949-1951; 1952. 458th: 1942-1944; 1944-1945; 1952. 459th: 1942-1944; 1944-1945; 1952. 460th: 1942-1944; 1944.

331st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 331st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 1 Jul 1942 and activated on 6 Jul. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's and B-24's for duty as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 331st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 12 Jul 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Apr-Jun 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Bombed Japanese-held Truk late in Jun 1945. Flew first mission against the Japanese home islands on 9 Jul 1945 and afterward operated principally against the enemy's petroleum industry on Honshu. Despite the hazards of bad weather, fighter attacks, and heavy flak, the 331st bombed the coal liquefaction plant at Ube, the Mitsubishi-Hayama petroleum complex at Kawasaki, and the oil refinery and storage facilities at Shimotsu, in Jul 1945, and received a DUC for the missions. After the war the group dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners of war in Japan. Inactivated on Guam on 15 Apr 1946.

Squadrons. 355th: 1944-1946. 356th: 1944-1946. 357th: 1944-1946. 461st: 1942-1944. 462d: 1942-1944. 463d: 1942-1944. 464th: 1942-1944.

332d Fighter Group

Constituted as 332d Fighter Group on 4 Jul 1942. Activated on 13 Oct 1942. Trained with P-39 and P-40 aircraft. Moved to Italy, arriving early in Feb 1944. Began operations with Twelfth AF on 5 Feb. Used P-39's to escort convoys, protect harbors, and fly armed reconnaissance missions. Converted to P-47's during Apr-May and changed to P-51's in Jun. Operated with Fifteenth AF from May 1944 to Apr 1945, being engaged primarily in protecting bombers that struck such objectives as oil refineries, factories, airfields, and marshalling yards in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Also made strafing attacks on airdromes, railroads, highways, bridges, river traffic, troop concentrations, radar facilities, power stations, and other targets. Received a DUC for a mission on 24 Mar 1945 when the group escorted B-17's during a raid on a tank factory at Berlin, fought the interceptors that attacked the formation, and strafed transportation facilities while flying back to the base in Italy. Returned to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 19 Oct 1945.

Activated on 1 Jul 1947. Equipped with P-47's. Inactivated on 1 Jul 1949.

Squadrons. 99th: 1944-1945; 1947-1949. 100th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 301st: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 302d: 1942-1945.

333d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 333d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 9 Jul 1942 and activated on 15 Jul. Assigned to Second AF and equipped with B-17's. Served first as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 333d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 7 Jul 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Trained for combat with B-29 aircraft. Moved to the Pacific theater, Jun-Aug 1945, and assigned to Eighth AF. AAF operations against Japan terminated before the group could enter combat. For a time after the war the group ferried Allied prisoners of war from Japan to the Philippine Islands. Inactivated on Okinawa on 28 May 1946.

Squadrons. 435th: 1944-1946. 460th: 1944-1946. 466th: 1942-1944. 467th: 1942-1944. 468th: 1942-1944. 469th: 1942-1944. 507th: 1944-1946.

334th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 334th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 9 Jul 1942 and activated on 16 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. Equipped with B-25's. Trained replacement crews for combat. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 470th: 1942-1944. 471st: 1942-1944. 472d: 1942-1944. 473d: 1942-1944.

335th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 335th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 9 Jul 1942 and activated on 17 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. Equipped with B-26's. Served as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 474th: 1942-1944. 475th: 1942-1944. 476th: 1942-1944. 477th: 1942-1944.

336th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 336th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 9 Jul 1942 and activated on 15 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. Served as a replacement training unit for B-26 crews. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 478th: 1942-1944. 479th: 1942-1944. 480th: 1942-1944. 481st: 1942-1944.

337th Fighter Group

Constituted as 337th Fighter Group on 16 Jul 1942 and activated on 23 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. Equipped with variety of aircraft, primarily P-40's (1942-1943) and P-51's (1944). Trained replacement crews for duty overseas. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 337th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 20 Jun 1955. Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 98th: 1942-1944. 303rd 1942-1944. 304th: 1942-1944. 440th: 1943-1944. 460th: 1955-.

338th Fighter Group

Constituted as 338th Fighter Group on 16 Jul 1942 and activated on 22 Jul. Assigned to Third AF. Trained replacement crews, using a variety of aircraft (P-39's, P-40's, P-47's, and P-51's) during the first year and P-47's after Sep 1943. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 338th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy), and allotted to the reserve, on 5 May 1947. Activated on 12 Jun 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 42d: 1947-1949. 305th. 1942-1944. 306th: 1942-1944. 312th: 1942-1944. 441st: 1943-1944. 560th: 1947-1949. 561st: 1947-1949. 562d: 1947-1949. 563d: 1947-1949.

339th Fighter Group

Constituted as 339th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 3 Aug 1942 and activated on 10 Aug. Equipped with A-24's and A-25's; converted to P-39's in Jul 1943. Redesignated 339th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Trained and participated in maneuvers. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Eighth AF and equipped with P-51's. Began operations with a fighter sweep on 30 Apr. Redesignated 339th Fighter Group in May 1944. Engaged primarily in escort duties during its first five weeks of operations, and afterwards flew many escort missions to cover the operations of medium and heavy bombers that struck strategic objectives, interdicted the enemy's communications, or supported operations on the ground. Frequently strafed airdromes and other targets of opportunity while on escort missions. Received a DUC for operations on 10 and 11 Sep 1944. On the first of those days, when it escorted bombers to a target in Germany and then attacked an airdrome near Erding, the group destroyed or damaged many enemy planes despite the intense fire it encountered from antiaircraft guns and small arms. The following day the bomber formation being escorted to Munich was attacked by enemy fighters, but members of the 339th group destroyed a number of the interceptors and drove off the others; at the same time, other members of the 339th were attacking an airdrome near Karlsruhe, where they encountered heavy fire but were able to destroy or damage many of the aircraft parked on the field. The group provided fighter cover over the Channel and the coast of Normandy during the invasion of France in Jun 1944. Strafed and dive-bombed vehicles, locomotives, marshalling yards, antiaircraft batteries, and troops while Allied forces fought to break out of the beachhead in France. Attacked transportation targets as Allied armies drove across France after the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Flew area patrols during the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Escorted bombers to, and flew patrols over the battle area during the German counterattack in the Ardennes (Battle of the Bulge), Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Provided area patrols during the assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Among all these varied activities, the outstanding feature of this group's combat record is the large number of enemy aircraft it destroyed in the air or on the ground during its one year of operations. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 18 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 107th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (NY) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 8 Dec 1948. Redesignated 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Sep 1952.

Squadrons. 485th: 1942-1943. 503d (formerly 482d): 1942-1945. 504th (formerly 483d): 1942-1945. 505th (formerly 484th): 1942-1945.

340th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 340th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 10 Aug 1942 and activated on 20 Aug. Trained with B-25's for duty overseas. Arrived in the Mediterranean theater in Mar 1943. Assigned first to Ninth AF and later (in Aug 1943) to Twelfth. Served in combat from Apr 1943 to Apr 1945. Engaged chiefly in support and interdictory missions, but sometimes bombed strategic objectives. Targets included airfields, railroads, bridges, road junctions, supply depots, gun emplacements, troop concentrations, marshalling yards, and factories in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, France, Austria, Bulgaria, Albania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Also dropped propaganda leaflets behind enemy lines. Participated in the reduction of Pantelleria and Lampedusa in Jun 1943, the bombing of German evacuation beaches near Messina in Jul, the establishment of the Salerno beachhead in Sep, the drive for Rome during Jan-Jun 1944, the invasion of Southern France in Aug, and attacks on the Brenner Pass and other German lines of communication in northern Italy from Sep 1944 to Apr 1945. Received a DUC for the period Apr-Aug 1943 when, although handicapped by difficult living conditions and unfavorable weather, the group supported British Eighth Army in Tunisia and Allied forces in Sicily. Received second DUC for the destruction of a cruiser in the heavily defended harbor of La Spezia on 23 Sep 1944 before the ship could be used by the enemy to block the harbor's entrance. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 340th Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 31 Oct 1947. Inactivated on 19 Aug 1949.

Squadrons. 486th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 487th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 488th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 489th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

341st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 341st Bombardment Group (Medium) on 14 Aug 1942. Activated in India on 15 Sep 1942. Equipped with B-25's. Entered combat early in 1943 and operated chiefly against enemy transportation in central Burma until 1944. Bombed bridges, locomotives, railroad yards, and other targets to delay movement of supplies to the Japanese troops fighting in northern Burma. Moved to China in Jan 1944. Engaged primarily in sea sweeps and attacks against inland shipping. Also bombed and strafed such targets as trains, harbors, and railroads in French Indochina and the Canton-Hong Kong area of China. Received a DUC for developing and using a special (glip) bombing technique against enemy bridges in French Indochina. Moved to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 2 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 341st Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Dec 1946. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 10th: 1947-1949. 11th: 1942-1945. 12th: 1947-1949. 22d: 1942-1945. 490th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 491st: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

342d Composite Group

Constituted as 342d Composite Group on 29 Aug 1942. Activated on 11 Sep 1942 in Iceland. Equipped with P-38's, P-39's, P-40's, and a B-18, the group served as part of the island's defense force, intercepting and destroying some of the German planes that on occasion attempted to attack Iceland or that appeared in that area on reconnaissance missions. Also conducted antisubmarine patrols in the North Atlantic and provided cover for convoys on the run to Murmansk. Disbanded on 18 Mar 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 342d Fighter-Day Group, on 7 May 1956. Activated on 25 Jul 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air Command.

Squadrons. 33d Fighter: 1942-1944; 1956-. 50th Fighter: 1942-1944. 337th Fighter: 1942. 572d: 1956-. 573d: 1956-.

343d Fighter Group

Constituted as 343d Fighter Group on 3 Sep 1942 and activated in Alaska on 11 Sep. Assigned to Eleventh AF. Began operations immediately. Provided air defense for the Aleutians; bombed and strafed Japanese camps, antiaircraft emplacements, hangars, and radio stations on Kiska; escorted bombers that struck enemy airfields, harbor facilities, and shipping. Flew its last combat mission in Oct 1943, but carried out patrol and reconnaissance assignments in the area until the end of the war. Later trained, carried mail, and served as part of the defense force for Alaska. Used P-38's and P-40's, and later (1946) P-51's. Inactivated in Alaska on 15 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 343d Fighter Group (Air Defense) on 20 Jun 1955. Activated in the US on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-89's.

Squadrons. 11th: 1942-1946; 1955-. 18th: 1942-1946. 54th: 1942-1946. 344th: 1942-1946.

344th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 344th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 31 Aug 1942. Activated on 8 Sep 1942. Equipped with B-26's and served as a replacement training unit. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944. Began operations with Ninth AF in Mar, attacking airfields, missile sites, marshalling yards, submarine shelters, coastal defenses, and other targets in France, Belgium, and Holland. Beginning in May, helped prepare for the Normandy invasion by striking vital bridges in France. On D-Day 1944 attacked coastal batteries at Cherbourg; during the remainder of Jun, supported the drive that resulted in the seizure of the Cotentin Peninsula. Bombed defended positions to assist British forces in the area of Caen. Received a DUC for three-day action against the enemy, 24-26 Jul 1944, when the group struck troop concentrations, supply dumps, a bridge, and a railroad viaduct to assist advancing ground forces at St Lo. Knocked out bridges to hinder the enemy's withdrawal through the Falaise gap, and bombed vessels and strong points at Brest, Aug-Sep 1944. Attacked bridges, rail lines, fortified areas, supply dumps, and ordnance depots in Germany, Oct-Nov 1944. Supported Allied forces during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, and continued to strike such targets as supply points, communications centers, bridges, marshalling yards, roads, and oil storage tanks until Apr 1945. Made training flights and participated in air demonstrations after the war. Moved to Germany in Sep 1945 and, as part of United States Air Forces in Europe, served with the army of occupation. Began training in A-26 but continued to use B-26 aircraft. Redesignated 344th Bombardment Group (Light) in Dec 1945. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US on 15 Feb 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Redesignated 126th Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to ANG (Ill) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 29 Jun 1947. Redesignated 126th Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 126th Bombardment Group (Light) in Feb 1951. Ordered to active service on 1 Apr 1951 and assigned to Tactical Air Command. Moved to France, Nov-Dec 1951, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Used B-26's for training and maneuvers. Relieved from active duty and transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the control of ANG (Ill), on 1 Jan 1953. Redesignated 126th Fighter-Bomber Group.

Squadrons. 108th: 1951-1953. 115th: 1951. 168th: 1951-1953. 180th: 1951-1953. 494th: 1942-1946. 495th: 1942-1946. 496th: 1942-1946. 497th: 1942-1945.

345th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 345th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 3 Sep 1942 and activated on 8 Sep. Trained for overseas duty with B-25's. Moved to New Guinea, via Australia, Apr-Jun 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Entered combat on 30 Jun 1943. Operations until Jul 1944 included bombing and strafing Japanese airfields and installations in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; attacking shipping in the McCluer Gulf, Ceram Sea, and Bismarck Sea; supporting ground forces in the Admiralties; dropping supplies to ground troops; and flying courier and reconnaissance missions in the area. Received a DUC for a series of attacks against flak positions, shore installations, and barracks at Rabaul, New Britain, on 2 Nov 1943. Operated from Biak, Jul-Nov 1944, striking airfields and shipping in the southern Philippines and the Celebes. In Nov 1944 moved to the Philippines where targets included Japanese airfields and communications on Luzon, industries and communications on Formosa, and shipping along the China coast. After moving to Ie Shima in Jul 1945, flew some missions over Kyushu and the Sea of Japan. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 29 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 345th Bombardment Group (Tactical). Activated on 19 Jul 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with B-26's and later with B-57's.

Squadrons. 498th: 1942-1945; 1954-. 499th: 1942-1945; 1954-. 500th: 1942-1945; 1954-. 501st: 1942-1945.

346th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 346th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 3 Sep 1942 and activated on 7 Sep. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's and B-24's. Served first as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 346th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 8 Aug 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Prepared for combat with B-29's. Moved to the Pacific theater, Jun-Aug 1945, and assigned to Eighth AF. The war ended before the group could begin combat operations. After the war the group participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan and for a time ferried Allied prisoners of war from Okinawa to the Philippine Islands. Inactivated on Okinawa on 30 Jun 1946.

Squadrons. 461st: 1944-1946. 462d: 1944-1946. 463d: 1944-1946. 502d: 1942-1944. 503d: 1942-1944. 504th: 1942-1944. 505th: 1942-1944.

347th Fighter Group

Constituted as 347th Fighter Group on 29 Sep 1942. Activated in New Caledonia on 3 Oct 1942. Detachments of the group, which was assigned to Thirteenth AF in Jan 1943, were sent to Guadalcanal, where they used P-39 and P-400 aircraft to fly protective patrols, support ground forces, and attack Japanese shipping. When the Allied campaign to recover the central and northern Solomons began in Feb 1943, the detachments, still operating from Guadalcanal and using P-38 and P-39 aircraft, escorted bombers and attacked enemy bases on New Georgia, the Russell Islands and Bougainville. Headquarters moved up from New Caledonia at the end of 1943; and the following month the group moved from Guadalcanal to Stirling Island to support ground forces on Bougainville, assist in neutralizing enemy bases at Rabaul, and fly patrol and search missions in the northern Solomons. Moved to New Guinea in Aug 1944. Equipped completely with P-38's. Escorted bombers to oil refineries on Borneo; bombed and strafed airfields and installations on Ceram, Amboina, Boeroe, Celebes, and Halmahera. Received a DUC for a series of long-range bombing and strafing raids, conducted through intense flak and fighter defense, on the airfield and shipping at Makassar, Celebes, in Nov 1944. Moved to the Philippines in Feb 1945. Supported landings on Mindanao in Mar 1945: bombed and strafed enemy installations and supported Australian forces on Borneo, attacked Japanese positions in northern Luzon, and flew escort missions to the Asiatic mainland. Moved to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 1 Jan 1946.

Redesignated 347th Fighter Group (All Weather). Activated in Japan on 20 Feb 1947. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Equipped with F-61's and later with F-82's. Inactivated on 24 Jun 1950.

Squadrons. 4th: 1947-1950. 67th: 1942-1945. 68th: 1942-1945; 1947-1950. 70th: 1942-1943, 1945. 339th: 1942-1946; 1947-1950.

348th Fighter Group

Constituted as 348th Fighter Group on 24 Sep 1942 and activated on 30 Sep. Prepared for combat with P-47's. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, May-Jun 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Operated from New Guinea and Noemfoor until Nov 1944. Flew patrol and reconnaissance missions and escorted bombers to targets in New Guinea and New Britain. Col Neel E Kearby was awarded the Medal of Honor for action over New Guinea on 11 Oct 1943: after leading a flight of four fighters to reconnoiter the enemy base at Wewak, Col Kearby sighted a Japanese bomber formation escorted by more than 30 fighters; despite the heavy odds and a low fuel supply, and although his mission had been accomplished, Kearby ordered an attack, personally destroying six of the enemy planes. For covering Allied landings and supporting ground forces on New Britain, 16-31 Dec 1943, the group was awarded a DUC. In 1944 began to attack airfields, installations, and shipping in western New Guinea, Ceram, and Halmahera to aid in neutralizing those areas preparatory to the US invasion of the Philippines. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, provided cover for convoys, flew patrols, escorted bombers, attacked enemy airfields, and supported ground forces. Received a DUC for withstanding assaults by enemy fighters to cover bombers raiding Clark Field on 24 Dec 1944. Also attacked shipping along the China coast and escorted bombers to Formosa and the Asiatic mainland. Moved to the Ryukyus in Jul 1945 and completed some escort and attack missions to Kyushu before the war ended. Moved to Japan in Oct 1945 as part of Far East Air Forces. Inactivated on 10 May 1946.

Redesignated 108th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (NJ) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 16 Oct 1946. Called to active duty on 1 Mar 1951. Redesignated 108th Fighter-Bomber Group. Assigned first to Strategic Air Command and later to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with F-47's. Relieved from active service on 1 Dec 1952 and returned to the control of ANG (NJ).

Squadrons. 149th: 1951-1952. 153d 1951-1952. 340th: 1942-1946. 341st (later 141st): 1942-1946; 1951-1952. 342d: 1942-1946. 460th: 1944-1946.

349th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 349th Troop Carrier Group on 23 Oct 1943. Activated on 1 Nov 1943. Equipped successively with C-53, C-47, and C-46 aircraft. Trained and participated in various maneuvers. Moved to the European theater, Mar-Apr 1945, and assigned to IX Troop Carrier Command. Used C-46's to transport vehicles, gasoline, and other supplies in western Europe and to evacuate patients and prisoners of war. Ceased operations on 15 Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Trained Chinese crews to operate C-46 aircraft. Inactivated on Sep 1946.

Redesignated 349th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 Apr 1951. Inactivated on 2 Apr 1951.

Redesignated 349th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 13 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 23d: 1944-1946. 311th 1943-1944; 1949-1951. 312th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-. 313th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-. 314th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-.

350th Fighter Group

Activated in England on 1 Oct 1942 by special authority granted to Eighth AF prior to constitution as 350th Fighter Group on 2 Oct 1942. The air echelon moved from England to North Africa, Jan-Feb 1943; the ground echelon, which had been formed in the US, arrived in North Africa about the same time. The group operated with Twelfth AF from Jan 1943 until the end of the war, flying patrol and interception missions, protecting convoys, escorting aircraft, flying reconnaissance missions, engaging in interdictory operations, and providing close support for ground forces. Used P-39's, P-400's, and a few P-38's before converting to P-47's during Aug-Sep 1944. Operated against targets in Tunisia until the end of that campaign. Defended the coast of Algeria during the summer and fall of 1943. Afterward, operated primarily in support of Allied forces in Italy until the end of the war, bombing and strafing rail facilities, shipping docks, radar and transformer stations, power lines, bridge motor transports, and military installations. Received a DUC for action in western Italy on 6 Apr 1944 when, despite intense flak and attacks by numerous enemy interceptors, the group flew ten missions, hitting troops, bridges, vehicle barracks, and air warning installations. Also covered Allied landings on Elba in Jun 1944 and supported the invasion of Southern France in Aug. 1st Lt Raymond L Knight was awarded the Medal of Honor for missions on 24 and 25 Apr 1945: voluntarily leading attacks, through intense antiaircraft fire, against enemy airdromes in northern Italy, Lt Knight was responsible for eliminating more than 20 German planes intended for assaults on Allied forces; attempting to return his shattered plane to base after an attack ot 25 Apr, Lt Knight crashed in the Apennines. The group moved to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 112th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Pa) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 22 Apr 1949. Redesignated 112th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Oct 1952, and 112th Fighter-Bomber Group in Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 345th: 1942-1945. 346th: 1942-1945. 347th: 1942-1945.

351st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 351st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 25 Sep 1942. Activated on 1 Oct 1942. Trained for duty overseas with B-17's. Moved to England, Apr-May 1943. Served in combat with Eighth AF from May 1943 to Apr 1945. Operated primarily against strategic objectives in Germany, striking such targets as ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, communications at Mayen, marshalling yards at Koblenz, a locomotive and tank factory at Hannover, industries at Berlin, bridges at Cologne, an armaments factory at Mannheim, and oil refineries at Hamburg. Also struck harbor facilities, submarine installations, airfields, V-weapon sites, and power plants in France, Belgium, Holland, and Norway. Received a DUC for performance of 9 Oct 1943 when an aircraft factory in Germany was accurately bombed in spite of heavy flak and pressing enemy interceptors. Received another DUC for its part in the successful attack of 11 Jan 1944 on aircraft factories in central Germany. Participated in the intensive air campaign against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. 2d Lt Walter E Truemper, navigator, and Sgt Archibald Mathies, engineer, were each awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 20 Feb 1944: when their aircraft received a direct hit that killed the co-pilot and wounded the pilot, Truemper and Mathies managed to fly the plane until other crew members could bail out; on the third attempt to land the plane in an effort to save the pilot, the B-17 crashed and the men were killed. In addition to its strategic missions, the group often operated in support of ground forces and attacked interdictory targets. Bombed in support of the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 and the St Lo breakthrough in Jul. Hit enemy positions to cover the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944. Struck front-line positions, communications, and airfields to help stop the German counteroffensive in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Flew missions in support of the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Returned to the US soon after V-E Day. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 351st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 9 Apr 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 508th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 509th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948. 510th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948. 511th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 434th: 1948-1949.

352d Fighter Group

Constituted as 352d Fighter Group on 29 Sep 1942. Activated on 1 Oct 1942. Served as part of the air defense force fc the US while training with P-47's for duty overseas. Moved to England, Jun-Jul 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Operated against the enemy in air combat over Europe from Sep 1943 to May 1941 using P-47's before converting to P-51's in Apr 1944. Flew numerous escort missions to cover the operations of bombers that attacked factories, V-weapon sites, submarine pens, and other targets on the Continent. Escorted bombers that struck German aircraft factories during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Received a DUC for performance in Germany on 8 May 1944: while escorting bombers to targets in Brunswick, the group routed an attack by a numerically superior force of German interceptors and then continued the battle against the enemy planes until lack of ammunition and shortage of fuel forced the group to withdraw and return to its base. Also flew counter-air patrols, and on many occasions strafed and dive-bombed airfields, locomotives, vehicles, troops, gun positions, and various other targets. Supported the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944 by strafing and dive-bombing enemy communications, assisted the Allies in breaking through the German line at St Lo in Jul, and participated in the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. After the Germans launched a counteroffensive in the Ardennes in Dec 1944, the group's planes and pilots were sent to Belgium and placed under the control of Ninth AF for operations in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945). During that battle, on 1 Jan 1945, action by the detachment earned for the group the French Croix de Guerre with Palm: just as 12 of the detachment's lanes were taking off for an area patrol, the airdrome was attacked by about 50 German fighters; in the aerial battle that followed, the 352d shot down almost half the enemy planes without losing any of its own. In Feb 1945 the remainder of the group joined the detachment in Belgium for operations under the control of Eighth AF. While based on the Continent, the group participated in the airborne assault across the Rhine (Mar 1945). Returned to England in Apr and continued operations until a few days before V-E Day. Returned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 113th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (DC) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 2 Nov 1946. Ordered to active duty on 1 Feb 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 113th Fighter-Interceptor Group. Used F-84's during 1951; converted to F-94 aircraft in 1952. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Relieved from active duty, returned to control of ANG (DC) and activated, on 1 Nov 1952. Redesignated 113th Fighter-Bomber Group in Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 121st: 1951-1952. 142d: 1951-1952. 148th: 1951-1952. 328th: 1942-1945. 486th (formerly 21st): 1942-1945. 487th (formerly 34th): 1942-1945.

353d Fighter Group

Constituted as 353d Fighter Group on 29 Sep 1942. Activated on 1 Oct 1942. Trained for duty overseas and at the same time served as an air defense organization. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Operated against the enemy in combat over Europe from Aug 1943 to Apr 1945, using P-47's until conversion to P-51 in Oct 1944. Regularly escorted bombers that attacked industrial establishments, marshalling yards, submarine installations, V-weapon sites, and other targets; frequently strafed and dive-bombed buildings, troops, flak batteries, barges and tug boats, locomotives and rail lines, vehicles, bridges, and airfields; also flew numerous counter-air missions. From Aug 1943 to Feb 1944, provided escort for bombers that attacked targets in western Europe, made counter-air sweeps over France and the Low Countries, and dive-bombed targets in France. Participated in the intensive campaign against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Increased its fighter-bomber activities. Mar-May 1944. Provided cover over the beachhead and close support for the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944. Supported the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Received a DUC for supporting the airborne attack on Holland, when the group contributed to the operation by protecting bombers and troop carriers and by strafing and dive-bombing ground targets during the period 17-23 Sep 1944. Continued its fighter-bomber, escort, and counter-air activities, participating in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and the airborne attack across the Rhine (Mar 1945). Remained in the theater until Oct. Inactivated in the US on 18 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 116th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Ga) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 9 Sep 1946. Ordered to active duty on 10 Oct 1950. Redesignated 116th Fighter-Bomber Group in Nov 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with F-80's and converted to F-84 aircraft in the spring of 1951. Moved to Japan in Jul 1951 and attached to Far East Air Forces for operations in the Korean War. Flew interdictory and close-support missions, strafing and dive-bombing power plants, buildings, mine entrances, gun positions, bunkers, troops, rail lines, trains, bridges, and vehicles. During the same period, also provided air defense for Japan. Relieved from active duty, returned to control of ANG (Ga) without personnel and equipment, and redesignated 116th Fighter-Interceptor Group, on 10 Jul 1952. Redesignated 116th Fighter-Bomber Group in Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 196th: 1950-1952. 350th: 1942-1945. 351st (later 158th): 1942-1945; 1950-1952. 352d (later 159th): 1942-1945; 1950-1952.

354th Fighter Group

Constituted as 354th Fighter Group on 12 Nov 1942 and activated on 15 Nov. Trained with P-39's and served as part of the air defense force. Moved to England, Oct-Nov 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF and engaged in combat from Dec 1943 to May 1945, using P-51's except for the period from Nov 1944 to Feb 1945 when the group operated with P-47's. Received a DUC for its activities up to mid-May 1944, a period in which the 354th was instrumental in the development and execution of long-range missions to escort heavy bombers on raids deep into enemy territory. During that same period Maj James H Howard won the Medal of Honor for his single-handed efforts to defend a bomber formation that was attacked by a large force of enemy planes while on a mission over Germany on 11 Jan 1944. In addition to its escort work, the group began fighter-bomber operations, strafing and dive-bombing enemy airfields, gun positions, marshalling yards, and vehicles in France, Belgium, and Holland. Supporting the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 by escorting gliders on D-Day and by dive-bombing and strafing bridges and railways near the front lines for the next few days. Moved to the Continent in Jun and assisted the Allied drive across France by flying close-support, armed-reconnaissance, fighter-sweep, dive-bombing, strafing, and escort missions. Received second DUC for a series of fighter sweeps in which the group destroyed a large number of enemy aircraft in the air and on the ground on 25 Aug 1944. Flew missions to support the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944. Attacked and destroyed many enemy barges, locomotives, vehicles, buildings, and troops to assist the Allied assault on the Siegfried Line. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by supporting ground forces and by conducting armed reconnaissance operations to destroy enemy troops, tank artillery, and rail lines. Assisted ground forces in their advance to and across the Rhine, Feb-May 1945. After V-E Day served with the army of occupation, being assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Feb 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

(Note: The 354th Fighter Group was redesignated 117th Fighter Group and allotted to ANG (Ala), on 24 May 1946. The redesignation and the allotment were, however, revoked and nullified on 26 Sep 1956; at the same time the 117th group was constituted and allotted to ANG, effective 24 May 1946. Thus the 117th group is not related in any way to the 354th group.)

Redesignated 354th Fighter-Day Group. Activated on 19 Nov 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air Command.

Squadrons. 353d: 1942-1946; 1956-. 355th: 1942-1946; 1956-. 356th: 1942-1946; 1956-.

355th Fighter Group

Constituted as 355th Fighter Group on 12 Nov 1942 and activated the same day. Prepared for combat with P-47's. Moved to England in Jul 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Flew its first combat mission, a fighter sweep over Belgium, on 14 Sep 1943 and afterward served primarily as escort for bombers that attacked industrial areas of Berlin, marshalling yards at Karlsruhe, an airfield at Neuberg, oil refineries at Misburg, synthetic oil plants at Gelsenkirchen, locks at Minden, and other objectives. Also flew fighter sweeps, area patrols, and bombing missions, striking such targets as air parks, locomotives, bridges, radio stations, and armored cars. On 5 Apr 1944, shortly after converting from P-47's to P-51's, the group successfully bombed and strafed German airdomes during a snow squall, a mission for which the group was awarded a DUC. Provided fighter cover for Allied forces landing in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944, and afterward hit transportation facilities to cut enemy supply lines. Hit fuel dumps, locomotives, and other targets in support of ground forces during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Continued operations until 25 Apr 1945 and remained in the theater after the war for duty with United States Air Forces in Europe. Moved to Germany in Jul 1945 as part of the army of occupation. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US on 1 Aug 1946. Inactivated on 20 Nov 1946.

Redesignated 355th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 354th: 1942-1946; 1955-. 357th: 1942-1946. 358th (later 56th): 1942-1946. 469th: 1955-.

356th Fighter Group

Constituted as 356th Fighter Group on 8 Dec 1942 and activated on 12 Dec. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Served in combat from Oct 1943 tO May 1945, participating in operations that prepared for the invasion of the Continent, and supporting the landings in Normandy and the subsequent Allied drive across France and Germany. Used P-47's until they were replaced by P-51's in Nov 1944. From Oct 1943 until Jan 1944, operated as escort for bombers that attacked such objectives as industrial areas, missile sites, airfields, and communications. Engaged primarily in bombing and strafing missions after 3 Jan 1944, with its targets including U-boat installations, barges, shipyards, airdromes, hangars, marshalling yards, locomotives, trucks, oil facilities, flak towers, and radar stations. Bombed and strafed in the Arnheim area on 17, 18, and 23 Sep 1944 to neutralize enemy gun emplacements; received a DUC for this contribution to the airborne attack on Holland. Flew its last combat mission, escorting B-17's dropping propaganda leaflets, on 7 May 1945. Returned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 118th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Tenn) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 2 Oct 1947. Redesignated 118th Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Feb 1951. Ordered to active duty on 1 Apr 1951 and assigned to Tactical Air Command. Used RF-47, RF-51, RF-80, and RB-26 aircraft for training and maneuvers. Relieved from active service and returned, without personnel and equipment, to control of ANG (Tenn) on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 106th: 1951-1953. 185th: 1951-1953. 359th (later 155th): 1942-1945; 1951-1953. 360th: 1942-1945. 361st: 1942-1945.

357th Fighter Group

Constituted as 357th Fighter Group on Dec 1942 and activated the same day. Used P-39's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to England in Nov 1943 and became part of Eighth AF. Trained with P-51's and began operations on 11 Feb 1944 by making a fighter sweep over Rouen. Served primarily as an escort organization, providing penetration, target, and withdrawal support for bombers that attacked strategic objectives on the Continent. Participated in the assault against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Received a DUC for two escort missions in which heavy opposition was encountered from enemy fighters: on 6 Mar 1944 provided target and withdrawal support during the first attack that heavy bombers of Eighth AF made on Berlin; on 29 Jun 1944 protected bombers that struck targets at Leipzig. Received second DUC for operations on 14 Jan 1945 when the group, covering bombers on a raid to Derben, broke up an attack by a large force of interceptors and in the ensuing aerial battle destroyed a number of the enemy planes. In addition to escort the group conducted counter-air patrols, made fighter sweeps, and flew strafing and dive-bombing missions in which it attacked airdromes, marshalling yards, locomotives, bridges, barges, tugboats, highways, vehicles, fuel dumps, and other targets. Participated in the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul; the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew its last mission, an escort operation, on 25 Apr 1945. Moved to Germany in Jul and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe for duty with the army of occupation. Inactivated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 121st Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Ohio) on 21 Aug 1946. Extended federal recognition on 26 Jun 1948. Redesignated 121st Fighter-Bomber Group on 16 Oct 1952.

Squadrons. 362d: 1942-1946. 363d 1942-1946. 364th (later 166th): 1942-1946.

358th Fighter Group

Constituted as 358th Fighter Group on 20 Dec 1942. Activated on 1 Jan 1943. Trained with P-47's. Moved to England during Sep-Oct 1943. Began operations on 20 Dec 1943 and served in combat with Eighth and, later, Ninth AF until V-E Day. Engaged in escort work until Apr 1944 to cover the operations of bombers that the AAF sent against targets on the Continent. Dive-bombed marshalling yards and airfields during Apr to help prepare for the invasion of Normandy. Continued attacks on enemy communications and flew escort missions during May. Escorted troop carriers over the Cotentin Peninsula on 6 and 7 Jun, and attacked bridges, rail lines and trains, vehicles, and troop concentrations during the remainder of the month. Moved to the Continent in Jul and took part in operations that resulted in the Allied breakthrough at St Lo. Continued to fly escort, interdictory, and close-support missions during the allied drive across France and into Germany, earning four citations before the end of the war. Received first DUC for operations from 24 Dec 1944 to 2 Jan 1945 when the group not only supported Seventh Army by attacking rail lines and rolling stock, vehicles, buildings, and artillery, but also destroyed numerous fighter planes during a major assault by the German Air Force against Allied airfields. Received second DUC for 19-20 Mar 1945, a period in which the 358th destroyed and damaged large numbers of motor transports and thus hampered the evacuation of German forces that were withdrawing from the area west of the Rhine. Received third DUC for performance between 8 and 25 Apr 1945 when the group attacked enemy airfields in the region of Munich and Ingolstadt, engaged the enemy in aerial combat, and supported advancing ground forces by attacking such targets as motor transports, tanks, locomotives, guns, and buildings. Received fourth citation, the French Croix de Guerre with Palm, for assisting in the liberation of France. Returned to the US in Jul 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 122d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Ind) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 9 Dec 1946. Ordered into active service on 1 Feb 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 122d Fighter-Interceptor Group. Trained with F-51 and F-84 aircraft. Inactivated on 7 Feb 1952. Relieved from active service, returned to ANG (Ind), redesignated 122d Fighter-Bomber Group, and activated, on 1 Nov 1952.

Squadrons. 113th: 1951-1952. 166th: 1951-1952. 365th (later 163d): 1943-1945; 1951-1952. 366th: 1943-1945. 367th: 1943-1945.

359th Fighter Group

Constituted as 359th Fighter Group on 20 Dec 1942. Activated on 15 Jan 1943. Apparently not manned until Mar 1943. Moved to England in Oct 1943 and became part of Eighth AF. Entered combat in mid-Dec, after some of the pilots had already flown combat missions with another fighter group. Began operations with P-47's; converted to P-51's in Apr 1944. In combat, Dec 1943-May 1945, flew escort, patrol, strafing, dive-bombing, and weather-reconnaissance missions. At first, engaged primarily in escort activities to cover bombers that attacked airfields in France. Expanded area of operations in May 1944 to provide escort for bombers that struck rail centers in Germany and oil targets in Poland. Supported the invasion of Normandy (Jun 1944), patrolling the English Channel, escorting bombardment formations to the French coast, and dive-bombing and strafing bridges, locomotives, and rail lines near the battle area. During the period Jul 1944-Feb 1945, engaged chiefly in escorting bombers to oil refineries, marshalling yards, and other targets in such cities as Ludwigshafen, Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Berlin, Merseburg, and Brux. Received a DUC for operations over Germany on 11 Sep 1944 when the group protected a formation of heavy bombers against large numbers of enemy fighters. In addition to its escort duties, the group supported campaigns in France during Jul and Aug 1944, bombed enemy positions to support the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep, and participated in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945). Flew missions to support the assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945, and escorted medium bombers that attacked various communications targets, Feb-Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 123d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Ky) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 20 Sep 1947. Ordered into active service on 10 Oct 1950. Redesignated 123d Fighter-Bomber Group. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with F-51's until late in 1951. Converted to F-84's in Nov and moved to England to become part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Transferred to the US without personnel and equipment, relieved from active duty, returned to control of ANG (Ky), and redesignated 123d Fighter-Interceptor Group, on 10 Jul 1952. Redesignated 123d Fighter-Bomber Group in Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 156th: 1950-1952. 368th (later 165th): 1943-1945; 1950-1952. 369th (later 167th): 1943-1945; 1950-1952. 370th: 1943-1945.

360th Fighter Group

Constituted as 360th Fighter Group on 20 Dec 1942. Activated on 15 Jan 1943. Assigned to Fourth AF. Used P-38's to train replacement crews for combat. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Squadrons. 371st: 1943-1944. 372d: 1943-1944. 373d: 1943-1944. 446th: 1943-1944.

361st Fighter Group

Constituted as 361st Fighter Group on 28 Jan 1943. Activated on 10 Feb 1943. Joined Eighth AF in England in Nov 1943. Entered combat with P-47 aircraft on 21 Jan 1944 and converted to P-51's in May 1944. Operated from England during 1944 but sent a detachment to France for operations in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945), moved to Belgium in Feb 1945, and returned to England in Apr 1945. Served primarily as an escort organization, covering the penetration, attack, and withdrawal of bomber formations that the AAF sent against targets on the Continent. Also engaged in counter-air patrols, fighter sweeps, and strafing and dive-bombing missions. Attacked such targets as airdromes, marshalling yards, missile sites, industrial areas, ordnance depots, oil refineries, trains, and highways. During its operations, participated in the assault against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944; the Normandy invasion, Jun 1944; the St Lo breakthrough, Jul 1944; the airborne attack on Holland, Sep 1944; and the airborne assault across the Rhine, Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 20 Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 127th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Mich) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 29 Sep 1946. Ordered into active service on 1 Feb 1951. Assigned to Air Training Command. Redesignated 127th Pilot Training Group in Mar 1951. Used F-51, F-80, and F-84 aircraft while serving as a training organization. Relieved from active duty and returned to ANG (Mich), on 1 Nov 1952. Redesignated 127th Fighter-Bomber Group.

Squadrons. 107th: 1951-1952. 197th: 1951-1952. 374th (later 171st): 1943-1945; 1951-1952. 375th: 1943-1945. 376th: 1943-1945.

362d Fighter Group

Constituted as 362d Fighter Group on 11 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Trained for combat with P-47's. Moved to England in Nov 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF. Flew first mission, escorting B-24's that attacked V-weapon launching sites near Pas de Calais, on 8 Feb 1944. Until Apr 1944, engaged chiefly in escorting bombers that struck factories, railroads, airfields, and other targets on the Continent. Repeatedly attacked communications in northern France and in Belgium during Apr and May, in preparation for the invasion of Normandy. Escorted C-47's that dropped paratroops over Normandy on 6 and 7 Jun. Afterward, engaged primarily in interdictory and close-support activities, flying strafing and dive-bombing missions designed to assist the operations of ground forces. Moved to the Continent early in Jul 1944 and bombed enemy troops to aid the Allied breakthrough at St Lo later that month. Supported the subsequent advance of ground forces toward the Rhine by attacking railroads, trucks, bridges, power stations, fuel dumps, and other facilities. Received a DUC for a mission against the harbor at Brest on 25 Aug 1944 when, in spite of heavy overcast and intense enemy fire, the group attacked at low altitude, hitting naval installations, cruisers, troop transports, merchant vessels, and other objectives. Bombed and strafed such targets as flak positions, armored vehicles, and troop concentrations during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Received second DUC for action over the Moselle-Rhine River triangle: despite the intense antiaircraft fire encountered while flying armed reconnaissance in close cooperation with infantry forces in that area on 16 Mar 1945, the group hit enemy forces, equipment, and facilities, its targets including motor transports, armored vehicles, railroads, railway cars, and gun emplacements. Continued operations until 1 May 1945. Returned to the US Aug-Sep 1945. Trained with P-51's. Inactivated on 1 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 128th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Wis) on 2 Aug 1946. Extended federal recognition on 29 Jun 1948. Ordered to active duty on 1 Feb 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 128th Fighter-Interceptor Group. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Relieved from active duty, returned to ANG (Wis), and activated, on 1 Nov 1952.

Squadrons. 126th: 1951-1952. 172d: 1951-1952. 176th: 1951-1952. 377th: 1943-1946. 378th: 1943-1946. 379th: 1943-1946.

363d Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 363d Fighter Group on 11 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Trained with P-39's and served as part of the air defense force. Moved to England in Dec 1943 for duty with Ninth AF. Equipped with P-51's in Jan 1944 and entered combat in Feb. Escorted bombers and fighter-bombers to targets in France, Germany, and the Low Countries; strafed and dive-bombed trains, marshalling yards, bridges, vehicles, airfields, troops, gun positions, and other targets on the Continent. Supported the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944 by escorting troop carriers and gliders and by attacking enemy positions near the front lines, and moved to the Continent at the end of Jun to take part in the Allied drive to the German border.

Redesignated 363d Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Sep 1944. Equipped with F-5 and F-6 aircraft. Flew photographic missions to support both air and ground operations; directed fighter-bombers to railway, highway, and waterway traffic, bridges, gun positions, troop concentrations, and other opportune targets; adjusted artillery fire; and took photographs to assess results of Allied bombardment operations. Received two Belgian citations for reconnaissance activities, including the group's support of the assault on the Siegfried Line and its participation in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 945). Assisted Ninth Army's drive across the Rhine and deep into Germany during the period from Feb 1945 to V-E Day. Redesignated 363d Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Dec. Inactivated on 11 Dec 1945.

Activated on 29 Jul 1946. Equipped initially with RF-80 and RB-26 aircraft, and later with RF-84 and RB-57 aircraft. Redesignated 363d Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Jun 1948.

Squadrons. 9th: 1953-. 12th: 1946-1947. 17th: 1951-. 31st: 1945. 33d: 1945. 39th: 1945. 155th: 1945. 160th (formerly 380th, later 16th): 1943-1945; 1947-1949, 1950-. 161st (formerly 381st, later 18th): 1943-1945; 1946-1949, 1951-. 162d (formerly 382d): 1943-1944; 1946-1950.

364th Fighter Group

Constituted as 364th Fighter Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with P-38's. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944. Began operations with Eighth AF in Mar. Flew escort, dive-bombing, strafing, and patrol missions in France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany. At first, operated primarily as escort for heavy bombers. Patrolled the English Channel during the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944, and, while continuing escort operations, supported ground forces in France after the invasion by strafing and bombing locomotives, marshalling yards, bridges, barges, and other targets. Converted from P-38's to P-51's in the summer of 1944 and from then until the end of the war flew many long-range escort missions for B-17's that attacked oil refineries, industries, and other strategic objectives at Berlin, Regensburg, Merseburg, Stuttgart, Brussels, and elsewhere. Received a DUC for an escort mission on 27 Dec 1944 when the group dispersed a large force of German fighters that attacked the bomber formation the group was escorting on a raid to Frankfurt. Also flew air-sea rescue missions, engaged in patrol activities, and continued to support ground forces as the battle line moved through France and into Germany. Took part in the effort to invade Holland by air, Sep 1944; the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and the assault across the Rhine, Mar 1945. After the war, remained in England until Nov 1945. Returned to the US. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 131st Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Mo) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 15 Jul 1946. Redesignated 131st Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 131st Fighter Group in Feb 1951. Ordered into active service on 1 Mar 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 131st Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command in Nov 1951. Trained with F-51's. Relieved from active duty and returned to ANG (Mo), on 1 Dec 1952. Redesignated 131st Bombardment Group (Light).

Squadrons. 110th: 1951-1952. 170th: 1951-1952. 192d: 1951-1952. 383d: 1943-1945. 384th: 1943-1945. 385th: 1943-1945.

365th Fighter Group

Constituted as 365th Fighter Group on 27 Apr 1943. Activated on 15 May 1943. Trained with P-47's. Moved to England in Dec 1943. Began combat operations with Ninth AF in Feb 1944. Engaged in escort activities and flew dive-bombing missions to attack such targets as bridges, airdromes, rail facilities, gun positions, and V-weapon sites prior to the invasion of the Continent. Attacked rail targets and gun emplacements in France during the invasion on 6 Jun. Moved to the Continent late in Jun and continued to dive-bomb targets during the succeeding weeks of the battle for Normandy. Bombed targets near St Lo in Jul to assist Allied forces in breaking through German lines at that point, and supported the subsequent drive across northern France during Aug-Sep. In Sep, also flew patrols in cooperation with airborne operations in Holland. Cited by the Belgian government for assisting Allied armies in the period from the invasion of Normandy through the initial phases of the liberation of Belgium. During the fall of 1944, operated in connection with the seizure of Aachen and aided ground troops in the offensive toward the Rhine, receiving a DUC for destroying and damaging numerous enemy fighters over the Bonn-Dusseldorf area in Germany on 21 Oct. Received second Belgian award for actions during the Battle of the Bulge when the group struck such targets as vehicles, rolling stock, marshalling yards, gun positions, factories, and towns. Provided cover during airborne operations across the Rhine in Mar 1945 and supported the drive into Germany. Awarded second DUC for operations on 20 Apr 1945 when the group attacked airfields, motor transports, and ammunition dumps to aid the Allied advance through southern Germany. Ended combat in May and took part in the disarmament program until Jun 1945. Moved to the US in Sep. Inactivated on 22 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 132d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Iowa) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 23 Aug 1946. Ordered into active service on 1 Apr 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 132d Fighter-Bomber Group in Jun 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command in Nov 1951. Equipped with F-51's but with one squadron using F-84's until late in 1951. Relieved from active service and returned, less personnel and equipment, to ANG (Iowa), on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 124th: 1951-1953. 173d: 1951-1953. 386th (later 174th): 1943-1945; 1951-1953. 387th: 1943-1945. 388th: 1943-1945.

366th Fighter Group

Constituted as 366th Fighter Group on 24 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Prepared for overseas duty with P-47's. Moved to England, Dec 1943-Jan 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat on 14 Mar 1944 with a fighter sweep along the French coast, then took part in operations designed to prepare the way for the invasion of the Continent. Flew fighter sweeps over Normandy on 6 Jun 1944, attacking such targets as motor convoys and gun emplacements. Moved to the Continent soon after D-Day and engaged primarily in dive-bombing missions against enemy communications and fortifications until May 1945. Received a DUC for supporting ground forces on 11 Jul 1944: approaching the assigned target - pillboxes in the vicinity of St Lo - the group discovered an enemy tank column unknown to Allied infantry; despite driving rain and intense antiaircraft fire, the group not only attacked assigned objectives but also severely damaged the enemy's armored force. Among other operations, the group supported Allied armored columns during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944; attacked flak positions near Eindhoven during the airborne landing in Holland in Sep 1944; flew armed reconnaissance missions over the battle area during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945 and escorted bombers during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. The 366th frequently attacked such targets as railroads, highways, bridges, motor transports, gun emplacements, supply depots, and troops; often escorted bombers that hit airfields, factories, and marshalling yards; sometimes flew area patrols; and on occasion dropped leaflets. Flew last mission, attacking harbors at Kiel and Flensburg, on 3 May 1945. Remained in Germany after the war and, assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe, became part of the occupation force. Inactivated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 366th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated in the US on 1 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with F-51, F-84, and F-86 aircraft.

Squadrons. 389th: 1943-1946; 1953-. 390th: 1943-1946; 1953-. 391st: 1943-1946; 1953-.

367th Fighter Group

Constituted as 367th Fighter Group on 26 May 1943. Activated on 15 Jul 1943. Trained with P-39's. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Equipped with P-38's in Apr 1944 and converted to P-47's in Feb 1945. Entered combat in May 1944, attacking railroads, bridges, hangars, and other targets in western France, and escorting bombers that struck airfields, marshalling yards, and other facilities in the same area. From D-Day to 8 Jun 1944, provided cover for Allied forces crossing the Channel; during the remainder of Jun, bombed and strafed convoys, troops, flak towers, power stations, and other objectives behind the invasion beaches. Moved to the Continent in Jul 1944 and operated chiefly in support of ground forces until V-E Day. Struck railroads, marshalling yards, and trains to prevent enemy reinforcements from reaching the front during the Allied breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944. Received a DUC for a mission in France on 25 Aug: after attacking landing grounds at Clastres, Peronne, and Rosieries through an intense antiaircraft barrage, the group engaged a number of enemy planes and then, despite a low fuel supply, strafed a train and convoy after leaving the scene of battle; later the same day the 367th flew a fighter sweep of more than 800 miles, hitting landing grounds at Cognac, Bourges, and Dijon. Attacked German strong points to aid the Allied push against the Siegfried Line in the fall of 1944. On 26 Dec, during the Battle of the Bulge, escorted C-47's that dropped supplies to Allied troops encircled at Bastogne. Received another DUC for action on 19 Mar 1945: although its target was located in mountainous terrain, concealed by ground haze, and welldefended by antiaircraft artillery, the group descended to low altitude to bomb and strafe the headquarters of the German Commander-in-Chief, West, at Ziegenburg. Struck tanks, trucks, flak positions, and other objectives in support of the assault across the Rhine late in Mar and the final Allied operations in Germany. Flew last mission on V-E Day. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 133d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Minn) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 28 Aug 1947. Ordered into active service on 1 Mar 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 133d Fighter-Interceptor Group. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Relieved from active duty, returned to ANG (Minn), and activated, on 1 Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 109th: 1951-1952. 175th: 1951-1952. 392d: 1943-1945. 393d (later 179th): 1943-1945; 1951-1952. 394th: 1943-1945.

368th Fighter Group

Constituted as 368th Fighter Group on 24 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with P-47's. Moved to England, arriving in Jan 1944. Began operations with Ninth AF on 14 Mar when the group flew a fighter sweep over the coast of France. Made strafing and bombing attacks on airfields, rail and highway bridges, trains, vehicles, flak positions, and V-weapon sites to help prepare for the invasion of France. Supported the landings in Normandy early in Jun 1944 and began operations from the Continent later the same month. Aided in the taking of Cherbourg, participated in the air operations that prepared the way for the Allied breakthrough at St Lo on 25 Jul, and supported ground forces during their drive across France. Received a DUC for support operations in the vicinity of Mons on 3 Sep 1944 when the group, dispatching seven missions against the enemy on that day, not only destroyed large numbers of motor transports, horse-drawn vehicles, and troops, but also attacked enemy positions that obstructed the progress of ground forces. Continued to support ground forces, participated in the assault against the Siegfried Line, and took part in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) by attacking rail lines and trains, marshalling yards, roads and vehicles, armored columns, and gun positions. Operated with the Allied forces that pushed across the Rhine and into Germany. After V-E Day, served with the army of occupation, being assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 20 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 136th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Tex) on 21 Aug 1946. Extended federal recognition on 27 Jan 1947. Ordered into active service on 10 Oct 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Redesignated 136th Fighter-Bomber Group. Used F-51's until early in 1951, then began conversion to F-84's. Moved to Japan, May-Jul 1951. Attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Engaged primarily in interdiction but also flew close-support, escort, and armed-reconnaissance missions, operating first from Japan and later from Korea. Relieved from active duty, returned to ANG (Tex) without personnel and equipment, and redesignated 136th Fighter-Interceptor Group, on 10 Jul 1952. Redesignated 136th Fighter-Bomber Group on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 111th: 1950-1952. 154th: 1950-1952. 395th: 1943-1946. 396th (later 182d): 1943-1946; 1950-1952. 397th: 1943-1946.

369th Fighter Group

Constituted as 369th Fighter Group on 26 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF, later (Mar 1944) to Fourth AF. Redesignated 369th Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1944, and 369th Fighter Group in Jun 1944. Trained replacement crews and participated in various maneuvers, such as the Louisiana Maneuvers in the summer of 1944. Aircraft included A-36's, P-39's, P-40's, and (in 1945) P-51's. Inactivated on 10 Aug 1945.

Squadrons. 398th: 1943-1945. 399th: 1943-1945. 400th: 1943-1945.

370th Fighter Group

Constituted as 370th Fighter Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Trained with P-47's. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Equipped with P-38's in Feb and trained until 1 May 1944 when the group entered combat. Dive-bombed radar installations and flak towers, and escorted bombers that attacked bridges and marshalling yards in France as the Allies prepared for the invasion of the Continent. Provided cover for Allied forces that crossed the Channel on 6 Jun 1944, and flew armed reconnaissance missions over the Cotentin Peninsula until the end of the month. Moved to the Continent in Jul 1944 to support the drive of ground forces across France and into Germany. Hit gun emplacements, troops, supply dumps, and tanks near St Lo in Jul and in the Falaise-Argentan area in Aug 1944. Sent planes and pilots to England to provide cover for the airborne assault on Holland in Sep 1944. Struck pillboxes and troops early in Oct to aid First Army's capture of Aachen, and afterward struck railroads, bridges, viaducts, and tunnels in that area. Received a DUC for a mission in support of ground forces in the Hurtgen Forest area on 2 Dec 1944 when, despite bad weather and barrages of antiaircraft and small-arms fire, the group dropped napalm bombs on a heavily defended position in Bergstein, setting fire to the village and inflicting heavy casualties on enemy troops defending the area. Flew armed reconnaissance during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, attacking warehouses, highways, railroads, motor transports, and other targets. Converted to P-51's, Feb-Mar 1945. Bombed bridges and docks in the vicinity of Wesel to prepare for the crossing of the Rhine, and patrolled the area as paratroops were dropped on the east bank on 24 Mar. Supported operations Of 2d Armored Division in the Ruhr Valley in Apr. Flew last mission, a sweep over Dessau and Wittenberg, on 4 May 1945. Returned to the US, Sep-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 140th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Colo) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 1 Oct 1946. Ordered to active duty on 1 Apr 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Redesignated 140th Fighter-Bomber Group in May 1951. Trained with F-51's. Relieved from active service and returned, less personnel and equipment, to ANG (Colo), on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 120th: 1951-1953. 191st: 1951-1953. 401st: 1943-1945. 402d (later 187th): 1943-1945; 1951-1953. 485th: 1943-1945.

371st Fighter Group

Constituted as 371st Fighter Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 15 Jul 1943. Moved to the European theater during Feb-Mar 1944 and served in combat with Ninth AF from Apr 1944 to May 1945. Began operations, using P-47's, by making a fighter sweep over France. Flew fighter sweep, dive-bombing, and escort missions prior to the invasion of the Continent. Attacked railroads, trains, vehicles, gun emplacements, and buildings in France during the invasion of 6 Jun 1944. Patrolled beachhead areas and continued assaults against the enemy during the remainder of the Normandy campaign. Participated in the aerial barrage that prepared the way for the Allied breakthrough at St Lo on 25 Jul, and supported the subsequent drive across northern France. Operated in the area of northeastern France and southwestern Germany during the fall and winter of 1944-1945, attacking such targets as storage dumps, trains, rail lines, marshalling yards, buildings, factories, bridges, roads, vehicles, and strong points. Conducted operations that supported Allied ground action in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Launched a series of attacks against vehicles, factories, buildings, railroad cars, tanks, and gun emplacements during the period 15-21 Mar 1945, being awarded a DUC for this six-day action that contributed to the defeat of the enemy in southern Germany. Continued operations until May 1945. Returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 142d Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Ore) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 30 Aug 1946. Ordered into active service on 1 Mar 1951. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Redesignated 142d Fighter-Interceptor Group in Apr 1951. Supervised the training of attached squadrons that used F-51, F-84, and F-86 aircraft. Inactivated on 6 Feb 1952. Returned to ANG (Ore) and activated, on 1 Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 404th: 1943-1945. 405th: 1943-1945. 406th: 1943-1945

372d Fighter Group

Constituted as 372d Fighter Group on 12 Oct 1943 and activated on 28 Oct. Assigned to Fourth AF, and later (Mar 1944) to Third AF. Redesignated 372d Fighter-Bomber Group in Apr 1944, and 372d Fighter Group in Jun 1944. Functioned as an operational training unit. Also provided air support for air-ground maneuvers and demonstrations, participating in the Louisiana Maneuvers in the summer of 1944 and in similar activities in the US until after V-J Day. Primary aircraft were P-40's until Jun 1945, then P-51's. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 144th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Calif) on 24 1946. Extended federal recognition on 2 Jun 1948. Redesignated 144th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Oct 1952, and 144th Fighter-Bomber Group in Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 407th: 1943-1945. 408th: 1943-1945. 409th: 1943-1945.

373d Fighter Group

Constituted as 373d Fighter Group on May 1943. Activated on 15 Aug 1943. Trained for combat with P-47's. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Flew first combat mission, a fighter sweep over Normandy, on 8 May 1944, and then took part in preinvasion activities by escorting B-26's to attack airdromes, bridges, and railroads in France. Patrolled the air over the beachhead when the Allies launched the Normandy invasion on 6 Jun 1944, and hit troops, tanks, roads, fuel depots, and other targets in the assault area until the end of the month. Moved to the Continent in Jul 1944; struck railroads, hangars, boxcars, warehouses, and other objectives to prevent enemy reinforcements from reaching the front at St Lo, where the Allies broke through on 25 Jul 1944. Bombed such targets as troops, gun emplacements, and armored vehicles to aid ground troops in the Falaise-Argentan area in Aug 1944. During the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, concentrated on the destruction of bridges, marshalling yards, and highways. Flew armed reconnaissance missions to support ground operations in the Rhine Valley in Mar 1945, hitting airfields, motor transports, and other objectives. Received a DUC for a mission, 20 Mar 1945, that greatly facilitated the crossing of the Rhine by Allied ground forces: without losing any planes, the group repeatedly dived through barrages of antiaircraft fire to bomb vital airfields east of the river; also attacked rail lines and highways leading to the Rhine, hitting rolling stock, motor transports, and other objectives. Continued tactical air operations until 4 May 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 146th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Calif) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 14 Sep 1946. Redesignated 146th Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 146th Fighter Group in Feb 1951. Ordered into active service on 1 Apr 1951 and assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 146th Fighter-Bomber Group in Jun 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command in Nov 1951. Trained with F-51's. Relieved from active duty on 1 Jan 1953 and returned, without personnel and equipment, to ANG (Calif).

Squadrons. 178th: 1951-1953. 186th: 1951-1953. 190th: 1951-1953. 410th: 1943-1945. 411th: 1943-1945. 412th: 1943-1945.

374th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 374th Troop Carrier Group on 7 Nov 1942 and activated in Australia on 12 Nov. Assigned to Fifth AF. Transported men and materiel in the theater from Nov 1942 until after the war, operating from Australia, New Guinea, Biak, and the Philippines. Used war-weary and worn-out aircraft, including B-18's, C-39's, C-49's, C-56's, C-60's, DC-3's, and DC-5's, until equipped with C-47's in Feb 1943. Engaged in supplying Allied forces in the Papuan Campaign, receiving one DUC for these missions, and being awarded another DUC for transporting troops and equipment to Papua and evacuating casualties to rear areas, Nov-Dec 1942. Received third DUC for transporting men and supplies over the Owen Stanley Range, 30 Jan-1 Feb 1943, to aid the small force defending the airdrome at Wau, New Guinea. Participated in the first airborne operation in the Southwest Pacific on 5 Sep 1943, dropping paratroops at Nadzab, New Guinea, to seize enemy bases and cut inland supply routes. Other operations included evacuating wounded personnel, flying courier routes, making passenger flights, and helping move the 11th Division from Luzon to Okinawa in Aug 1945 for staging to Japan. From Sep 1945 to May 1946, hauled cargo to the occupation army in Japan and flew courier routes from the Philippines to Japan. Inactivated on Luzon on 15 May 1946.

Activated in the Philippines on 15 Oct 1946. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Guam on 1 Apr 1947. Remanned and equipped with C-46 and C-47 aircraft. Flew courier, passenger, and cargo routes in the western Pacific. Redesignated 374th Troop Carrier Group (Heavy) in May 1948. Began converting to C-54's. Moved to Japan in Mar 1949. Began operations in the Korea War in Jun 1950, using C-47 and C-54 aircraft, the C-47's being replaced with C-124's in 1952. Transported men and cargo to Korea and evacuated wounded personnel on return flights. Remained in Japan after the war.

Squadrons. 6th: 1942-1946; 1946-. 19th: 1946-1948. 21st: 1942-1946; 1946-. 22d: 1942-1946; 1946-. 33d: 1942-1946.

375th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 375th Troop Carrier Group on 12 Nov 1942 and activated on 18 Nov. Used C-47's in training for overseas duty. Moved to the Pacific theater, Jun-Jul 1943, and assigned to Fifth AF. Operated from New Guinea and Biak from Jul 1943 until Feb 1945, transporting men, supplies, and equipment to forward bases on New Guinea and New Britain and in the Solomon and Admiralty Islands. Used armed B-17's for the more hazardous missions that involved landing on fields that were under enemy attack. Took part in the first airborne operation in the Southwest Pacific, dropping paratroops to seize enemy bases and cut overland supply lines at Nadzab, New Guinea, on 5 Sep 1943. Converted to C-46 aircraft late in 1944. Moved to the Philippines in Feb 1945 and during the next few months most of its missions were supply flights to ground forces on Luzon and neighboring islands. Transported cargo to forces in the Ryukyus, Jun-Jul 1945. Moved to Okinawa in Aug, and after the war helped transfer troops from Luzon to the Ryukyus for staging to Japan. Also ferried liberated prisoners from Okinawa to Luzon. Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. Inactivated on 25 Mar 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 375th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 15 Oct 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with C-82's. Inactivated on 14 Jul 1952.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jul 1952.

Squadrons. 14th: 1947-1949. 55th: 1942-1946; 1947-1952; 1952-. 56th: 1942-1946; 1947-1952; 1952-. 57th: 1942-1946; 1947-1952; 1952-. 58th: 1942-1946; 1947-1950.

376th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 Oct 1942 and activated in Palestine on 31 Oct. Began combat immediately, using B-24 aircraft. Operated with Ninth AF from bases in the Middle East, Nov 1942-Sep 1943, and with Twelfth AF from Tunisia, Sep-Nov 1943. Attacked shipping in the Mediterranean and harbor installations in Libya, Tunisia, Sicily, and Italy to cut enemy supply lines to Africa. Struck airdromes, marshalling yards, and other objectives in Sicily and Italy after the fall of Tunisia in May 1943. Received a DUC for action against the enemy in the Middle East, North Africa, and Sicily, Nov 1942-Aug 1943. Participated in the famed low-level assault on oil refineries at Ploesti and received another DUC: nearing Ploesti on 1 Aug 1943 and realizing that it was off course, the group attempted to reach its assigned objective from another direction; by this time, however, enemy defenses were thoroughly alerted and intense opposition forced the 376th to divert to targets of opportunity in the general target area. Moved to Italy in Nov 1943 and operated with Fifteenth AF until Apr 1945. Engaged primarily in long-range missions to targets in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and the Balkans to bomb factories, marshalling yards, oil refineries, oil storage facilities, airdromes, bridges, harbors, and other objectives. Received a DUC for attacking the oil industry at Bratislava on 16 Jun 1944. Also flew support and interdictory missions, assisting Allied forces at Anzio and Cassino during Feb-Mar 1944, supporting the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944, aiding the Russian sweep into the Balkans during the fall of 1944, and assisting Allied troops in northern Italy during Apr 1945. Moved to the US in Apr. Redesignated 376th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in May 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 376th Reconnaissance Group. Activated on 23 May 1947. Organized as a weather group. Inactivated on 20 Sep 1948.

Redesignated 376th Bombardment Group (Medium). Activated on 1 Jun 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command and equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 512th: 1942-1945; 1947; 1951-1952. 513th: 1942-1945; 1947; 1951-1952. 514th: 1942-1945; 1951-1952. 515th: 1942-1945.

377th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 377th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 13 Oct 1942 and activated on 18 Oct. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine Command. Using O-47, O-52, and other aircraft, the group engaged in patrol activity along the east coast of the US. Inactivated on 9 Dec 1942.

Squadrons. 11th Antisubmarine (formerly 516th Bombardment): 1942. 12th Antisubmarine (formerly 517th Bombardment): 1942. 13th Antisubmarine (formerly 518th Bombardment): 1942. 14th Antisubmarine (formerly 519th Bombardment): 1942.

378th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 378th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 13 Oct 1942 and activated on 18 Oct. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine Command. Engaged in patrol work along the east coast of the US, operating primarily with O-46's and O-47's. Inactivated on 14 Dec 1942.

Squadrons. 15th Antisubmarine (formerly 520th Bombardment): 1942. 17th Antisubmarine (formerly 522d Bombardment): 1942. 521st Bombardment: 1942. 523d Bombardment: 1942.

379th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 379th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Activated on 3 Nov 1942. Moved to England, with the air echelon flying B-17's via the North Atlantic route in Apr 1943 and the ground echelon crossing by ship in May. Began operations with Eighth AF on 19 May, and received a DUC for operations over Europe, May 1943-Jul 1944. Engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic targets such as industries, oil refineries, storage plants, submarine pens, airfields, and communications centers in Germany, France, Holland, Belgium, Norway, and Poland. Specific targets included a chemical plant in Ludwigshafen, an aircraft assembly plant in Brunswick, ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt and Leipzig, synthetic oil refineries at Merseburg and Gelsenkirchen, marshalling yards at Hamm and Reims, and airfields in Mesnil au Val and Berlin. Received another DUC for flying without fighter protection into central Germany to attack vital aircraft factories on 11 Jan 1944. On several occasions attacked interdictory targets and operated in support of ground forces. Bombed V-weapon sites, airfields, radar stations, and other installations before the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944; bombed defended positions just ahead of the Allied landings on 6 Jun; and struck airfields, rail choke points, and gun emplacements during the campaign that followed. Bombed enemy positions to assist ground troops at St Lo during the breakthrough, 24-25 Jul 1944. Attacked German communications and fortifications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed bridges and viaducts in France and Germany to aid the Allied assault across the Rhine, Feb-Mar 1945. Moved to French Morocco in Jun 1945. Inactivated on 25 Jul 1945.

Squadrons. 524th: 1942-1945. 525th: 1942-1945. 526th: 1942-1945. 527th: 1942-1945.

380th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 380th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Activated on 3 Nov 1942. Used B-24's in preparing for overseas duty. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Apr-May 1943. Assigned to Fifth AF but attached to Royal Australian Air Force until Jan 1945. Trained Australian crews to operate B-24's. Began combat operations in May 1943 by flying armed reconnaissance patrols. Operated from Australian bases for a year and a half, striking enemy airfields, ground installations, shipping, and industries in the Netherlands Indies and the Bismarck Archipelago. Received DUC for a series of long-range attacks on oil refineries, shipping, and dock facilities in Balikpapan, Borneo, in Aug 1943. Repeatedly bombed enemy airfields in western New Guinea during Apr and May 1944 in support of American landings in the Hollandia area, being awarded another DUC for this action. Moved in Feb 1945 to Mindoro where its missions included support for ground forces on Luzon and strikes on industries in Formosa, oil refineries in Borneo, railways and shipping in French Indochina, and ground installations on the China coast. Moved to Okinawa in Aug 1945, and after V-J Day flew reconnaissance missions over Japan and ferried liberated prisoners of war from Japan to Manila. Returned to the Philippines in Nov 1945. Inactivated on 20 Feb 1946.

Redesignated 380th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 16 Jun 1947. Redesignated 380th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 16 May 1951.

Squadrons. 328th: 1942-1946; 1947-1951. 329th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 330th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 331st: 1942-1946; 1947-1951.

381st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 381st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Activated on 3 Nov 1942. Used B-17's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Served in combat from Jun 1943 to Apr 1945, operating chiefly against strategic objectives on the Continent. Specific targets included an aircraft assembly plant at Villacoublay, an airdrome at Amiens, locks at St Nazaire, an aircraft engine factory at Le Mans, nitrate works in Norway, aircraft plants in Brussels, industrial areas of Munster, U-boat yards at Kiel, marshalling yards at Offenberg, aircraft factories at Kassel, aircraft assembly plants at Leipzig, oil refineries at Gelsenkirchen, and ball-bearing works at Shweinfurt. Received a DUC for performance on 8 Oct 1943 when shipyards at Bremen were bombed accurately in spite of persistent enemy fighter attacks and heavy flak. Received second DUC for similar action on 11 Jan 1944 during a mission against aircraft factories in central Germany. Participated in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against enemy aircraft factories during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Often supported ground troops and attacked targets of interdiction when not engaged in strategic bombardment. Supported the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 by bombing bridges and airfields near the beachhead. Attacked enemy positions in advance of ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944. Assisted the airborne assault on Holland in Sep. Struck airfields and communications near the battle zone during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Supported the Allied crossing of the Rhine in Mar 1945 and then operated against communications and transportation in the final push through Germany. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 381st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 24 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 509th: 1948-1949. 510th: 1948-1949. 532d: 1942-1945; 1947-1949. 533d: 1942-1945. 534th: 1942-1945; 1947-1948. 535th: 1942-1945; 1947-1949.

382d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 382d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Activated on 3 Nov 1942. Assigned to Second AF and equipped with B-24's. Served first as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1944.

Redesignated 382d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on Aug 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Trained for overseas duty with B-29's. Moved to the Pacific theater, Jul-Sep 1945, and assigned to Eighth AF. The war ended before the group could enter combat. Returned to the US on Dec 1945. Inactivated on 4 Jan 1946.

Squadrons. 420th: 1944-1946. 464th: 1944-1946. 536th: 1942-1944. 537th: 1942-1944. 538th: 1942-1944. 539th: 1942-1944. 872d: 1944-1946.

383d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 383d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 28 Oct 1942. Activated on 3 Nov 1942. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's and B-24's. Served first as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Redesignated 383d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Activated on 28 Aug 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Prepared for combat with B-29's. Moved to the Pacific theater, Aug-Sep 1945, and assigned to Eighth AF. The war ended before the group could enter combat. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 3 Jan 1946.

Squadrons. 540th: 1942-1944. 541st: 1942-1944. 542d: 1942-1944. 543d: 1942-1944. 876th: 1944-1946. 880th: 1944-1946. 884th: 1944-1946.

384th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 384th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 25 Nov 1942. Activated on 1 Dec 1942. Trained for combat with B-17's. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Functioned primarily as a strategic bombardment organization, concentrating its attacks on airfields and industries in France and Germany. Targets included airdromes at Orleans, Bricy, and Nancy; motor works at Cologne; a coking plant at Gelsenkirchen; an aircraft component parts factory at Halberstadt; steel works at Magdeburg; and ball-bearing plants at Shweinfurt. Made a damaging raid on aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944 and received a DUC for the action. Took part in the campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Received another DUC for the mission of 24 Apr 1944 when the group, although crippled by heavy losses of men and planes, led the 41st Wing through almost overwhelming opposition to attack an aircraft factory and airfield at Oberpfaffenhofen. The group also bombed ports, communications centers, oil facilities, and cities, attacking such targets as oil storage plants in Leipzig and Berlin, ports at Hamburg and Emden, and marshalling yards at Duren and Mannheim. At times it flew interdictory and support missions. Attacked installations along the coast of Normandy prior to and during the invasion in Jun 1944 and then bombed airfields and communications beyond the beachhead. Supported ground troops during the breakthrough at St Lo, 24-25 Jul, by bombing enemy strong points just beyond Allied lines. Hit tank and gun concentrations north of Eindhoven to assist the airborne assault on Holland in Sep. Struck enemy communications and fortifications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Aided the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945 by attacking marshalling yards, railroad junctions, and bridges to cut off enemy supplies. Remained in the theater after the war as part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Carried American soldiers to Casablanca for return to the US, returned Greek soldiers to their homeland, and moved Allied troops to Germany. Inactivated in France on 28 Feb 1946.

Redesignated 384th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 16 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 318th: 1947-1949. 339th: 1947-1949. 544th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 545th: 1942-1946; 1947-1949. 546th: 1942-1946. 547th: 1942-1946.

385th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 385th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 25 Nov 1942. Activated on 1 Dec 1942. Trained with B-17's. Moved to England in Jun 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization until the war ended, striking such targets as industrial areas, air bases, oil refineries, and communications centers in Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Holland, and Norway. Received a DUC for bombing an aircraft factory at Regensburg on 17 Aug 1943 after a long hazardous flight over enemy territory. Led the 4th Wing a great distance through heavy and damaging opposition for the successful bombardment of an aircraft repair plant at Zwickau on 12 May 1944, being awarded another DUC for this performance. Other strategic targets included aircraft factories in Oschersleben and Marienburg, battery works in Stuttgart, airfields in Beauvais and Chartres, oil refineries in Ludwigshafen and Merseburg, and marshalling yards in Munich and Oranienburg. Sometimes supported ground forces and struck interdictory targets. Attacked coastline defenses in Jun 1944 in preparation for the Normandy invasion and hit marshalling yards and choke points during the landing on D-Day. Bombed enemy positions in support of ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944. Attacked German communications and fortifications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed troop concentrations and communications centers in Germany and France, Mar-Apr 1945, to assist the final thrust into Germany. After V-E Day, hauled prisoners of war from Germany to Allied centers and flew food to Holland. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Squadrons. 548th: 1942-1945. 549th: 1942-1945. 550th: 1942-1945. 551st: 1942-1945.

386th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 386th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 25 Nov 1942. Activated on 1 Dec 1942. Equipped with B-26's. Moved to England, arriving in Jun 1943. Operated with Eighth AF until assigned to Ninth in Oct 1943. Flew first mission in Jul 1943. Concentrated on airdromes but also bombed marshalling yards and gun positions during the first months of combat. Carried out an extensive campaign against V-weapon sites along the coast of France in the winter of 1943-1944, and bombed airfields in Holland and Belgium during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Hammered marshalling yards, gun positions, and airdromes preceding the invasion of Normandy and made numerous assaults on bridges of the Seine late in May. Struck coastal batteries on D-Day and hit bridges, supply and fuel stores, gun positions, and defended areas during the remainder of the Normandy campaign. Supported Allied forces at Caen, and participated in the massive blows against the enemy at St Lo on 25 Jul 1944. Knocked out targets to help clear the Falaise gap of German forces in Aug 1944 and hit strong points at Brest during Sep. After moving to the Continent in Oct 1944, attacked strong points at Metz, flew missions to Holland and assaulted such objectives as defended areas, storage depots, and communications in Germany. Focused its attacks primarily on bridges during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, in order to cut off enemy supplies and reinforcements. Converted to A-26's shortly after the Ardennes campaign and continued to strike German communications, transportation, and storage facilities until May 1945. Redesignated 386th Bombardment Group (Light) in Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 386th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 8 Apr 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air Command.

Squadrons. 552d: 1942-1945; 1956-. 553d: 1942-1945; 1956-. 554th: 1942-1945; 1956-. 555th: 1942-1945.

387th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 387th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 25 Nov 1942. Activated on 1 Dec 1942. Trained with B-26 aircraft. Moved to England in Jun 1943. Served with Eighth AF until assigned to Ninth in Oct 1943. Began combat in Aug 1943 and concentrated its attacks on airdromes during the first months of operations. Made numerous strikes on V-weapon sites in France in the winter of 1943-1944. Hit airfields at Leeuwarden and Venlo during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944, the intensive campaign against the German Air Force and aircraft industry. Helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by attacking coastal batteries and bridges in France during May 1944. Bombed along the invasion coast on 6 Jun 1944 and supported ground forces throughout the month by raiding railroads, bridges, road junctions, defended areas, and fuel dumps. Moved to the Continent in Jul 1944 and participated in attacks on the enemy at St Lo in the latter part of the month and on German forces at Brest during Aug and Sep. Extended operations into Germany by fall of 1944. Received a DUC for action during the Battle of the Bulge when the group hit strongly defended transportation and communications targets at Mayen and Prum. Supported the Allied drive into the Reich by attacking bridges, communications centers, marshalling yards, storage installations, and other objectives. Ended combat operations in Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Nov. Inactivated on 17 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 556th: 1942-1945. 557th: 1942-1945. 558th: 1942-1945. 559th: 1942-1945.

388th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 388th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 Dec 1942 and activated on 24 Dec. Trained for combat with B-17's. Moved to England in Jun 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Began operations on 17 Jul 1943 by attacking an aircraft factory in Amsterdam. Functioned primarily as a strategic bombardment Organization until the war ended. Targets included industries, naval installations, oil storage plants, refineries, and communications centers in Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Norway, Rumania, and Holland. Received a DUC for withstanding heavy opposition to bomb vital aircraft factory at Regensburg on 1 Aug 1943. Received another DUC for three outstanding missions: an attack against a tire and rubber factory in Hannover on 26 Jul 1943; the bombardment of a synthetic oil refinery in Brux on 12 Ma 1944; and a strike against a synthetic oil refinery at Ruhland on 21 Jun 1944, during a shuttle raid from England to Russia. Attacked many other significant targets, including aircraft factories in Kassel, Reims, and Brunswick; airfields in Bordeaux, Paris, and Berlin; naval works at La Pallice, Emden, and Kiel; chemical industries in Ludwigshafen; ball-bearing plants in Schweinfurt; and marshalling yards in Brussels, Osnabruck, and Bielefeld. Operations also included support and interdictory missions. Helped prepare for the invasion of Normandy by attacking military installations in France, and on D-Day struck coastal guns, field batteries, and transportation. Continued to support ground forces during the campaign that followed, hitting such objectives as supply depots and troop concentrations. Bombed in support of ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944 and at Caen in Aug. Covered the airborne assault on Holland in Sep 1944 by attacking military installations and airfields at Arnheim. Aided the final drive through Germany during the early months of 1945 by striking targets such as marshalling yards, rail bridges, and road junctions. After V-E Day, flew food to Holland to relieve flood-stricken areas. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 388th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 23 Nov 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with F-86 aircraft. Moved to France, Nov-Dec 1954, and became part of United States Air Forces in Europe.

Squadrons. 560th: 1942-1945. 561st: 1942-1945; 1953-. 562d: 1942-1945; 1953-. 563d: 1942-1945; 1953-.

389th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 389th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 Dec 1942 and activated on 24 Dec. Prepared for duty overseas with B-24's. Moved to England, Jun-Jul 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Almost immediately a detachment was sent to Libya, where it began operations on 9 Jul 1943. The detachment flew missions to Crete, Sicily, Italy, Austria, and Rumania. The group received a DUC for the detachment's participation in the famed low-level attack against oil refineries at Ploesti on 1 Aug 1943. For his action during the same operation, 2d Lt Lloyd H Hughes was awarded the Medal of Honor: refusing to turn back although gasoline was streaming from his flak-damaged plane, Lt Hughes flew at low altitude over the blazing target area and bombed the objective; the plane crashed before Hughes could make the forced landing that he attempted after the bomb run. The detachment returned to England in Aug and the group flew several missions against airfields in France and Holland. Operating temporarily from Tunisia, Sep-Oct 1943, the 389th supported Allied operations at Salerno and hit targets in Corsica, Italy, and Austria. Resumed operations from England in Oct 1943, and until Apr 1945 concentrated primarily on strategic objectives in France, the Low Countries, and Germany. Targets included shipbuilding yards at Vegesack, industrial areas of Berlin, oil facilities at Merseburg, factories at Munster, railroad yards at Sangerhausen, and V-weapon sites at Pas de Calais. Participated in the intensive air campaign against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Also flew support and interdictory missions on several occasions, bombing gun batteries and airfields in support of the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944, striking enemy positions to aid the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944, hitting storage depots and communications centers during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945), and dropping food, ammunition, gasoline, and other supplies to troops participating in the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission late in Apr 1945. Returned to the US, May-Jun 1945. Inactivated on 13 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 564th: 1942-1945. 565th: 1942-1945. 566th: 1942-1945. 567th: 1942-1945.

390th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 390th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 15 Jan 1943 and activated on 26 Jan. Prepared for combat with B-17's. Moved to England in Jul 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Operated chiefly against strategic objectives, flying many missions with the aid of pathfinders. Began combat on 12 Aug 1943. Five days later, attacked the Messerschmitt aircraft complex at Regensburg and received a DUC for the mission. Received another DUC for a mission on 14 Oct 1943 when the group braved unrelenting assaults by enemy fighters to bomb the antifriction-bearing plants at Schweinfurt. Participating in the intensive Allied assault on the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944, the organization bombed aircraft factories, instrument plants, and air parks. Other strategic missions included attacks on marshalling yards at Frankfurt, bridges at Cologne, oil facilities at Zeitz, factories at Mannheim, naval installations at Bremen, and synthetic oil refineries at Merseburg. Sometimes flew interdictory and support missions. Bombed the coast near Caen fifteen minutes before the landings in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944. Attacked enemy artillery in support of ground forces during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Cut German supply lines during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Hit airfields in support of the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 20 Apr 1945. Dropped food supplies to the Dutch during the week prior to V-E Day. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Squadrons. 568th: 1943-1945. 569th: 1943-1945. 570th: 1943-1945. 571st: 1943-1945.

391st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 391st Bombardment Group (Medium) on 15 Jan 1943 and activated on 21 Jan. Trained with B-26's for duty in Europe with Ninth AF. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944. Entered combat on 15 Feb 1944 and during the ensuing weeks bombed targets such as airfields, marshalling yards, bridges, and V-weapon sites in France and the Low Countries to help prepare for the invasion of Normandy. Attacked enemy defenses along the invasion beaches on 6 and 7 Jun 1944. From Jun to Sep, continued cross-Channel operations, which included attacks on fuel dumps and troop concentrations in support of Allied forces during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944, and strikes on transportation and communications to block the enemy's retreat to the east. Began flying missions from bases on the Continent in Sep 1944, extending its area of operations into Germany and continuing its attacks against enemy railroads, highways, troops, bridges, ammunition dumps, and other targets. Contributed vital assistance to ground forces during the Battle of the Bulge by attacking heavily defended positions such as bridges and viaducts, 23-26 Dec 1944; for these missions, performed without fighter escort in the face of intense flak and overwhelming attacks by enemy aircraft, the group was awarded a DUC. From Jan to May 1945, and using A-26's beginning in Apr, the group concentrated its attacks on the German transportation and communications system. Flew its last mission on 3 May. Redesignated 391st Bombardment Group (Light) in Jul. Returned to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 25 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 111th Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to ANG (Pa) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 20 Dec 1948. Redesignated 111th Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 111th Bombardment Group (Light) in Feb 1951. Ordered to active service on 1 Apr 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Trained with B-26 and B-29 aircraft. Redesignated 111th Strategic Reconnaissance Group (Medium) in Aug 1951. Converted to RB-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. Returned to ANG (Pa), redesignated 111th Fighter-Bomber Group, and activated, on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 103d: 1951-1952. 117th: 1951. 122d: 1951. 129th: 1951-1952. 130th: 1951-1952. 572d: 1943-1945. 573d: 1943-1945. 574th: 1943-1945. 575th: 1943-1945.

392d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 392d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 15 Jan 1943 and activated on 26 Jan. Trained with B-24's. Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat on 9 Sep 1943 and engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic objectives on the Continent until Apr 1945. Attacked such targets as an oil refinery at Gelsenkirchen, a marshalling yard at Osnabruck, a railroad viaduct at Bielefeld, steel plants at Brunswick, a tank factory at Kassel, and gas works at Berlin. Took part in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944, being awarded a DUC for bombing an aircraft and component parts factory at Gotha on 24 Feb. Sometimes supported ground forces or carried out interdictory operations. Bombed airfields and V-weapon sites in France prior to the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 and struck coastal defenses and choke points on D-Day. Hit enemy positions to assist ground forces at St Lo during the breakthrough in Jul 1944. Bombed railroads, bridges, and highways to cut off German supply lines during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Dropped supplies to Allied troops during the air attack on Holland in Sep 1944 and during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945, then carried food to the Dutch. Returned to the US in Jun. Inactivated on 13 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 392d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 30 Jul 1947. Redesignated 392d Bombardment Group (Light) in Jun 1949. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1949.

Squadrons. 576th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 577th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 578th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 579th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949.

393d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 393d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated on 16 Feb 1943. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's. Served as an operational training unit until Aug 1943, then became a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 580th: 1943-1944. 581st: 1943-1944. 582d: 1943-1944. 583d: 1943-1944.

394th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 394th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 5 Mar 1943. Trained with B-26's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat in Mar 1944 and helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by hitting V-weapon sites, marshalling yards, bridges, airdromes, and gun emplacements. On D-Day, 6 Jun, bombed gun positions at Cherbourg; afterward, struck communications, fuel supplies, and strong points in support of the Normandy campaign. Aided the breakthrough at St Lo by bombing targets in the area on 25 Jul 1944. Received a DUC for operations from 7 to 9 Aug 1944 when the group made five attacks against strongly fortified targets in northern France, knocking out an ammunition dump and four railroad bridges. Capt Darrell R Lindsey was awarded the Medal of Honor for leading a formation of B-26's over one of these bridges on 9 Aug. During the flight, Lindsey's plane was hit and the right engine burst into flames. Knowing that the gasoline tanks could explode at an moment, he continued to lead the formation until the bomb run had been made, then ordered his crew to bail out. The bombardier, the last man to leave the plane, offered to lower the wheels so that Lindsey might escape through the nose the aircraft, but realizing that this could throw the plane into a spin and hinder the bombardier's chances to escape, Lindsey refused the offer and remained with his B-26 until it crashed. After moving to the Continent late in Aug 1944, the group hit strong points at Brest and then began to operate against targets in Germany. Took part in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by hitting communications to deprive the enemy of supplies and reinforcements. Bombed transportation, storage facilities, and other objectives until the war ended; also dropped propaganda leaflets. Remained in the theater to serve with United States Air Forces in Europe as part of the army of occupation. Redesignated 394th Bombardment Group (Light) in Dec 1945. Began training with A-26's. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US on 15 Feb 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Redesignated 106th Bombardment Group (Light). Allotted to ANG (NY) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 21 Mar 1947. Redesignated 106th Composite Group in Nov 1950, and 106th Bombardment Group (Light) in Feb 1951. Ordered to active service on 1 Mar 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Redesignated 106th Bombardment Group (Medium) in May 1951. Equipped with B-29's. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952. Returned to ANG (NY) on 1 Dec 1952. Redesignated 106th Bombardment Group (Light).

Squadrons. 102d: 1951-1952. 114th: 1951-1952. 135th: 1951-1952. 584th: 1943-1946. 585th: 1943-1946. 586th: 1943-1946. 587th: 1943-1945.

395th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 395th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated on 16 Feb 1943. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's. Served first as an operational training unit, becoming a replacement training unit in Oct 1943. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 588th: 1943-1944. 589th: 1943-1944. 590th: 1943-1944. 591st: 1943-1944.

396th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 396th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated on 16 Feb 1943. Assigned to Second AF, later (Nov 1943) to Third AF. Equipped with B-17's. Served as an operational training unit until Aug 1943, then became a replacement training unit. Inactivated on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 592d: 1943-1944. 593d: 1943-1944. 594th: 1943-1944. 595th: 1943-1944.

397th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 397th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Mar 1943. Activated on 20 Apr 1943. Trained with B-26's. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Participated in operations preparatory to the Normandy invasion by attacking V-weapon sites, bridges, coastal defenses, marshalling yards, and airfields, Apr-Jun 1944. Hit strong points in France on D-Day and assisted ground forces throughout the remainder of the Normandy campaign by bombing fuel dumps, defended areas, and other objectives. Engaged in bombardment of German forces in the region of St Lo during the Allied breakthrough in Jul. After moving to the Continent in Aug, struck enemy positions at St Malo and Brest and bombed targets in the Rouen area as Allied armies swept across the Seine and advanced to the Siegfried Line. Began flying missions into Germany in Sep, attacking such targets as bridges, defended areas, and storage depots. Struck the enemy's communications during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and received a DUC for a mission on 23 Dec 1944 when the group withstood heavy flak and fighter attack to sever a railway bridge at Eller, a vital link in the enemy's supply line across the Moselle. Continued to support the Allied drive into Germany until Apr 1945. Returned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Squadrons. 596th: 1943-1945. 597th: 1943-1946. 598th: 1943-1945. 599th: 1943-1945.

398th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 398th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Prepared for combat with B-17's, but interrupted these activities from Jul to Dec 1943 to train replacement crews for other organizations. Moved to England in Apr 1944 and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat in May 1944, and until V-E Day operated primarily against strategic objectives in Germany, attacking targets such as factories in Berlin, warehouses in Munich, marshalling yards in Saarbrucken, shipping facilities in Kiel, oil refineries in Merseburg, and aircraft plants in Munster. Temporarily suspended strategic missions to attack coastal defenses and enemy troops on the Cherbourg peninsula during the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944; strike gun positions near Eindhoven in support of the air attack on Holland in Sep 1944; raid power stations, railroads, and bridges during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and attack airfields to aid the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission, attacking an airfield in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, on 25 Apr 1945. Transported liberated prisoners from Germany to France after V-E Day. Returned to the US, May-Jun 1945. Inactivated on 1 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 600th: 1943-1945. 601st: 1943-1945. 602d: 1943-1945. 603d: 1943-1945.

399th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 399th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Assigned to Second AF; reassigned to Fourth AF in Dec 1943. Equipped with B-24's. Served first as an operational training unit and later (Aug 1943) became a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Squadrons. 604th: 1943-1944. 605th: 1943-1944. 606th: 1943-1944. 607th: 1943-1944.

400th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 400th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Equipped with B-24's. Functioned as an operational training unit of Second AF from May to Dec 1943. Reassigned to First AF to train replacement crews. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 608th: 1943-1944. 609th: 1943-1944. 610th: 1943-1944. 611th: 1943-1944.

401st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 401st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Mar 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Prepared for combat with B-17's. Moved to England, Oct-Nov 1943, and served in combat with Eighth AF, Nov 1943-Apr 1945. Operated chiefly against strategic targets, bombing industries, submarine facilities, shipyards, missile sites, marshalling yards, and airfields; beginning in Oct 1944, concentrated on oil reserves. Received a DUC for striking telling blows against German aircraft production on 11 Jan and 20 Feb 1944. In addition to strategic missions, operations included attacks on transportation, airfields, and fortifications prior to the Normandy invasion and on D-Day, Jun 1944; support for ground operations during the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul, the siege of Brest in Aug, and the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944; participation in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by assaulting transportation targets and communications centers in the battle area; and support for the airborne attack across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Returned to the US after V-E Day. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 401st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 26 Jun 1947. Redesignated 401st Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Called to active service on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Inactivated on 25 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 401st Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 8 Feb 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with F-86's.

Squadrons. 612th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1954-. 613th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1954-. 614th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1954-. 615th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949.

402d Fighter Group

Constituted as 402d Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 Apr 1943. Activated in China on 19 May 1943. Assigned to Fourteenth AF. No squadrons were assigned and headquarters apparently was never fully manned. Disbanded in China on 31 Jul 1943. Reconstituted (in Oct 1956) and consolidated with 402d Fighter Group.

402d Fighter Group was constituted on 24 Sep 1943. Activated in the US on 1 Oct 1943. Assigned to First AF. Trained replacement pilots for combat with P-47's. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 402d Fighter-Day Group, on 4 Oct 1956. Activated on 15 Oct 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air Command.

Squadrons. 320th: 1943-1944; 1956-. 442d: 1943-1944; 1956-. 452d: 1943-1944. 538th: 1943. 539th: 1943. 540th: 1943-1944; 1956-.

403d Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 403d Troop Carrier Group on 7 Dec 1942 and activated on 12 Dec. Trained for overseas duty with C-47's. Moved to the South Pacific, Jul-Sep 1943, and assigned to Thirteenth AF. Transported men and supplies to forward areas in the Solomons and flew passenger and cargo routes to New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, and New Caledonia. Moved personnel of Thirteenth AF units to the Southwest Pacific. Supported the New Guinea and Philippines campaigns by transporting men and cargo to combat areas, evacuating casualties, and landing or dropping supplies for guerrilla forces. Dropped paratroops at Laguna de Bay, Luzon, on 23 Feb 1945, to free civilian internees held by the Japanese. Received a DUC for operations from Apr to Jun 1945 when it transported ammunition, food, and other supplies to Eighth Army forces in Mindanao and often landed on jungle airstrips to evacuate wounded personnel. Moved to Leyte in Jun 1945 and remained in the Philippines after the war as part of Far East Air Forces. Ferried occupation troops to Japan, evacuated prisoners who had been liberated, and flew cargo and passenger routes to Japan and Australia. Inactivated in Manila on 15 Oct 1946.

Redesignated 403d Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 27 Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 1 Apr 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with C-46 and C-47 aircraft. Moved to Japan, Mar-Apr 1952, and attached to Far East Air Forces for operations in the war against communist forces in Korea. Using C-119's, aided UN forces in Korea by dropping paratroops and supplies, transporting personnel and equipment, and evacuating casualties. Relieved from active duty and inactivated in Japan, on 1 Jan 1953. Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 6th: 1946. 9th: 1946. 19th: 1946. 63d: 1942-1946; 1949-1953; 1953-. 64th: 1942-1946; 1949-1953; 1953-. 65th: 1942-1946; 1949-1953; 1953-. 66th: 1942-1946; 1949-1951.

404th Fighter Group

Constituted as 404th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 25 Jan 1943. Activated on 4 Feb 1943. Redesignated 404th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Trained with P-39, P-47, and other aircraft. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Redesignated 404th Fighter Group in May 1944. Became operational on 1 May 1944 and, using P-47's, helped to prepare for the Normandy invasion by bombing and strafing targets in France. Provided top cover for landings in Normandy on 6 and 7 Jun 1944 and continued operations from England until Jul 1944. Moved to the Continent and operated in close support of ground troops until the end of the war, supporting the Allied breakthrough at St Lo in Jul 1944, the drive through Holland in Sep 1944, Allied operations during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945), and the establishment of the Remagen bridgehead and the subsequent crossing of the Rhine in Mar 1945. Also flew interdictory and escort missions, strafing and bombing such targets as troop concentrations, railroads, highways, bridges, ammunition and fuel dumps, armored vehicles, docks, and tunnels, and covering the operations of B-17's, B-24's, and B-26's that bombed factories, airdromes, marshalling yards, and other targets. Received a DUC for three armed reconnaissance missions flown on 10 Sep 1944 when, despite bad weather and antiaircraft fire, the group attacked enemy factories, rolling stock, and communications centers to aid the advance of ground forces. Received a French Croix de Guerre with Palm for assisting First Army at St Lo on 29, 30, and 31 Jul 1944 when the group, although suffering severe losses from flak, continuously provided cover for four armored divisions. Also cited by the Belgian government for operations contributing to the liberation of its people. After V-E Day, aided in disarming the German Air Force and in dismantling the enemy's aircraft industry. Returned to the US in Aug. In activated on 9 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 137th Fighter Group. Allotted to ANG (Okla) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 18 Dec 1947. Ordered to active duty on 10 Oct 1950. Redesignated 137th Fighter-Bomber Group. Trained with F-84's. Moved to France in May 1952 and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Relieved from active service and returned, without personnel and equipment, to the control of ANG (Okla), on 10 Jul 1952.

Squadrons. 125th: 1950-1952. 127th: 1950-1952. 128th: 1950-1952. 455th: 1943-1944. 506th (formerly 620th): 1943-1945. 507th (formerly 621st): 1943-1945. 508th (formerly 622d): 1943-1945. 623d: 1943.

405th Fighter Group

Constituted as 405th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 4 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Redesignated 405th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 405th Fighter Group in May 1944. Trained with A-24, A-25, P-39, and finally P-47 aircraft, the latter being used in combat. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944. Entered combat with Ninth AF in Apr 1944. Until D-Day, engaged chiefly in bombing airdromes, marshalling yards, and bridges in France in preparation for the invasion of France. Flew patrols in the vicinity of Brest during the invasion and then flew armed reconnaissance missions to support operations in Normandy. Moved to the Continent at the end of Jun 1944 and engaged primarily in providing support for ground forces until May 1945. Bombed enemy vehicles and gun positions at St Lo in Jul 1944; attacked barges, troops, roads, and warehouses during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and struck airfields and marshalling yards when the Allies crossed the Rhine in Mar 1945. Received a DUC for a mission in France on 24 Sep 1944: answering a request from Third Army for support near Laneuveville-en-Saulnois, two squadrons, flying on instruments through rain and dense overcast, were directed by ground control toward a furious tank battle where, in spite of severe ground fire, one squadron repeatedly bombed and strafed enemy tanks; the second squadron, unable to find this target because of the weather, attacked a convoy of trucks and armored vehicles; later the same day, the third squadron hit warehouses and other buildings and silenced ground opposition in the area. For operations, Jun-Sep 1944, that aided the drive across Normandy and the liberation of Belgium, the group was cited by the Belgian government. Flew last mission on 8 May 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Oct 1945. Inactivated on 29 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 405th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 1 Dec 1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with F-84's.

Squadrons. 509th (formerly 624th): 1943-1945; 1952-. 510th (formerly 625th): 1943-1945; 1952-. 511th (formerly 626th): 1943-1945; 1952-. 627th: 1943.

406th Fighter Group

Constituted as 406th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 4 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Redesignated 406th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943, and 406th Fighter Group in May 1944. Trained with A-24, A-35, A-39, P-47, and other aircraft. Joined Ninth AF in England in Apr 1944 and entered combat with P-47's in May when the Allies were preparing for the invasion of the Continent. Provided area cover during the landings in Jun, and afterwards flew armed-reconnaissance and dive-bombing missions against the enemy, attacking such targets as motor transports, gun emplacements, ammunition dumps, rail lines, marshalling yards, and bridges during the campaign in Normandy. Helped prepare the way for the Allied breakthrough at St Lo on 25 Jul. Moved to the Continent early in Aug and continued to provide tactical air support for ground forces. Participated in the reduction of St Malo and Brest. Aided the Allied drive across France, receiving a DUC for operations on 7 Sep 1944 when the group destroyed a large column of armered vehicles and military transports that were attempting to escape from southeastern France through the Belfort Gap. Operated closely with ground forces and flew interdictory missions during the drive to the Moselle-Saar region. Shifted operations from the Saar basin to the Ardennes and assisted the beleaguered garrison at Bastogne after the Germans had launched the counteroffensive that precipitated the Battle of the Bulge. Operated almost exclusively within a ten-mile radius of Bastogne from 23-27 Dec 1944, a period for which the group received a second DUC for its attacks on tanks, vehicles, defended buildings, and gun positions. Flew escort, interdictory, and close-support missions in the Ruhr Valley early in 1945 and thus assisted Allied ground forces in their drive to and across the Rhine. Remained in Europe after V-E Day, being assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe for duty in Germany with the army of occupation. Inactivated on 20 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 406th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated in England on 10 Jul 1952. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Equipped with F-84's; converted to F-86's late in 1953. Redesignated 406th Fighter-Interceptor Group in Apr 1954.

Squadrons. 512th (formerly 628th): 1943-1946; 1952-. 513th (formerly 629th): 1943-1946; 1952-. 514th (formerly 630th): 1943-1946; 1952-. 631st: 1943.

407th Fighter Group

Constituted as 407th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 23 Mar 1943 and activated on 28 Mar. Assigned to Second and later (Nov 1943) to Third AF. Part of the group, the air echelon with A-24's, was stationed in Alaska during Jul and Aug 1943 for operations against the Japanese in the Aleutians. Redesignated 407th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Trained for combat and later functioned as a replacement training unit, using a variety of aircraft that included A-36's, P-47's, and P-51's. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 495th: 1944. 515th (formerly 632d): 1943-1944. 516th (formerly 633d): 1943-1944. 517th (formerly 634th): 1943-1944. 635th: 1943.

408th Fighter Group

Constituted as 408th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 23 Mar 1943. Activated on 5 Apr 1943. Redesignated 408th Fighter-Bomber Group in Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF, then to Second (Nov 1943), and again to Third (Feb 1944). Received A-24, A-26, P-40, and P-47 aircraft in Oct 1943 and began training. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 408th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 8 Jul 1955. Activated on 8 Apr 1956. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 455th: 1944. 518th (formerly 636th): 1943-1944; 1956-. 519th (formerly 637th): 1943-1944. 520th (formerly 638th): 1943-1944. 639th: 1943.

409th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 409th Bombardment Group (Light) on 1 Jun 1943 and activated the same day. Used A-20's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Bombed coastal defenses, V-weapon sites, airdromes, and other targets in France, Apr-Jun 1944, in preparation for the invasion of Normandy. Supported ground forces during the Normandy campaign by hitting gun batteries, rail lines, bridges, communications, and other objectives. During Jul 1944, aided the Allied offensive at Caen and the breakthrough at St Lo with attacks on enemy troops, flak positions, fortified villages, and supply dumps. Supported Third Army's advance toward Germany, Aug-Nov 1944, operating from bases in France beginning in Sep. Converted to A-26 aircraft in Dec and participated in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) by attacking lines of communication and supply. Continued to operate against targets in Germany until May 1945. Flew last mission on 3 May, attacking an ammunition dump in Czechoslovakia. Returned to the US, Jun-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 640th: 1943-1945. 641st: 1943-1945. 642d: 1943-1945. 643d: 1943-1945.

410th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 410th Bombardment Group (Light) on 16 Jun 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Trained with A-20's. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat in May 1944 and helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by assaulting coastal defenses, airfields, and V-weapon sites in France, and marshalling yards in France and Belgium. Supported the invasion in Jun by bombing gun positions and railway choke points. Assisted ground forces at Caen and St Lo in Jul and at Brest in Aug and Sep by attacking bridges, vehicles, fuel and ammunition dumps, and rail lines. Moved to France in Sep, and through mid-Dec struck defended villages, railroad bridges and overpasses, marshalling yards, military camps, and communications centers to support the Allied assault on the Siegfried Line. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, by pounding marshalling yards, railheads, bridges, and vehicles in the battle area. Received a DUC for the effectiveness of its bombing in the Ardennes, 23-25 Dec 1944, when the group made numerous attacks on enemy lines of communications. Flew several night missions in Feb 1945, using B-26's as flare planes, an A-26 for target marking, and A-20's to bomb the objectives. Continued to fly support and interdictory missions, aiding the drive across the Rhine and into Germany, Feb-Apr 1945. Converted to A-26 aircraft, but the war ended before the group was ready to fly them in combat. Returned to the US, Jun-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 644th: 1943-1945. 645th: 1943-1945. 646th: 1943-1945. 647th: 1943-1945.

411th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 411th Bombardment Group (Light) on 14 Jul 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Functioned as a replacement training unit, using A-20 aircraft. Disbanded on 1 May 1944.

Squadrons. 648th: 1943-1944. 649th: 1943-1944. 650th: 1943-1944. 651st: 1943-1944.

412th Fighter Group

Constituted as 412th Fighter Group on 20 Nov 1943 and activated on 29 Nov. Assigned to Fourth AF. Conducted tests and engaged in experimental work with P-59A and P-80 jet aircraft. Also trained pilots and other personnel for duty with units using jet aircraft. Inactivated on 3 Jul 1946.

Redesignated 412th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 29th: 1944-1946. 31st: 1944-1946. 445th: 1944-1946; 1955-.

413th Fighter Group

Constituted as 413th Fighter Group on 5 Oct 1944 and activated on 15 Oct. Trained for very-long-range operations with P-47's. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Apr-Jun 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF; reassigned to the Eighth early in Aug 1945. Flew a few strafing missions from Saipan to the Truk Islands in May before beginning operations from Ie Shima in Jun. Engaged in dive-bombing and strafing attacks on factories, radar stations, airfields, small ships, and other targets in Japan. Made several attacks on shipping and airfields in China during Jul. Flew its only escort mission on 8 Aug 1945 when it covered B-29's during a raid against Yawata, Japan. Served as a part of the air defense and occupation force for the Ryukyu Islands after the war. Inactivated on Okinawa on 15 Oct 1946.

Redesignated 413th Fighter-Day Group. Activated in the US on 11 Nov 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped first with F-86's, later with F-100's.

Squadrons. 1st: 1944-1946; 1954-. 21st: 1944-1946; 1954-. 34th: 1944-1946; 1954-.

414th Fighter Group

Constituted as 414th Fighter Group on 5 Oct 1944 and activated on 15 Oct. Equipped with P-47's. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Jun-Aug 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF. The air echelon, based temporarily on Guam, attacked objectives in the Truk Islands on 13 and 22 Jul. The group began operations from Iwo Jima late that month with an attack against a radar station on Chichi Jima. Operations during Aug were directed primarily against enemy airfields in Japan, but the group also strafed hangar barracks, ordnance dumps, trains, marshalling yards, and shipping. Moved to the Philippines late in Dec 1945. Assigned to Thirteenth AF. Inactivated in the Philippines on 30 Sep 1946.

Redesignated 414th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated in the US on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Equipped first with F-94's, later with F-89's.

Squadrons. 413th: 1944-1946. 437th: 1944-1946; 1955-. 456th: 1944-1946.

415th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 415th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 12 Feb 1943 and activated on 15 Feb. Equipped with A-20's, A-24's, A-26's, B-25's, and P-39's. Served as a training and demonstration organization at AAF School of Applied Tactics and later as a replacement training unit of Second AF. Disbanded on 5 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 465th: 1943-1944. 521st (formerly 667th): 1943-1944.

416th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 416th Bombardment Group (Light) on 25 Jan 1943. Activated on 5 Feb 1943. Used A-20's in preparing for duty overseas. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Entered combat in Mar 1944, and during the next several weeks directed most of its attacks against V-weapon sites in France. Flew a number of missions against airfields and coastal defenses to help prepare for the invasion of Normandy. Supported the invasion in Jun 1944 by striking road junctions, marshalling yards, bridges, and railway overpasses. Assisted ground forces at Caen and St Lo in Jul and at Brest later in the summer, by hitting transportation facilities, supply dumps, radar installations, and other targets. In spite of intense resistance, the group bombed bridges, railways, rolling stock, and a radar station to disrupt the enemy's retreat through the Falaise gap, 6-9 Aug 1944, and received a DUC for the missions. Assisted the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Supported the assault on the Siegfried Line by pounding transportation, warehouses, supply dumps, and defended villages in Germany. Converted to A-26 aircraft in Nov. Attacked transportation facilities, strong points, communications centers, and troop concentrations during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Aided the Allied thrust into Germany by continuing its strike against transportation, communications, airfields, storage depots, and other objectives, Feb-May 1945. Bombed flak positions in support of the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Returned to the US, Jul-Oct 1945. Inactivated on 24 Oct 1945.

Squadrons. 668th: 1943-1945. 669th: 1943-1945. 670th: 1943-1945. 671st: 1943-1945.

417th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 417th Bombardment Group (Light) on 23 Mar 1943 and activated on 28 Mar. Trained with A-20's. Moved to New Guinea, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, and assigned to Fifth AF. Began combat in Mar 1944, operating in support of ground forces on New Guinea and striking airfields, bridges, personnel concentrations, installations, and shipping in that area. Operated from Noemfoor, Sep-Dec 1944, attacking airfields and installation on Ceram, Halmahera, and western New Guinea. Moved to the Philippines in Dec 1944, and until Jun 1945 supported ground forces and attacked enemy airfields, transportation, and installations on Luzon, Cebu, Negros, and Mindanao. Received a DUC for attacking Japanese convoys at Lingayen, 30 Dec 1944-2 Jan 1945, action that not only impaired enemy shipping and supply strength, but also helped clear the way for the American invasion of Luzon. Flew its last missions in Jul, dropping propaganda leaflets to Japanese troops on Luzon. Moved to Okinawa in Aug 1945 and to Japan in Nov. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 672d: 1943-1945. 673d: 1943-1945. 674th: 1943-1945. 675th: 1943-1945.

418th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 418th Bombardment Group (Light) on 16 Jul 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Disbanded on 15 Sep 1943. Consolidated (in Apr 1958) with the 418th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy).

418th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) was constituted on 28 Feb 1944. Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Assigned to Second AF as a replacement training unit but had no squadrons assigned. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 696th: 1943. 697th: 1943. 698th: 1943. 699th: 1943.

419th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 419th Troop Carrier Group on 1 Dec 1944. Activated on Guam on 31 Jan 1945. Assigned to Seventh AF. No tactical squadrons or aircraft were assigned. The group's headquarters had detachments at Saipan, Tinian, and Anguar, the latter detachment moving to Iwo Jima in Mar 1945. These detachments operated transportation terminals that assisted in moving troops, equipment, food, and mail to, and in evacuating wounded personnel from, combat areas. Inactivated on Guam on 15 Feb 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 22 Mar 1947. Redesignated 419th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on May 1951. Inactivated on 2 May 1951.

Redesignated 419th Troop Carrier Group (Assault, Fixed Wing). Activated on 9 Jul 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with C-123's.

Squadrons. 12th Rescue: 1947-1949. 15th Fighter: 1947-1949. 63d: 1947-1949. 64th: 1947-1949. 65th: 1947-1949. 66th: 1947-1949. 79th: 1948-1949. 339th: 1949-1951; 1956-. 340th: 1949--1951; 1956-. 341st: 1949-1951; 1956-. 342d: 1949-1951.

423rd Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 423rd Observation Group on 30 Mar 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated 413rd Reconnaissance Group on 10 Apr 1943. Original mission of training replacements was changed in Jun 1943 to training pilot instructors for III Fighter Command. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943.

Squadrons. 29th: 1943. 32d: 1943 33d: 1943. 34th: 1943.

424th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 414th Observation Group on 30 Mar 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated 424th Reconnaissance Group on 20 Apr 1943. Apparently was never fully organized. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943.

Squadrons. 15th: 1943. 36th: 1943. 37th: 1943. 38th: 1943.

426th Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 416th Reconnaissance Group on 25 Jun 1943. Activated on Jul 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Apparently was never fully organized. Disbanded on 15 Aug 1943.

Squadrons. 44th: 1943. 45th: 1943. 46th: 1943. 47th: 1943.

432nd Reconnaissance Group

Constituted as 432d Observation Group on 18 Feb 1943 and activated on 22 Feb. Assigned to AAF School of Applied Tactics. Redesignated 432nd Reconnaissance Group in Apr 1943, and 432nd Tactical Reconnaissance Group in Aug 1943. Aircraft included P-39's and L-3's. Trained, and provided reconnaissance to assist fighter, bombardment, and ground units with their training. Disbanded on 1 Nov 1943.

Reconstituted on 14 Jan 1954. Activated on 18 Mar 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped with RF-80's, RF-84's, RB-26's, RB-57's, and RB-66's.

Squadrons. 3d: 1943. 20th: 1954. 29th: 1954-. 41st: 1954-. 43d: 1954-.

433rd Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 433rd Troop Carrier Group on 22 Jan 1943. Activated on 9 Feb 1943. Trained to tow gliders and to transport and drop supplies and paratroops. Moved to New Guinea, via Hawaii, the Fiji Islands, and Australia, Aug-Nov 1943. Assigned to Fifth AF. Operated from New Guinea and Biak until 1945, using C-47's and a few B-17's, plus C-46's that were acquired late in 1944. Transported troops; hauled such things as gasoline, ammunition, medicine, rations, communications equipment, and construction materials; and evacuated wounded personnel. Moved to the Philippines in Jan 1945. Operations included delivering ammunition, rations, and other items to Filipino guerrilla forces; evacuating prisoners of war and civilian internees; transporting combat units from New Guinea, the Netherlands Indies, and the Solomons, to the Philippines; and dropping rice to the leper colony on Culion Island. Transported organizations of Fifth AF to Okinawa, Jun-Aug 1945, and hauled occupation forces to Japan after V-J Day. Moved to Japan in Sep 1945. Inactivated on 15 Jan 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 6 Jul 1947. Redesignated 433rd Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Equipped for a time with C-46 and C-47 aircraft; converted to C-119's in 1950. Ordered to active service on 15 Oct 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Moved to Germany, Jul-Aug 1951, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 14 Jul 1952.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 18 May 1955.

Squadrons. 5th: 1948-1949. 65th: 1943-1945. 66th: 1943-1945. 67th: 1943-1946; 1947-1952; 1955-. 68th: 1943-1946; 1947-1952; 1955-. 69th: 1943-1946; 1947-1952. 70th: 1943-1946; 1947-1950. 315th: 1948-1949.

434th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 434th Troop Carrier Group on 30 Jan 1943. Activated on Feb 1943. Trained with C-47's for operations in Europe with Ninth AF. Moved to England in Oct 1943 and entered seven-month training period with 101st Airborne Division in preparation for the invasion of northern France. Towed gliders carrying troops to Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and flew follow-up missions later on D-Day and on 7 Jun to provide reinforcements of troops, vehicles, and ammunition. Received a DUC and the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for action in the invasion of Normandy. Dropped paratroops in the assault area and towed gliders with reinforcements during the airborne operation in Holland, 17-25 Sep 1944. Moved to France in Feb 1945. Participated in the airborne assault across the Rhine, dropping paratroops over the east bank on 24 Mar. In addition to these airborne operations, the group reinforced ground troops in the St Lo area during the breakthrough in Jul 1944; provided supplies for Third Army during its drive across France in Aug, an action for which the group was cited by the French Government; and resupplied troops at Bastogne in Dec 1944 in the effort to stop the German offensive in the Ardennes. Also engaged in numerous transport missions, hauling mail, rations, clothing, and other supplies from England to bases in France and Germany, and evacuating the Allied wounded. After V-E Day, transported gasoline to Allied forces in Germany and evacuated prisoners of war to relocation centers in France and Holland. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Trained with C-46's. Inactivated on 31 Jul 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Mar 1947. Redesignated 434th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jul 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Used C-47 aircraft. Relieved from active service and inactivated, on 1 Feb 1953.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on Feb 1953.

Squadrons. 71st: 1943-1946; 1947-1953; 1953-. 72d: 1943-1946; 1947-1953; 1953-. 73d: 1943-1946; 1947-1948, 1949-1953; 1953-1954. 74th: 1943-1946; 1947-1951. 80th: 1948-1949. 81st: 1948-1949.

435th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 435th Troop Carrier Group on 30 Jan 1943. Activated on 25 Feb 1943. Used C-47's and C-53's in preparing for duty overseas with Ninth AF. Moved to England, Oct-Nov 1943, and began training for participation in the airborne operation over Normandy. Entered combat on D-Day 1944 by dropping paratroops of 101st Airborne Division near Cherbourg; towed Waco and Horsa gliders carrying reinforcements to that area on the afternoon of D-Day and on the following morning; received a DUC for its part in the Normandy invasion. Began transport services following the landings in France and intermittently engaged in missions of this type until V-E Day; hauled supplies such as serum, blood plasma, radar sets, clothing, rations, and ammunition, and evacuated wounded personnel to Allied hospitals. Interrupted supply and evacuation missions to train for and participate in three major airborne assaults. A detachment that was sent to Italy in Jul 1944 for the invasion of Southern France dropped paratroops over the assault area on 15 Aug and released gliders carrying troops and equipment such as jeeps, guns, and ammunition; flew a resupply mission over France on 16 Aug; and then transported supplies to bases in Italy before returning to England at the end of the month. In Sep 1944 the group participated in the air attack on Holland, dropping paratroops of 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions and releasing gliders carrying reinforcements. Moved to France in Feb 1945 for the airborne assault across the Rhine; each aircraft towed two gliders in transporting troops and equipment to the east bank of the Rhine on 24 Mar; then the group flew resupply missions to Germany in support of ground forces. Transported supplies to occupation forces in Germany and evacuated Allied prisoners of war after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Jul 1947. Redesignated 435th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 1 Mar 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with C-119's. Relieved from active duty and inactivated, on 1 Dec 1952.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 1 Dec 1952.

Squadrons. 75th: 1943-1945. 76th: 1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. 77th: 1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. 78th: 1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-1954, 1955-. 326th: 1947-1949. 349th: 1949-1951.

436th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 436th Troop Carrier Group on 23 Mar 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Trained with C-47's for duty in Europe with Ninth AF. Moved overseas, Dec 1943-Jan 1944. Began operations in Jun 1944 and participated in four major airborne operations prior to the Allied victory in May 1945. Received a DUC for its first missions, which were flown during the Normandy invasion: dropped paratroops of 82d Airborne Division over the beachhead early on 6 Jun; released gliders with reinforcements of troops and supplies on the afternoon of D-Day and on the following morning. In Jul 1944 a detachment was sent to Italy to take part in the invasion of Southern France: released gliders carrying troops and dropped paratroops in the assault area on 15 Aug; flew several resupply missions to France and then dropped supplies to Allied forces in Italy. The detachment returned to England late in Aug, and in Sep the group carried out airborne operations over Holland, dropping paratroops of 101st Airborne Division and releasing gliders with reinforcements of troops and equipment. Towed gliders to Wesel on 24 Mar 1945 to provide troops for the airborne assault across the Rhine; carried gasoline to the front lines and evacuated patients, 30-31 Mar. Flew transport missions almost daily when not engaged in airborne operations; hauled such things as gasoline, ammunition, medical supplies, rations, and clothing; evacuated the wounded to hospitals in England and France. After V-E Day, evacuated patients and prisoners of war and flew practice missions with French paratroops. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Mar 1947. Redesignated 436th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 Apr 1951. Inactivated on 16 Apr 1951.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 18 May 1955.

Squadrons. 73d: 1948-1949. 79th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951; 1955-. 80th: 1943-1945; 1947-1948, 1949-1951. 81st: 1943-1945; 1947-1948, 1949-1951; 1955-. 82d: 1943-1945; 1947-1951. 316th: 1947-1949.

437th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 437th Troop Carrier Group on 15 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Trained with C-46 and C-47 aircraft for duty overseas with Ninth AF. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944, and began preparing for the Normandy invasion. Released gliders near Cherbourg early on 6 Jun 1944; flew follow-up missions on 6 and 7 Jun, carrying reinforcements of troops, antiaircraft pieces, ammunition, rations, and other supplies for 82nd Airborne Division; received a DUC for these actions in France. A detachment was sent to Italy in Jul 1944 for the invasion of Southern France in Aug; it dropped paratroops over the assault area on 15 Aug, flew a resupply mission on the following day, and then hauled freight to bases in Italy until it returned to England on 24 Aug. During the airborne attack on Holland, 17-25 Sep 1944, the group released gliders carrying troops and equipment, and flew several resupply missions to provide reinforcements. Moved to France in Feb 1945 for action during the air assault across the Rhine; each aircraft towed two gliders over the east bank and released them near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945. Flew numerous missions in Mar and Apr to carry gasoline, food, medicine, and other supplies to ground forces pushing across Germany. When not participating in one of the major airborne operations, the organization continually transported ammunition, rations, clothing, and other supplies, and evacuated wounded personnel to rear-zone hospitals. Evacuated prisoners of war and displaced persons to relocation centers after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 437th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 10 Aug 1950. Moved to Japan in Nov 1950 and assigned to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Used C-119's and C-46's to participate in the airlift between Japan and Korea from Dec 1950 to Jun 1952, transporting ammunition, rations, aircraft parts, gasoline, and other items to Pusan, Taegu, Suwon, Kimpo, Pyongyang, and other bases in Korea, and evacuating wounded personnel to hospitals in Japan. Dropped paratroops of 187th Regimental Combat Team at Munsan-ni in Mar 1951 and flew resupply and reinforcement missions in Apr and May. Supported the advance of Eighth Army into North Korea in Jun 1951. From Jan to Jun 1952, engaged chiefly in evacuating personnel on leave and in transporting replacements to the battle area. Relieved from active duty and inactivated in Japan, on 10 Jun 1952.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 15 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 83d: 1943-1945; 1949-1952; 1952-. 84th: 1943-1945; 1949-1952; 1952-. 85th: 1943-1945; 1949-1952; 1952-. 86th: 1943-1945; 1949-1950, 1951-1952.

438th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 438th Troop Carrier Group on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with C-47's. Moved to England in Feb 1944 and assigned to Ninth AF. Until Jun 1945, trained for and participated in airborne operations, flew resupply and reinforcement missions to combat zones, evacuated casualties, and hauled freight. Received a DUC for dropping paratroops in Normandy and towing gliders with reinforcements during the invasion of France in Jun 1944. A detachment went to Italy in Jul 1944 and participated in the invasion of Southern France in Aug by dropping paratroops and towing gliders that carried reinforcements; also hauled freight in Italy before returning to England late in Aug. In Sep the group helped to supply Third Army in its push across France, and transported troops and supplies when the Allies launched the airborne operation in Holland. Flew supply missions to battle areas, including two flights to Bastogne, during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945). Moved to France, Feb-Mar 1945. Dropped paratroops during the airborne attack across the Rhine in Mar. Evacuated Allied prisoners of war after V-E Day. Returned to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 438th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 14 Mar 1951.

Redesignated 438th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 87th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 88th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 89th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951; 1952-. 90th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951.

439th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 439th Troop Carrier Group on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 June 1943. Trained with C-47's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, for duty with Ninth AF. Prepared for the invasion of the Continent and began operations by dropping paratroops of 101st Airborne Division in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and releasing gliders with reinforcements on the following day, receiving a DUC and a French citation for these missions. After the Normandy invasion the group ferried supplies in the United Kingdom until the air echelon was sent to Italy in Jul to transport cargo to Rome and evacuate wounded personnel. The detachment dropped paratroops of 517th Parachute Infantry Regiment along the Riviera to aid the invasion of Southern France on 15 Aug 1944 and later towed gliders to provide reinforcements; for these missions the group was again cited by the French government. After the air echelon returned to England on 25 Aug, the group resumed its cargo missions. In Sep the group moved to France for further operations in support of the advancing Allies. Dropped paratroops of 82nd Airborne Division near Nijmegen and towed gliders carrying reinforcements during the airborne attack on Holland, 17-25 Sep 1944. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge by releasing gliders with supplies for 101st Airborne Division near Bastogne on 7 Dec 1944. Each aircraft of the group towed two gliders with troops of 17th Airborne Division and released them near Wesel when the Allies made the air assault across the Rhine on 24 Mar 1945. Continually hauled food, clothing, medicine, gasoline, ordnance equipment, and other supplies to the front lines and evacuated patients to rear-zone hospitals when not engaged in airborne operations. Converted from C-47's to C-46's, which were used to transport displaced persons from Germany to France and Belgium after V-E Day. Returned to the US, Jul-Sep 1945. Trained with C-46 aircraft. Inactivated on 10 Jun 1946.

Redesignated 439th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 Apr 1951. Inactivated on 3 Apr 1951.

Redesignated 439th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 91st: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-1954. 92d: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-1954. 93d: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-. 94th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951. 471st: 1954-. 472d: 1954-.

440th Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 440th Troop Carrier Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Prepared for duty overseas with C-47's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Began operations by dropping paratroops of 101st Airborne Division near Carentan on the Cotentin Peninsula on 6 Jun 1944 and by transporting gasoline, ammunition, food, and other supplies to the same area on 7 Jun, being awarded a DUC for completing these missions during the invasion of Normandy. Began flying supply and evacuation missions between England and France after the invasion of the Continent. In Jul 1944 part of the group was sent to Italy where it transported supplies to Rome until Aug. The detachment also participated in the invasion of Southern France, dropping paratroops of 517th Parachute Infantry Regiment near Le Muy on 15 Aug 1944 and towing gliders carrying reinforcements to that area later in the day. Meanwhile, the group in England continued to haul cargo, and on 10 Aug 1944 it dropped supplies to an infantry battalion encircled at Mortain in northern France. The detachment returned to England on 25 Aug and the group moved to France in Sep. During the attack on Holland the 440th dropped paratroops of 82nd Airborne Division near Groesbeek on 17 Sep 1944 and released gliders with reinforcements on 18 and 23 Sep. On 26 Dec 1944, during the Battle of the Bulge, it hauled gliders filled with supplies for 101st Airborne Division encircled at Bastogne. In Mar 1945 it towed gliders with troops of 17th Airborne Division to the battle area near Wesel during the airborne assault across the Rhine. When not engaged in airborne operations the group transported food, clothing, medical supplies, gasoline, ammunition, and other cargo to the front lines and evacuated casualties to rear-zone hospitals. After the war the group transported liberated prisoners and displaced persons. Inactivated in Europe on 18 Oct 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 3 Sep 1947. Redesignated 440th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Inactivated on 4 May 1951.

Redesignated 440th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 95th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-. 96th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-. 97th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-. 98th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951.

441st Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 441st Troop Carrier Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Used C-47's to train for overseas duty. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Ninth AF. Trained and transported cargo in the United Kingdom until Jun 1944. Began operations during the invasion of Normandy, dropping paratroops of 101st Airborne Division near Cherbourg on D-Day and releasing gliders with reinforcements on 7 Jun, being awarded a DUC for carrying out these missions. Following the operations in Normandy, the organization transported cargo in France and the United Kingdom until part of the group went to Italy in Jul 1944. In Italy it made scheduled flights between Grosseto and Rome, transporting supplies and evacuating patients. When the Allies invaded southern France in Aug 1944 the detachment in Italy dropped troops of 509th Parachute Infantry Regiment along the Riviera on 15 Aug and hauled gliders with reinforcements later in the day. After the detached echelon returned to England on 25 Aug, the group resumed its cargo missions, then moved to the Continent in Sep 1944 for further operations in support of the advancing Allies. Dropped paratroops of 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions near Nijmegen on 17 Sep during the air attack on Holland, and towed gliders with reinforcements on 18 and 23 Sep. In Dec, transported ammunition, rations, medicine, and other supplies to troops of 101st Airborne Division surrounded by the enemy at Bastogne. Released gliders carrying troops of 17th Airborne Division near Wesel on 24 Mar 1945 when the Allies launched the airborne assault across the Rhine. Hauled gasoline to armored columns in Germany after the Allies crossed the Rhine. Continually transported freight and personnel in the theater when not participating in airborne operations. Evacuated casualties and prisoners who had been liberated. Remained overseas after the war as part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Continued to transport personnel and equipment, using C-46, C-47, and C-109 aircraft. Inactivated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946.

Redesignated 441st Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 27 Jun 1949. Ordered to active service on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 14 Mar 1951.

Squadrons. 32d: 1945-1946. 61st: 1945-1946. 99th: 1943-1945; 1949-1951. 100th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951. 301st: 1943-1945; 1949-1951. 302d: 1943-1945; 1949-1951. 306th: 1945-1946.

442nd Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 442d Troop Carrier Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 1 Sep 1943. Trained with C-47's and C-53's. Moved to England in Mar 1944 for duty with Ninth AF. Received additional training with C-47's and C-53's, and later used these aircraft for operations. Flew first missions during the invasion of the Continent, dropping paratroops near Ste-Mere-Eglise on 6 Jun 1944 and flying a resupply mission on 7 Jun, being awarded a DUC for its part in the Normandy invasion. Hauled freight and evacuated casualties during the remainder of the summer. In Jul, however, a detachment flew to Italy where it transported cargo, evacuated casualties, and took part in the invasion of Southern France on 15 Aug by dropping paratroops in the battle area and releasing gliders carrying reinforcements. The detachment returned to England late in Aug, and in Sep the group took part in the airborne attack in Holland by transporting paratroops and towing gliders with reinforcements. Moved to the Continent in Oct 1944, flying resupply missions, hauling freight, and evacuating casualties in support of the Allied effort to breach the Siegfried Line. Continued transport duties until V-E Day but also participated in the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945 by releasing gliders filled with troops, carried supplies to ground forces in Germany (Apr-May), and evacuated prisoners who had been liberated. Remained in the theater after the war as part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 30 Sep 1946.

Redesignated 442d Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 27 Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 10 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 12 Mar 1951.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 15 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 301st: 1945. 303d: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-. 304th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-. 305th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951; 1952-1955. 306th: 1943-1946; 1949-1951.

443rd Troop Carrier Group

Constituted as 443rd Troop Carrier Group on 25 May 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Equipped with L-3, C-53, and C-47 aircraft. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, on 15 Feb 1944 to India, where the group was remanned and new squadrons were assigned. Operated in the CBI theater until after the war, using C-47's and sometimes gliders to transport Allied troops, evacuate wounded personnel, and haul supplies and materiel, including gasoline, oil, signal and engineering equipment, medicine, rations, and ammunition. The group's missions were concerned primarily with support for Allied forces that were driving southward through Burma, but the 443rd also made many flights to China. It moved to China in Aug 1945 and received a DUC for transporting a Chinese army of more than 30,000 men from Chihkiang to Nanking in Sep 1945. Returned to the US in Dec. Inactivated on 26 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 443rd Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Jun 1949. Called to active duty on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped first with C-46's, later (in Feb 1952) with C-119's. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1953.

Squadrons. 1st: 1944-1945. 2d: 1944-1945. 27th: 1944-1945. 309th: 1943-1944; 1949-1953. 310th: 1943-1944; 1949-1953. 315th: 1944-1945. 343d: 1949-1953. 344th: 1949-1951.

444th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 444th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Redesignated 444th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Nov 1943. Trained with B-17, B-24, and B-16 aircraft, and later with B-19's. Moved to India, via Africa, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF on 29 Jun 1944. Flew supplies over the Hump to Chinese bases that its B-29's were to use for staging attacks on Japan. On 15 Jun 1944 participated in the first AAF strike on the Japanese home islands since the Doolittle raid in 1942. Bombed transportation centers, naval installations, aircraft plants, and other targets in Burma, China, Thailand, Japan, and Formosa. Conducted a daylight raid against iron and steel works at Yawata, Japan, in Aug 1944, being awarded a DUC for the mission. Evacuated staging fields in China in Jan 1945 but continued operations from India, bombing targets in Thailand and mining waters around Singapore. Moved to Tinian in the spring of 1945 for further operations against targets in Japan. Participated in bombardment of strategic objectives and in incendiary raids on urban areas for the duration of the war. Received a DUC for attacking oil storage facilities at Oshima, bombing an aircraft plant near Kobe, and dropping incendiaries on Nagoya, in May 1945. Struck light metal industries at Osaka in Jul 1945, receiving another DUC for this action. Returned to the US late in 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 1 Oct 1946.

Squadrons. 344th: 1945-1946. 409th: 1946. 676th: 1943-1946. 677th: 1943-1946. 678th (later 10th): 1943-1946. 679th: 1943-1944. 825th: 1945.

445th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 445th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Mar 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Moved to England, Oct-Dec 1943, for service with Eighth AF. Entered combat on 13 Dec 1943 by attacking U-boat installations at Kiel. Operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization until the war ended, striking such targets as industries in Osnabruck, synthetic oil plants in lutzendorf, chemical works in Ludwigshafen, marshalling yards at Hamm, an airfield at Munich, an ammunition plant at Duneberg, underground oil storage facilities at Ehmen, and factories at Munster. Participated in the Allied campaign against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944, being awarded a DUC for attacking an aircraft assembly plant at Gotha on 24 Feb. Occasionally flew interdictory and support missions. Helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by bombing airfields, V-weapon sites, and other targets; attacked shore installations on D-Day, 6 Jun 1944. Supported ground forces at St Lo by striking enemy defenses in Jul 1944. Bombed German communications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Early on 24 Mar 1945 dropped food, medical supplies, and ammunition to troops that landed near Wesel during the airborne assault across the Rhine; that afternoon flew a bombing mission to the same area, hitting a landing ground at Stormede. On occasion dropped propaganda leaflets and hauled gasoline to France. Awarded the Croix de Guerre with Palm by the French government for operations in the theater from Dec 1943 to Feb 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945. Returned to the US, May-Jun. Inactivated on 12 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 445th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 12 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 445th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 8 Jul 1952.

Squadrons. 15th: 1947-1949. 700th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-. 701st: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-. 702d: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-. 703d: 1943-1945; 1947-1948.

446th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 446th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 20 Mar 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Trained for overseas duty with B-14's. Moved to England, Oct-Nov 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Operated chiefly against strategic objectives on the Continent from Dec 1943 until Apr 1945. Targets included U-boat installations at Kiel, the port at Bremen, a chemical plant at Ludwigshafen, ball-bearing works at Berlin, aero-engine plants at Rostock, aircraft factories at Munich, marshalling yards at Coblenz, motor works at Ulm, and oil refineries at Hamburg. Besides strategic missions, the group often carried out support and interdictory operations. Supported the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944 by attacking strong points, bridges, airfields, transportation, and other targets in France. Aided ground forces at Caen and St Lo during Jul by hitting bridges, gun batteries, and enemy troops. Dropped supplies to Allied troops near Nijmegen during the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Bombed marshalling yards, bridges, and road junctions during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Dropped supplies to airborne and ground troops near Wesel during the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr, attacking a bridge near Salzburg. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul. Inactivated on 18 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 446th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 16 Mar 1948. Redesignated 446th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Inactivated on 25 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 446th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 25 May 1955.

Squadrons. 704th: 1943-1945; 1948-1951; 1955-. 705th: 1943-1945; 1941-1951; 1955-. 706th: 1943-1945; 1948-1949; 1955-. 707th: 1943-1945; 1948-1949.

447th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 447th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Trained for combat with B-17's. Moved to England in Nov 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat in Dec 1943 and operated chiefly as a strategic bombardment organization. From Dec 1943 to May 1944, helped to prepare for the invasion of the Continent by attacking submarine pens, naval installations, and cities in Germany; ports and missile sites in France; and airfields and marshalling yards in France, Belgium, and Germany. During Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944, took part in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry. Supported the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944 by bombing airfields and other targets near the beachhead. Aided the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and the effort to take Brest in Sep. Pounded enemy positions to assist the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep. Also dropped supplies to Free French forces during the summer of 1944. Turned to strategic targets in Germany in Oct 1944, placing emphasis on sources of oil production until mid-Dec. 2nd Lt Robert E Femoyer, navigator, won the Medal of Honor for action on 2 Nov 1944: while on a mission over Germany, his B-17 was damaged by flak and Femoyer was severely wounded by shell fragments; determined to navigate the plane out of danger and save the crew, he refused a sedative and, for more than two hours, directed the navigation of the bomber so effectively that it returned to base without further damage; Femoyer died shortly after being removed from the plane. During the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, the group assaulted marshalling yards, railroad bridges, and communications centers in the combat zone. Then resumed operations against targets in Germany, attacking oil, transportation, communications, and other objectives until the war ended. During this period, also supported the airborne assault across the Rhine (Mar 1945). Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 447th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 12 Aug 1947. Equipped with B-19's. Redesignated 447th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1951.

Squadrons. 708th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951. 709th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 710th: 1943-1945. 711th: 1943-1945.

448th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 448th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Prepared for duty overseas with B-24's. Moved to England, Nov-Dec 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 22 Dec 1943, and until Apr 1945 served primarily as a strategic bombardment organization, hitting such targets as aircraft factories in Gotha, ball-bearing plants in Berlin, an airfield at Hanau, U-boat facilities at Kiel, a chemical plant at Ludwigshafen, synthetic oil refineries at Politz, aircraft engine plants at Rostock, marshalling yards at Cologne, and a buzz-bomb assembly plant at Fallersleben. Took part in the intensive campaign of heavy bombers against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. In addition to strategic operations, flew interdictory and support missions. Bombed V-weapon sites, airfields, and transportation facilities prior to the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944, and on D-Day attacked coastal defenses and choke points. Struck enemy positions to assist the Allied offensive at Caen and the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Dropped supplies to airborne troops near Nijmegen during the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Bombed transportation and communications centers in the combat zone during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Dropped supplies to troops at Wesel during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr, attacking a marshalling yard at Salzburg. Returned to the US in Jul 1945. Redesignated 448th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Equipped with B-19's. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 4 Aug 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 19 Apr 1947. Redesignated 448th Bombardment Group (Light) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 17 Mar 1951. Inactivated on 21 Mar 1951.

Redesignated 448th Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 18 May 1955.

Squadrons. 41st: 1947-1949. 711th: 1949-1951; 1955-. 712th: 1943-1946; 1947-1951. 713th: 1943-1946; 1947-1951; 1955-. 714th: 1943-1946; 1947-1951. 715th: 1943-1946.

449th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. Operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization, attacking such targets as oil refineries, communications centers, aircraft factories, and industrial areas in Italy, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, and Greece. Received a DUC for a mission on 4 Apr 1944 when the group, flying without escort, raided marshalling yards in Bucharest; although heavily outnumbered by German fighters, the group succeeded not only in bombing the target but also in destroying many of the enemy interceptors. Received another DUC for action on 9 Jul 1944 when the group flew through heavy smoke and intense enemy fire to attack an oil refinery at Ploesti. Other operations of the group included bombing gun emplacements in southern France in preparation for the invasion in Aug 1944, and attacking troop concentrations, bridges, and viaducts in Apr 1945 to assist Allied forces in northern Italy. Returned to the US in May 1945. Redesignated 449th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Trained with B-17, B-25, and B-29 aircraft. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 4 Aug 1946.

Squadrons. 716th: 1943-1946. 717th: 1943-1946. 718th: 1943-1946. 719th: (later 46th): 1943-1946.

450th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 450th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Trained with B-14's. Moved to Italy, arriving in Dec 1943. Began operations with Fifteenth AF in Jan 1944 and engaged chiefly in missions against strategic targets in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Balkans until Apr 1945. Bombed aircraft factories, assembly plants, oil refineries, storage areas, marshalling yards, airdromes, and other objectives. Contributed to the intensive Allied campaign against the enemy aircraft industry during Big Week (20-25 Feb 1944) by attacking factories at Steyr and Regensburg, being awarded a DUC for braving the hazards of bad weather, enemy fighters, and flak to bombard a Messerschmitt factory at Regensburg on 25 Feb. Received second DUC for a mission on 5 Apr 1944 when the group fought its way through relentless attacks by enemy aircraft to bomb marshalling yards at Ploesti. Also struck such objectives as enemy defenses, troop concentrations, bridges, and marshalling yards in support of the invasion of Southern France, the advance of Russian troops in the Balkans, and the Allied effort in Italy. Returned to the US in May 1945. Redesignated 45th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Trained with B-29's. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 450th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 1 Jul 1954. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Used F-86 aircraft. Redesignated 450th Fighter-Day Group in Mar 1955. Converted to F-100's.

Squadrons. 720th: 1943-1945. 721st: 1943-1945; 1954-. 722d: 1943-1945; 1954-. 723d: 1943-1945; 1954-.

451st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 451st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Nov 1943-Jan 1944, with the air echelon training in Algeria for several weeks before joining the remainder of the group in Italy. Operated with Fifteenth AF, Jan 1944-May 1945, functioning primarily as a strategic bombardment organization. Attacked such targets as oil refineries, marshalling yards, aircraft factories, bridges, and airfields in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, and Greece. Received a DUC for each of three missions: to an aircraft factory at Regensburg on 25 Feb 1944, to oil refineries and marshalling yards at Ploesti on 5 Apr 1944, and to an airdrome at Vienna on 23 Aug 1944; although encountering large numbers of enemy fighters and severe antiaircraft fire during each of these missions, the group fought its way through the opposition, destroyed many interceptors, and inflicted serious damage on the assigned targets. At times the group also flew support and interdictory missions. Helped to prepare the way for and participated in the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. Transported supplies to troops in Italy during Sep 1944. Supported the final advances of Allied armies in northern Italy in Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Jun. Inactivated on 26 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 724th: 1943-1945. 725th: 1943-1945. 726th: 1943-1945. 727th: 1943-1945.

452nd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 452d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with B-17's. Moved to England, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 5 Feb 1944 with an attack against aircraft assembly plants at Brunswick. Throughout combat, engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic targets, including marshalling yards at Frankfurt, aircraft assembly plants at Regensburg, aircraft component works at Kassel, the ball-bearing industry at Schweinfurt, a synthetic rubber plant at Hannover, and oil installations at Bohlen. 1st Lt Donald Gott and 2d Lt William E Metzger Jr were each awarded the Medal of Honor for remaining with their aircraft (crippled during a mission over Germany on 9 Nov 1944) in an attempt to save a wounded crew member who was unable to bail out; the men were killed when the B-17 exploded in midair. In addition to strategic missions, the 452d supported ground forces and carried out interdictory operations. Helped prepare for the invasion of Normandy by hitting airfields, V-weapon sites, bridges, and other objectives in France; struck coastal defenses on D-Day, 6 Jun 1944. Bombed enemy positions in support of the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and the offensive against Brest in Aug and Sep. Later in Sep, assisted the airborne attack on Holland. Hit enemy communications in and near the combat zone during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Bombed an airfield in support of the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Received a DUC for action on 7 Apr 1945 when, despite vigorous fighter attacks and heavy flak, it accurately bombed a jet-fighter base at Kaltenkirchen. Flew last combat mission of World War 11 on 21 Apr, striking marshalling yards at Ingolstadt. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 452nd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 19 Apr 1947. Redesignated 452nd Bombardment Group (Light) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 10 Aug 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with B-26 aircraft for duty in the Korean War. Moved to Japan, Oct-Nov 1950, and assigned to Far East Air Forces. Entered combat against communist forces late in Oct, operating first from Japan and later from Korea. Flew armed reconnaissance, intruder, and interdictory missions, and provided support for ground troops. Bombed and strafed buildings, tunnels, rail lines, switching centers, bridges, vehicles, supply dumps, and airfields. Relieved from active duty and inactivated in Korea, on 10 May 1952.

Allotted to the reserve. Redesignated 452nd Tactical Reconnaissance Group. Activated in the US on 13 Jun 1952. Redesignated 452nd Bombardment Group (Tactical) in May 1955.

Squadrons. 703d: 1948-1949. 728th: 1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. 729th: 1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. 730th: 1943-1945; 1947-1952; 1952-. 731st: 1942-1945; 1947-1951.

453rd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 453rd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with B-14's. Moved to England, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat on 5 Feb 1944 with an attack against an airfield at Tours. Throughout combat, served chiefly as a strategic bombardment organization. Targets included a fuel depot at Dulmen, marshalling yards at Paderborn, aircraft assembly plants at Gotha, railroad centers at Hamm, an ordnance depot at Glinde, oil refineries at Gelsenkirchen, chemical works at Leverkusen, an airfield at Neumunster, a canal at Minden, and a railroad viaduct at Altenbeken. Took part in the concentrated attack against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Besides strategic operations, engaged in support and interdictory missions. Bombed V-weapon sites, airfields, and gun batteries in France prior to the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; on 6 Jun hit shore installations between Le Havre and Cherbourg and other enemy positions farther inland. Attacked enemy troops in support of the Allied breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Bombed German communications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Ferried cargo on two occasions: hauled gasoline, blankets, and rations to France in Sep 1944; dropped ammunition, focal, and medical supplies near Wesel during the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission in Apr. Returned to the US in May. Inactivated on 12 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 732d: 1943-1945. 733d: 1943-1945. 734th: 1943-1945. 735th: 1943-1945.

454th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 454th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, and operated with Fifteenth AF until Apr 1945. Flew some interdictory and support missions, bombing bridges, marshalling yards, troop concentrations, and rail lines. Participated in the drive to Rome, the invasion of Southern France, and the defeat of Axis forces in northern Italy. Engaged primarily, however, in long-range strikes against enemy oil refineries, aircraft and munition factories, industrial areas, harbors, and airfields in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Rumania, and Greece. Received a DUC for a raid on an airdrome at Bad Voslau on 12 Apr 1944. Received second DUC for performance on 25 Jul 1944 when, despite severe opposition, the group led the wing formation in an attack against steel plants at Linz. Returned to the US in Jul 1945. Redesignated 454th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 27 Apr 1947. Redesignated 454th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered into active service on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 454th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 13 Jun 1952. Inactivated on 1 Jan 1953.

Squadrons. 81st: 1947-1949. 736th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951; 1952-1953. 737th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1953. 738th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1953. 739th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949.

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455th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 455th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with B-24's. Moved to Italy, arriving in Jan and Feb 1944. Served in combat with Fifteenth AF from Feb 1944 to Apr 1945. Engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic targets such as factories, marshalling yards, oil refineries, storage areas, harbors, and airdromes in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, and the Balkans. Received a DUC for a mission on 2 Apr 1944 when the group contributed to Fifteenth AF's campaign against enemy industry by attacking a ball-bearing plant at Steyr. Although meeting severe fighter opposition and losing several of its bombers on 26 Jun 1944, the group proceeded to attack an oil refinery at Moosbierbaum, receiving another DUC for this performance. In addition to strategic missions in the Balkans, the group bombed troop concentrations, bridges, marshalling yards, and airdromes during the fall of 1944 to hamper the enemy's withdrawal from the region. The group also supported ground forces at Anzio and Cassino in Mar 1944; knocked out gun positions in preparation for the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944; and assisted the final Allied drive through Italy in Apr 1945 by hitting such targets as bridges, gun positions, and troop concentrations. Inactivated in Italy on Sep 1945.

Redesignated 455th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 25 Mar 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 455th Fighter-Day Group. Activated on 25 Jul 1956. Assigned to Tactical Air Command.

Squadrons. 740th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1956-. 741st: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1956-. 742d: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1956-. 743d: 1943-1945; 1947-1949.

456th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 456th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Trained with B-24's for duty overseas. Moved to Italy, Dec 1943-Jan 1944. Began combat with Fifteenth AF in Feb 1944, operating chiefly against strategic targets until late in Apr 1945. Early operations included attacks against such objectives as marshalling yards, aircraft factories, railroad bridges, and airdromes in Italy, Austria, and Rumania. Received a DUC for performance at Wiener Neustadt on 10 May 1944: when other groups turned back because of adverse weather, the 456th proceeded to the target and, withstanding repeated attacks by enemy interceptors, bombed the manufacturing center. Helped to prepare the way for and supported the invasion of Southern France during Jul and Aug 1944. At the same time, expanded previous operations to include attacks on oil refineries and storage facilities, locomotive works, and viaducts in France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, and the Balkans. Received second DUC for a mission in Hungary on 2 Jul 1944 when the group braved severe fighter attacks and antiaircraft fire to bomb oil facilities at Budapest. In Apr 1945 bombed gun positions, bridges, roads, depots, and rail lines to support US Fifth and British Eighth Army in their advance through Italy. Transported supplies to airfields in northern Italy after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Jul 1945. Redesignated 456th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 1 Jul 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 456th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated on 1 Dec 1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with C-119's. Inactivated on 1 Mar 1955.

Squadrons. 744th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1955. 745th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1955. 746th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1955. 747th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949.

457th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 457th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Trained for combat with B-17's. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Flew first mission on 21 Feb 1944 during Big Week, taking part in the concentrated attacks of heavy bombers on the German aircraft industry. Until Jun 1944, engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic targets, such as ball-bearing plants, aircraft factories, and oil refineries in Germany. Bombed targets in France during the first week of Jun 1944 in preparation for the Normandy invasion, and attacked coastal defenses along the Cherbourg peninsula on D-Day. Struck airfields, railroads, fuel depots, and other interdictory targets behind the invasion beaches throughout the remainder of the month. Resumed bombardment of strategic objectives in Jul 1944 and engaged chiefly in such operations until Apr 1945. Sometimes flew support and interdictory missions, aiding the advance of ground forces during the St Lo breakthrough in Jul 1944 and the landing of British 1 Airborne Division during the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944; and participating in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, and the assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 20 Apr 1945. Transported prisoners of war from Austria to France after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Jun 1945. Inactivated on 18 Aug 1945.

Squadrons. 748th: 1943-1945. 749th: 1943-1945. 750th: 1943-1945. 751st: 1943-1945.

458th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 458th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Moved to England, Jan-Feb 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Flew diversionary missions on 24 and 25 Feb 1944 to draw enemy fighters from German targets being attacked by other AAF bombers. Began bombardment on 2 Mar 1944, and afterward operated primarily against strategic objectives in Germany. Hit such targets as the industrial area of Saarbrucken, oil refineries at Hamburg, an airfield at Brunswick, aircraft factories at Oschersleben, a fuel depot at Dulmen, a canal at Minden, aircraft works at Brandenburg, marshalling yards at Hamm, and an aircraft engine plant at Magdeburg. Carried out some interdictory and support operations in addition to the strategic missions. Helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by striking gun batteries, V-weapon sites, and airfields in France; hit coastal defenses in support of the assault on 6 Jun 1944; afterward, bombed bridges and highways to prevent the movement of enemy materiel to the beachhead. Attacked enemy troops to aid the Allied breakthrough at St Lo in Jul. Ceased bombardment during Sep 1944 to haul gasoline to airfields in France. Struck transportation lines during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Attacked enemy airfields to assist the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Redesignated 458th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Trained with B-29's. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Squadrons. 752d: 1943-1945. 753d: 1943-1945. 754th: 1943-1945. 755th: 1943-1945.

459th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 459th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Jan-Feb 1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. Engaged primarily in strategic bombardment, Mar 1944-Apr 1945, attacking such targets as oil refineries, munitions and aircraft factories, industrial areas, airfields, and communications centers in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received a DUC for leading the 304th Wing through enemy interceptors and intense flak to raid an airfield and aircraft assembly plant at Bad Voslau on 23 Apr 1944. During combat the group also flew some support and interdictory missions. Struck railroads in Mar 1944 to cut enemy supply lines leading to the Anzio beachhead. Participated in the preinvasion bombing of southern France in Aug 1944. Hit railroad bridges, depots, and marshalling yards during Apr 1945 to assist Allied forces in northern Italy. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 18 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 459th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 19 Apr 1947. Redesignated 459th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jun 1949. Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1951.

Redesignated 459th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 26 Jan 1955.

Squadrons. 57th: 1947-1949. 756th. 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-. 757th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1955-. 758th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949. 759th: 1943-1945; 1947-1951.

460th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 460th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Jan-Feb 1944, and became part of Fifteenth AF. Entered combat in Mar 1944 and operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization until Apr 1945. Attacked oil refineries, oil storage facilities, aircraft factories, railroad centers, industrial areas, and other objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received a DUC for leading the wing formation through adverse weather and heavy enemy fire to attack an airdrome and aircraft facilities in Zwolfaxing on 16 Jul 1944. Also flew some interdictory and support missions. Participated in the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944 by striking submarine pens, marshalling yards, and gun positions in the assault area. Hit bridges, viaducts, ammunition dumps, railroads, and other targets to aid the advance of Allied forces in northern Italy. Moved to Trinidad and then to Brazil in Jun 1945, being assigned to Air Transport Command to assist in moving redeployed personnel from Europe to the US. Inactivated in Brazil on 26 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 760th: 1943-1945. 761st: 1943-1945. 762d: 1943-1945. 763d: 1943-1945.

461st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 461st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Jan-Feb 1944, the air echelon flying B-14's via the South Atlantic and stopping in North Africa before joining the ground echelon in Italy. Began combat with Fifteenth AF in Apr 1944. Engaged chiefly in bombardment of communications, industries, and other strategic objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Supported Fifteenth AF's counter-air operations by bombing enemy airdromes and aircraft centers, receiving a DUC for a mission on 13 Apr 1944 when the group battled its way through enemy defenses to attack an aircraft components plant in Budapest. Participated in the effort against the enemy's oil supply by flying missions to such oil centers as Brux, Blechhammer, Moosbierbaum, Vienna, and Ploesti. Received second DUC for a mission against oil facilities at Ploesti in Jul 1944 when, despite flak, clouds, smoke, and fighter attacks, the group bombed its objective. Also operated in support of ground forces and flew some interdictory missions. Hit artillery positions in support of the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944 and flew supply missions to France in Sep. Aided the Allied offensive in Italy in Apr 1945 by attacking gun emplacements and troop concentrations. Dropped supplies to prisoner-of-war camps in Austria during May 1945. Returned to the US in Jul. Inactivated on 18 Aug 1945.

Redesignated 461st Bombardment Group (Light). Activated on 23 Dec 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Trained with B-16's and later converted to B-57's. Redesignated 461st Bombardment Group (Tactical) in Oct 1955.

Squadrons. 764th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 765th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 766th: 1942-1945; 1953-. 767th: 1943-1945.

462nd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 462nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jul 1943. Redesignated 462nd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Nov 1943. Prepared for combat with B-29's. Moved to the CBI theater, via Africa, Mar-Jun 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF in Jun 1944. Transported supplies over the Hump to staging fields in China before entering combat with an attack on railroad shops at Bangkok, Thailand, on 5 Jun 1944. On 15 Jun 1944 took part in the first AAF strike on the Japanese home islands since the Doolittle raid in 1942. Operating from India and China, bombed transportation centers, naval installations, iron works, aircraft plants, and other targets in Japan, Thailand, Burma, China, Formosa, and Indonesia. From a staging base in Ceylon, mined the Moesi River on Sumatra in Aug 1944. Received a DUC for a daylight attack on iron and steel works at Yawata, Japan, in Aug 1944.

Moved to Tinian in the spring of 1945 for further operations against targets in Japan. Participated in mining operations, bombardment of strategic targets, and incendiary raids on urban areas. Bombed industrial areas in Tokyo and Yokohama in May 1945, being awarded a DUC for the action. Received another DUC for a daylight attack on an aircraft plant at Takarazuka on 24 Jul 1945. Returned to the US late in 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Squadrons. 345th: 1945-1946. 768th: 1943-1946. 769th: 1943-1946. 770th: 1943-1946. 771st: 1943-1944.

463d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 463rd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Trained with B-17's for duty overseas. Moved to Italy, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. Entered combat on 30 Mar 1944 and operated chiefly against strategic objectives. Attacked such targets as marshalling yards, oil refineries, and aircraft factories in Italy, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received a DUC for bombing oil refineries at Ploesti on 18 May 1944: when clouds limited visibility to such an extent that other groups turned back, the 463rd proceeded to Ploesti and, though crippled by opposition from interceptors and flak, rendered destructive blows to both the target and the enemy fighters. Received second DUC for leading the wing through three damaging enemy attacks to bomb tank factories in Berlin on 24 Mar 1945. Also engaged interdictory and support missions. Bombed bridges during May and Jun 1944 in the campaign for the liberation of Rome. Participated in the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944 by striking bridges, gun positions, and other targets. Hit communications such as railroad bridges, marshalling yards, and airdromes in the Balkans. Operated primarily against communications in northern Italy during Mar and Apr 1945. After V-E Day, transported personnel from Italy to Casablanca for return to the US. Inactivated in Italy on 25 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 463rd Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in the US on 16 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and equipped with C-119's.

Squadrons. 772d: 1943-1945; 1953-. 773d: 1943-1945; 1953-. 774th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 775th: 1943-1945; 1955-.

464th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 464th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Feb-Apr 1944, with the air echelon training for a few weeks in Tunisia before joining the remainder of the group in Italy. Served with Fifteenth AF, Apr 1944-May 1945, operating primarily as part of the strategic bombardment force that disrupted German industry and communications. Flew long-range missions to attack such objectives as marshalling yards, oil refineries, oil storage facilities, aircraft factories, and chemical plants in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received a DUC for leading the 55th Wing in compact formation through heavy opposition to bomb marshalling yards and an oil refinery at Vienna on 8 Jul 1944. Received another DUC for a mission on 24 Aug 1944 when the group scored hits not only on the target, an oil refinery at Pardubice, but also on nearby railroad tracks. Sometimes engaged in support and interdictory operations. Supported Allied forces during the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944. Hit railroad centers to assist the advance of Russian troops in southeastern Europe in Mar 1945. Bombed enemy supply lines to assist the advance of US Fifth and British Eighth Army in northern Italy in Apr 1945. Moved to Trinidad in Jun 1945. Assigned to Air Transport Command. Inactivated on 31 Jul 1945.

Redesignated 464th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in the US on 1 Feb 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Used C-46 and C-119 aircraft.

Squadrons. 776th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 777th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 778th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 779th: 1943-1945; 1955-.

465th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 465th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Prepared for duty overseas with B-24's. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Feb-Apr 1944; the air echelon received additional training in Tunisia before joining the ground echelon in Italy. Assigned to Fifteenth AF. Entered combat on 5 May 1944 and served primarily as a strategic bombardment organization until late in Apr 1945. Attacked marshalling yards, dock facilities, oil refineries, oil storage plants, aircraft factories, and other objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and the Balkans. On two different missions - to marshalling yards and an oil refinery at Vienna on 8 Jul 1944 and to steel plants at Friedrichshafen on 3 Aug 1944 - the group bombed its targets despite antiaircraft fire and fighter opposition, being awarded a DUC for each of these attacks. Other operations included bombing troop concentrations and bivouac areas in May 1944 to aid the Partisans in Yugoslavia; attacking enemy troops and supply lines to assist the drive toward Rome, May-Jun 1944; striking bridges, rail lines, and gun emplacements prior to the invasion of Southern France in Aug 1944; bombing rail facilities and rolling stock in Oct 1944 to support the advance of Russian and Rumanian forces in the Balkans; and hitting troops, gun positions, bridges, and supply lines during Apr 1945 in support of Allied forces in northern Italy. Moved to the Caribbean area in Jun 1945. Assigned to Air Transport Command. Inactivated in Trinidad on 31 Jul 1945.

Redesignated 465th Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in the US on 1 Feb 1953. Trained with C-119's. Moved to France in Dec 1953 to become part of United States Air Forces in Europe.

Squadrons. 780th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 781st: 1943-1945; 1953-. 782d: 1943-1945; 1953-. 783d: 1943-1945.

466th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 466th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Prepared for duty overseas with B-24's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 22 Mar 1944 by participating in a daylight raid on Berlin. Operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization, attacking such targets as marshalling yards at Liege, an airfield at St Trond, a repair and assembly plant at Reims, an airdrome at Chartres, factories at Brunswick, oil refineries at Bohlen, aircraft plants at Kempten, mineral works at Hamburg, marshalling yards at Saarbrucken, a synthetic oil plant at Misburg, a fuel depot at Dulmen, and aeroengine works at Eisenach. Other operations included attacking pillboxes along the coast of Normandy on D-Day (6 Jun 1944), and afterward striking interdictory targets behind the beachhead; bombing enemy positions at St Lo during the Allied breakthrough in Jul 1944; hauling oil and gasoline to Allied forces advancing across France in Sep; hitting German communications and transportation during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and bombing the airfield at Nordhorn in support of the airborne assault across the Rhine on 24 Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr 1945, striking a transformer station at Traunstein. Returned to the US in Jul. Redesignated 466th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Trained with B-29's. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Squadrons. 784th: 1943-1945. 785th: 1943-1945. 786th: 1943-1945. 787th: 1943-1945.

467th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 467th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Prepared for combat with B-24's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Began operations on 10 Apr 1944 with an attack on an airfield at Bourges. Served chiefly as a strategic bombardment organization, attacking the harbor at Kiel, chemical plants at Bonn, textile factories at Stuttgart, power plants at Hamm, steel works at Osnabruck, the aircraft industry at Brunswick, and other objectives. In addition to strategic operations, engaged occasionally in support and interdictory missions. Bombed shore installations and bridges near Cherbourg on D-Day, 6 Jun 1944. Struck enemy troop and supply concentrations near Montreuil on 25 Jul 1944 to assist the Allied drive across France. Hauled gasoline to France in Sep for mechanized forces. Attacked German communications and fortifications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Hit enemy transportation to assist the Allied assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission on 25 Apr. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul. Redesignated 467th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Trained with B-17 and B-29 aircraft. Inactivated on 4 Aug 1946.

Squadrons. 788th: 1943-1944, 1944-1946. 789th: 1943-1946. 790th: 1943-1946. 791st: 1943-1946.

468th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 468th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Redesignated 468th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Nov 1943. Equipped with B-29's. Moved, via Africa, to the CBI theater, Mar-Jun 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF in Jun 1944. Flew over the Hump to carry supplies from India to staging fields in China before entering combat with an attack on railroad shops at Bangkok, Thailand, on 5 Jun 1944. On 15 Jun participated in the first AAF attack on Japan since the Doolittle raid in 1942. From bases in India, China, and Ceylon, mined shipping lanes near Saigon, French Indochina, and Shanghai, China, and struck Japanese installations in Burma, Thailand, French Indochina, Indonesia, Formosa, China and Japan. Targets included iron works, aircraft factories, transportation centers and naval installations. Received a DUC for participation in a daylight raid on the iron and steel works at Yawata, Japan, 11 Aug 1944. Evacuated advanced bases in China in Jan 1945 but continued operations from India, bombing storage areas in Rangoon, Burma, a railroad bridge at Bangkok, Thailand, railroad shops at Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, and the drydock in Singapore harbor. Flew additional missions against Japan after moving to Tinian during Feb-May 1945. Took part in mining operations, incendiary raids on area targets, and high-altitude missions against strategic objectives. Dropped incendiaries on Tokyo and Yokohama in May 1945, being awarded a DUC for the attacks. Received another DUC for a daylight strike on an aircraft plant at Takarazuka, Japan, in Jul 1945. After the war, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners and participated in show-of-force missions over Japan. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Squadrons. 512th: 1945-1946. 792d: 1943-1946. 793d: 1943-1946. 794th (later 6th): 1943-1946. 795th: 1943-1946.

469th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 469th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Assigned to Second AF. Equipped with B-17's. Served as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 796th: 1943-1944. 797th: 1943-1944. 798th: 1943-1944. 799th: 1943-1944.

470th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 470th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Assigned to Second AF; reassigned to Fourth AF in Jan 1944. Equipped with B-14's. Served first as an operational training and later as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Squadrons. 800th: 1943-1944. 801st: 1943-1944. 802d: 1943-1944. 803d: 1943-1944.

471st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 471st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Assigned to Second AF and later (Jan 1944) to First AF. Served as a replacement training unit, using B-24 aircraft. Disbanded on 10 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 804th: 1943-1944. 805th: 1943-1944. 806th: 1943-1944. 807th: 1943-1944.

472nd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 472nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 Sep 1943. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated 472nd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 1 Dec 1943. Trained crews for combat with B-29's. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Squadrons. 808th: 1943-1944. 809th: 1943-1944. 810th: 1943-1944. 811th: 1943-1944.

473rd Fighter Group

Constituted as 473rd Fighter Group on 12 Oct 1943. Activated on 1 Nov 1943. Assigned to Fourth AF. Equipped primarily with P-38 aircraft. Operated as replacement training unit. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 473d Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 8 Jul 1955. Activated on 8 Apr 1956. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Had no combat squadrons assigned.

Squadrons. 451st: 1943-1944. 482d: 1943-1944. 483d: 1943-1944. 484th: 1943-1944.

474th Fighter Group

Constituted as 474th Fighter Group on 26 May 1943. Activated on 1 Aug 1943. Trained for combat with P-38's. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Flew first combat mission, an area patrol along the coast of France, on 25 Apr 1944. Attacked bridges and railroads in France in preparation for the Normandy invasion. Provided cover for the invasion force that was crossing the Channel on the night of 5/6 Jun and flew bombing missions to support the landings on the following day. Began armed reconnaissance missions after D-Day to assist ground forces, and attacked highways and troops to aid the Allied breakthrough at St Lo, 25 Jul. Moved to the Continent in Aug 1944 for continued operations in support of ground forces. Bombed and strafed such targets as airfields, hangars railroads, bridges, highways, barges, fuel dumps, ammunition depots, gun emplacements, and troop concentrations until the end of the war; also escorted bombers that struck marshalling yards, factories, cities, and other objectives. Received a DUC for a mission in France on 23 Aug 1944: participating in a joint air-ground attack against retreating enemy forces in the Falaise-Argentan area, the group discovered an immense quantity of enemy equipment massed along the Seine River; despite severe fire from small arms and from antiaircraft guns that the Germans had placed at two bridges to protect the materiel and cover the retreat, the group repeatedly bombed and strafed the enemy, knocking out motor transports, barges bridges, and other objectives, thereby disrupting the evacuation and enabling Allied ground forces to capture German troops and equipment. Other operations included bombardment of flak positions near Eindhoven in advance of British 1 Airborne Division during the attack on Holland in Sep 1944; participation in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and patrols along the route of the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Continued operations until V-E Day. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 8 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 474th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated in Japan on 10 Jul 1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Command but attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Served in combat from Aug 1952 until the armistice in Jul 1953, operating from Korea and using F-84 aircraft. Bombed and strafed such targets as bunkers, troops, artillery positions, bridges, vehicles, airfields, and power plants, and sometimes escorted bombers that attacked munitions factories and other objectives. After the armistice, trained with F-84 and F-86 aircraft. Moved to the US, Nov-Dec 1954, and continued training with F-86's.

Squadrons. 428th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 429th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 430th: 1943-1945; 1952-.

475th Fighter Group

Activated in Australia on 14 May 194 by special authority granted to Fifth AF prior to constitution as 475th Fighter Group on 15 May 1943. Equipped with P-38's and trained to provide long-range escort for bombers during daylight raids on Japanese airfields and strongholds in the Netherlands Indies and the Bismarck Archipelago. Moved to New Guinea and began operations in Aug 1943. Received a DUC for missions in Aug 1943 when the group not only protected B-15's that were engaged in strafing attacks on airdromes at Wewak but also destroyed a number of the enemy fighter planes that attacked the formation. Received second DUC for intercepting and destroying many of the planes the Japanese sent against American shipping in Oro Bay on 15 and 17 Oct 1943. Covered landings in New Guinea, New Britain, and the Schouten Islands. After moving to Biak in Jul 1944, flew escort missions and fighter sweeps to the southern Philippines, Celebes, Halmahera, and Borneo. Moved to the Philippines in Oct 1944 and received another DUC for bombing and strafing enemy airfields and installations, escorting bombers, and engaging in aerial combat during the first stages of the Allied campaign to recover the Philippines, Oct-Dec 1944. Maj Thomas B McGuire Jr was awarded the Medal of Honor: while voluntarily leading flights of P-38's escorting bombers that struck Mabalacat Airdrome on 25 Dec 1944 and Clark Field the following day, he shot down seven Japanese fighters; on 7 Jan 1944, while attempting to save a fellow flyer from attack during a fighter sweep over Los Negroes Island, Maj McGuire risked a hazardous maneuver at low altitude, crashed, and was killed. The group flew many missions to support ground forces on Luzon during the first part of 1945. Also flew escort missions to China and attacked railways on Formosa. Began moving to Ie Shima in Aug but the war ended before the movement was completed. Moved to Korea in Sep 1945 for occupation duty as part of Far East Air Forces. Converted to P-51's in 1946. Moved to Japan in 1948. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1949.

Redesignated 475th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated in the US on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-89's.

Squadrons. 431st: 1943-1949. 432d: 1943-1949; 1955-. 433d: 1943-1949.

476th Fighter Group

Constituted as 476th Fighter Group on 20 Apr 1943. Assigned to Fourteenth AF Activated in China on 19 May 1943 with no squadrons assigned. Disbanded in China on 31 Jul 1943.

Reconstituted on 11 Oct 1943. Activated in the US on 1 Dec 1943. Assigned to First AF as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 476th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 11 Dec 1956. Activated on 8 Feb 1957. Assigned, without combat squadrons, to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 453d: 1943-1944. 541st: 1943-1944. 542d: 1943-1944. 543d: 1943-1944.

477th Composite Group

Constituted as 477th Bombardment Group (Medium) on 13 May 1943. Activated on 1 Jun 1943. Assigned to Third AF. Trained with B-26 aircraft. Inactivated on 25 Aug 1943.

Activated on 15 Jan 1944. Assigned to First AF. Trained with B-15's. Redesignated 477th Composite Group in Jun 1945. Equipped with B-25's and P-47's. Inactivated on 1 Jul 1947.

Squadrons. 99th Fighter: 1945-1947. 616th Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1945. 617th Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1947. 618th Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1945. 619th Bombardment: 1943; 1944-1945.

478th Fighter Group

Constituted as 478th Fighter Group on 12 Oct 1943. Activated on 1 Dec 1943. Assigned to Fourth AF. After a delay in obtaining personnel and equipment, the group began operations in Mar 1944 as a replacement training unit, using P-39 aircraft. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Reconstituted and redesignated 478th Fighter Group (Air Defense), on 11 Dec 1956. Activated on 8 Feb 1957. Assigned to Air Defense Command.

Squadrons. 18th: 1957-. 454th: 1943-1944. 544th: 1943-1944. 545th: 1943-1944. 546th: 1943-1944.

479th Antisubmarine Group

Constituted as 479th Antisubmarine Group on 1 Jul 1943 and activated in England on 8 Jul. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine Command. Began operations with B-24 aircraft on 13 Jul. The 479th's most effective antisubmarine patrols were in the Bay of Biscay from 18 Jul to 2 Aug 1943, the period in which the group made nearly all of its attacks on enemy U-boats After that time the enemy avoided surfacing during daylight and adopted a police of evasion, but the group continued its patrols, often engaging enemy aircraft in combat. Ended operations in Oct 1943. Disbanded in England on 11 Nov 1943.

Squadrons. 4th: 1943. 6th: 1943. 19th: 1943. 22d: 1943.

479th Fighter Group

Constituted as 479th Fighter Group on 12 Oct 1943 and activated on 15 Oct. Equipped with P-38's. Trained for combat and served as an air defense organization. Moved to England, Apr-May 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. From May 1944 to Apr 1945, escorted heavy bombers during operations against targets on the Continent, strafed targets of opportunity, and flew fighter-bomber, counter-air, and area-patrol missions. Engaged primarily in escort activities and fighter sweeps until the Normandy invasion in June 1944. Patrolled the beachhead during the invasion. Strafed and dive-bombed troops, bridges, locomotives, railway cars, barges, vehicles, airfields, gun emplacements, flak towers, ammunition dumps, power stations, and radar sites while on escort or fighter-bomber missions as the Allies drove across France during the summer and fall of 1944; flew area patrols to support the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul and the airborne attack on Holland in Sep. Received a DUC for the destruction of numerous aircraft on airfields in France on 18 Aug and 5 Sep and during aerial battle near Munster on 26 Sep. Continued escort and fighter-bomber activities from Oct to mid-Dec 1944, converting to P-51's during this period. Participated in the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) by escorting bombers to and from targets in the battle area and by strafing transportation targets while on escort duty. Flew escort missions from Feb to Apr 1945, but also provided area patrols to support the airborne attack across the Rhine in Mar. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Inactivated on Dec 1945.

Redesignated 479th Fighter-Bomber Group. Activated on 1 Dec 1952. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Equipped successively with F-51, F-86 and F-100 aircraft. Redesignated 479th Fighter-Day Group in Feb 1954.

Squadrons. 434th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 435th: 1943-1945; 1952-. 436th: 1943-1945; 1952-.

480th Antisubmarine Group

Constituted as 480th Antisubmarine Group on 19 Jun 1943 and activated in North Africa on 21 Jun. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine Command. Using B-24's, the group had the primary mission of carrying out antisubmarine patrols in an area of the Atlantic extending north and west from Morocco. Its antisubmarine activity reached a peak in Jul 1943 when enemy U-boats concentrated off the coast of Portugal to intercept convoys bound for the Mediterranean; by destroying and damaging several submarines during the month, the group aided in protecting supply lines to forces involved in the campaign for Sicily. The group also covered convoys and engaged numerous enemy aircraft in combat. In Sep 1943 part of the group moved temporarily to Tunisia and operated in connection with the assault on Italy; missions included searching for enemy submarines, covering Allied convoys, and protecting the Italian fleet after the surrender of Italy. The group was awarded a DUC for actions that contributed to the winning of the Battle of the Atlantic. Moved to the US in Nov and Dec 1943. Disbanded on 29 Jan 1944.

Squadrons. 1st: 1943-1944. 2d: 1942-1944.

482nd Bombardment Group

Constituted as 482nd Bombardment Group (Pathfinder) on 10 Aug 1943 and activated in England on 20 Aug. Assigned to Eighth AF. Provided a pathfinder force of radar-equipped aircraft to precede bomber formations and indicate targets obscured by weather. Flew its first mission on 27 Sep 1943, leading bombers of 1st and 3rd Bombardment Divisions to attack the port at Emden. Operated chiefly as a pathfinder organization until Mar 1944, detaching its B-17 and B-24 aircraft, with crews, to other stations in England to lead Eighth AF elements on specific missions to the Continent. Led attacks on factories at Gotha, Brunswick, Schweinfurt, and other industrial centers during Big Week, 20-25 Feb 1944. Also served as the pathfinder force for bombers attacking airfields, submarine installations, cities, marshalling yards, and other targets, primarily in Germany. Received a DUC for a mission on 11 Jan 1944 when it led organizations of Eighth AF into central Germany to attack aircraft industries; although weather conditions prevented effective fighter protection against severe attack by enemy aircraft, the group not only bombed the assigned targets, but also destroyed a number of enemy planes. Removed from combat status in Mar 1944 and after that operated a school for pathfinder crews with the objective of training a pathfinder squadron for each Eighth AF bombardment group; made radarscope photographs of France, the Low Countries, and Germany for use in training and briefing combat crews; and tested radar and other navigational equipment. Often bombed such targets as bridges, fuel depots, power plants, and railroad stations while on experimental flights; flew a pathfinder mission to assist the bombardment of coastal defenses in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and later that day led attacks on traffic centers behind the beachhead; sometimes dropped propaganda leaflets. Redesignated 482nd Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 1944. Continued its training and experimental work until V-E Day. Moved to the US, May-Jun 1945. Inactivated on 1 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 482nd Bombardment Group (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 26 Jun 1947. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 482nd Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 14 Jun 1952. Inactivated on 1 Dec 1952.

Redesignated 482nd Fighter-Bomber Group. Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 18 May 1955.

Squadrons. 6th: 1947-1949. 812th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952; 1955-. 813th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952. 814th: 1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952.

483d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 483rd Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and activated on 20 Sep. Trained with B-17's. Moved to Italy, Mar-Apr 1944, and assigned to Fifteenth AF. Began operations in Apr 1944 and served in combat until late in Apr 1945, hitting such targets as factories, oil refineries, marshalling yards, storage areas, airdromes, bridges, gun positions, and troop concentrations in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Received a DUC for action on 18 Jul 1944 when, without fighter escort, the group engaged numerous enemy aircraft in the target area and also bombed the objective, an airdrome and installations at Memmingen. Assisting the strategic bombardment of enemy industry the group received another DUC for braving fighter assaults and antiaircraft fire to bomb tank factories at Berlin on 24 May 1945. Struck targets in southern France in preparation for the invasion in Aug 1944. Operated in support of ground force in northern Italy during the Allied offensive in Apr 1945. After V-E Day, transported personnel from Italy to North Africa for movement to the US. Inactivated in Italy on 25 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 483rd Troop Carrier Group (Medium). Activated in Japan on 1 Jan 1953. Assigned to Tactical Air Command but attached to Far East Air Forces for duty in the Korean War. Used C-119's to transport personnel and supplies to Korea, receiving a Korean DUC for the missions. Received an AFOUA for operations during 1953-1954: while transporting supplies to UN forces in Korea and training with airborne troops, the group also assisted the French in Indochina by hauling supplies and training personnel for airlift operations in C-119's. Assigned to Far East Air Forces in 1954.

Squadrons. 815th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 816th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 817th: 1943-1945; 1953-. 840th (formerly 818th): 1943-1945.

484th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 484th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and activated on 20 Sep. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to Italy, Mar-Apr 1944. Assigned to Fifteenth AF. Redesignated 484th Bombardment Group (Pathfinder) in May 1944 but did not perform pathfinder functions. Redesignated 484th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in Nov 1944. Operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization, Apr 1944-Apr 1945. Attacked such targets as oil refineries, oil storage plants, aircraft factories, heavy industry, and communications in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, and Yugoslavia. On 13 Jun 1944 a heavy smoke screen prevented the group from bombing marshalling yards at Munich; however, in spite of severe damage from flak and interceptors, and despite heavy gunfire encountered at the alternate target, the group bombed marshalling yards at Innsbruck and received a DUC for its persistent action. Received second DUC for performance on 21 Aug 1944 when, unescorted, the organization fought its way through intense opposition to attack underground oil storage installations in Vienna. In addition to strategic missions the 484th participated in the drive toward Rome by bombing bridges, supply dumps, viaducts, and marshalling yards, Apr-Jul 1944; ferried gasoline and oil to Allied forces in southern France, Sep 1944; and supported the final advance through northern Italy, Apr 1945. Moved to Casablanca in May 1945. Assigned to Air Transport Command. Inactivated in French Morocco on 25 Jul 1945.

Squadrons. 824h: 1943-1945. 825th: 1943-1945. 826th: 1943-1945. 827th: 1943-1945.

485th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 485th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and activated on 10 Sep. Trained with B-24's. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Mar-Apr 1944, with the air echelon receiving additional training in Tunisia before joining the ground echelon in Italy. Assigned to Fifteenth AF. Entered combat in May 1944 and engaged primarily in flying long-range missions to targets in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, and Yugoslavia, bombing marshalling yards, oil refineries, airdrome installations, heavy industry, and other strategic objectives. Received a DUC for combating intense fighter opposition and attacking an oil refinery at Vienna on 26 Jun 1944. Also carried out some support and interdiction operations. Struck bridges, harbors, and troop concentrations in Aug 1944 to aid the invasion of Southern France. Hit communications lines and other targets during Mar and Apr 1945 to support the advance of British Eighth Army in northern Italy. Returned to the US in May 1945. Redesignated 485th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Equipped with B-29's. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 4 Aug 1946.

Squadrons. 506th: 1946. 828th: 1943-1946. 829th: 1943-1946. 830th: 1943-1946. 831st: 1943-1945.

486th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 486th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and activated on 20 Sep. Moved to England in Mar 1944 and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat in May 1944 with B-14 aircraft but soon converted to B-17's. Operated chiefly against strategic objectives in Germany until May 1945. Targets included marshalling yards in Stuttgart, Cologne, and Mainz; airfields in Kassel and Munster; oil refineries and storage plants in Merseburg, Dollbergen, and Hamburg; harbors in Bremen and Kiel; and factories in Mannheim and Weimar. Other missions included bombing airfields, gun positions, V-weapon sites, and railroad bridges in France in preparation for or in support of the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; striking road junctions and troop concentrations in support of ground forces pushing across France, Jul-Aug 1944; hitting gun emplacements near Arnheim to minimize transport and glider losses during the airborne invasion of Holland in Sep 1944; and bombing enemy installations in support of ground troops during the Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) and the assault across the Rhine (Mar-Apr 1945). Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 832d: 1943-1945. 833d: 1943-1945. 834th: 1943-1945. 835th: 1943-1945.

487th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 487th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943 and activated on 20 Sep. Prepared for overseas duty with B-24's. Moved to England, Mar-Apr 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Began combat in May 1944, bombing airfields in France in preparation for the invasion of Normandy; then pounded coastal defenses, road junctions, bridges and locomotives during the invasion. Attacked German troops and artillery positions to assist British forces near Caen in Jul; struck gun emplacements to support the Allied effort at Brest in Aug and to cover the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944. Flew a few missions against German industries, refineries, and communications during the period May-Aug 1944, but operated almost solely against strategic targets from Aug 1944, when conversion to B-17's was completed, until Mar 1945. Attacked oil refineries in Merseburg, Mannheim, and Dulmen; factories in Nurnberg, Hannover, and Berlin; and marshalling yards in Cologne, Munster, Hamm, and Neumunster. Aided ground forces during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945, and turned again to support and interdictory operations in Mar 1945 as the Allies crossed the Rhine and made the final thrust into Germany. Returned to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 836th: 1943-1945. 837th: 1943-1945. 838th: 1943-1945. 839th: 1943-1945.

488th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 488th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Assigned to Second AF; reassigned to Third AF in Nov 1943. Equipped with B-17's. Served as a replacement training unit. Disbanded on 1 May 1944:

Squadrons. 818th (formerly 840th): 1943-1944. 841st: 1943-1944. 842d: 1943-1944. 843d: 1943-1944.

489th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 489th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Trained with B-24's. Moved to England, Apr-May 1944, and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 30 May 1944, and during the next few days concentrated on targets in France in preparation for the Normandy invasion. In an attack against coastal defenses near Wimereaux on 5 Jun 1944, the group's lead plane was seriously crippled by enemy fire, its pilot was killed, and the deputy group commander, Lt Col Leon R Vance Jr, who was commanding the formation, was severely wounded; although his right foot was practically severed, Vance took control of the plane, led the group to a successful bombing of the target, and managed to fly the damaged aircraft to the coast of England, where he ordered the crew to bail out; believing a wounded man had been unable to jump, he ditched the plane in the Channel and was rescued. For his action during this mission, Vance was awarded the Medal of Honor. The group supported the landings in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944, and afterward bombed coastal defenses, airfields, bridges, railroads, and V-weapon sites in the campaign for France. Began flying missions into Germany in Jul, and engaged primarily in bombing strategic targets such as factories, oil refineries and storage plants, marshalling yards, and airfields in Ludwigshafen, Magdeburg, Brunswick, Saarbrucken, and other cities until Nov 1944. Other operations included participating in the saturation bombing of German lines just before the breakthrough at St Lo in Jul, dropping food to the liberated French and to Allied forces in France during Aug and Sep, and carrying food and ammunition to Holland later in Sep. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1944, to prepare for redeployment to the Pacific theater. Redesignated 489th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Mar 1945. Equipped with B-29's. Alerted for movement overseas in the summer of 1945, but war with Japan ended before the group left the US. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Squadrons. 844th: 1943-1945. 845th: 1943-1945. 846th: 1943-1945. 847th: 1943-1945.

490th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 490th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to England in Apr 1944 for operations with Eighth AF. Entered combat in Jun 1944, bombing airfields and coastal defenses in France immediately preceding and during the invasion of Normandy. Then struck bridges, rail lines, vehicles, road junctions, and troop concentrations in France. Supported ground forces near Caen in Jul and near Brest in Sep 1944. After that, converted to B-17's and operated primarily against strategic targets until the end of Feb 1945. Mounted attacks against enemy oil plants, tank factories, marshalling yards, aircraft plants, and airfields in such cities as Berlin, Hamburg, Merseburg, Munster, Kassel, Hannover, and Cologne. Interrupted strategic missions to attack supply lines and military installations during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. Beginning in Mar 1945, attacked interdictory targets and supported advancing ground forces. After V-E Day, carried food to flood-stricken areas of Holland and transported French, Spanish, and Belgian prisoners of war from Austria to Allied centers. Returned to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 848th: 1943-1945. 849th: 1943-1945. 850th: 1943-1945. 851st: 1943-1945.

491st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 491st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. On 1 Jan 1944 the group, less the air echelon, was transferred without personnel and equipment to England, where personnel were assigned later. The air echelon continued to train in the US until it joined the group in England in May 1944. Served in combat with Eighth AF until the end of Apr 1945. Began operations early in Jun 1944 and attacked airfields, bridges, and coastal defenses both preceding and during the invasion of Normandy. Then concentrated its attacks on strategic objectives in Germany, striking communications centers, oil refineries, storage depots, industrial areas, shipyards, and other targets in such places as Berlin, Hamburg, Kassel, Cologne, Gelsenkirchen, Bielefeld, Hannover, and Magdeburg; on one occasion attacked the headquarters of the German General Staff at Zossen, Germany. While on a mission to bomb an oil refinery at Misburg on 26 Nov 1944, the group was attacked by large numbers of enemy fighters; although about one-half of its planes were destroyed, the remainder fought off the interceptors, successfully bombed the target, and won for the group a DUC. Although engaged primarily in strategic bombardment, the group also supported ground forces at St Lo in Jul 1944; assaulted V-weapon sites and communications lines in France during the summer of 1944; dropped supplies to paratroops on 18 Sep 1944 during the airborne attack in Holland; bombed German supply lines and fortifications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; supported Allied forces in the airborne drop across the Rhine in Mar 1945; and interdicted enemy communications during the Allied drive across Germany in Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Jul. Inactivated on 8 Sep 1945.

Squadrons. 852d: 1943-1945. 853d: 1943-1945. 854th: 1943-1945. 855th: 1943-1945.

492d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 492d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Oct 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to England in Apr 1944 and assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 11 May 1944, and throughout the month operated primarily against industrial targets in central Germany. Attacked airfields and V-weapon launching sites in France during the first week in Jun. Bombed coastal defenses in Normandy on 6 Jun 1944 and attacked bridges, railroads, and other interdiction targets in France until the middle of the month. Resumed bombardment of strategic targets in Germany and, except for support of the infantry during the St Lo breakthrough on 25 Jul 1944, continued such operations until Aug 1944. Transferred, less personnel and equipment, to another station in England on 5 Aug 1944 and assumed personnel, equipment, and the Carpetbagger mission of a provisional group that was discontinued. Operated chiefly over southern France with B-24's and C-47's, engaging in Carpetbagger operations, that is, transporting agents, supplies, and propaganda leaflets to patriots. Ceased these missions on 16 Sep 1944 to haul gasoline to advancing mechanized forces in France and Belgium. Intermittently attacked airfields, oil refineries, seaports, and other targets in France, the Low Countries, and Germany until Feb 1945. Meanwhile, in Oct 1944, began training for night bombardment operations; concentrated on night bombing of marshalling yards and goods depots in Germany, Feb-Mar 1945. Ceased these missions on 18 Mar 1945 to engage in Carpetbagger operations over Germany and German-occupied territory, using B-24, A-26, and British Mosquito aircraft to drop leaflets, demolition equipment, and agents. Received a DUC for these operations, performed at night despite adverse weather and vigorous opposition from enemy ground forces, 20 Mar-25 Apr 1945. Also cited by the French government for similar operations over France in 1944. Flew its last Carpetbagger mission in Apr 1945 and then ferried personnel and equipment to and from the Continent until Jul. Returned to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Redesignated 492d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Squadrons. 406th: 1945. 856th: 1943-1945. 857th: 1943-1945. 858th: 1943-1944, 1944-1945. 859th: 1943-1945.

493d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 493d Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Nov 1943. On 1 Jan 1944 transferred, less the air echelon and without personnel and equipment, to England where personnel were assigned. Joined by the air echelon in May 1944. Served in combat with Eighth AF, May 1944-Apr 1945, using B-14's until they were replaced with B-17's in Sep 1944. Operated chiefly against industrial and military installations in Germany, attacking an ordnance depot at Magdeburg, marshalling yards at Cologne, synthetic oil plants at Merseburg, a railroad tunnel at Ahrweiler, bridges at Irlich, factories at Frankfurt, and other strategic objectives. Additional operations included striking airfields, bridges, and gun batteries prior to and during the invasion of Normandy in Jun 1944; hitting enemy positions to assist ground forces south of Caen and at St Lo in Jul 1944; bombing German fortifications to cover the airborne attack on Holland in Sep 1944; attacking enemy communications during the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945; and assisting the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. Flew last combat mission, an attack on marshalling yards at Nauen, on 20 Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.

Squadrons. 860th: 1943-1945. 861st: 1943-1945. 862d: 1943-1945. 863d: 1943-1945.

494th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 494th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 14 Sep 1943. Activated on 1 Dec 1943. Trained for combat with B-24's. Moved to Hawaii in Jun 1944 for additional training. Assigned to Seventh AF and moved to Palau late in Sep. Helped to construct a base of operations on Angaur, then entered combat on 3 Nov 1944 with attacks against Japanese airfields on Yap and Koror. Conducted strikes on other bypassed enemy installations in the Pacific and against the Japanese in the Philippines. Late in 1944 hit gun emplacements, personnel areas, ant storage depots on Corregidor and Caballo at the entrance to Manila Bay; bombed radio installations and power plants at Japanese bases in the Philippines; and attacked enemy-held airfields, including Clark Field on Luzon. Early in 1945 struck airfields on Mindanao and ammunition and supply dumps in the Davao Gulf and Illana Bay areas. Moved to Okinawa in Jun 1945. Engaged primarily in attacks against enemy airfields on Kyushu until V-J Day. Also participated in incendiary raids, dropped propaganda leaflets over urban areas of Kyushu and struck airfields in China, in southern Korea, and around the Inland Sea of Japan. Transported personnel and supplies from Manila to Tokyo after the war Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 4 Jan 1946.

Squadrons. 864th: 1943-1946. 865th: 1943-1946. 866th: 1943-1946. 867th: 1944-1946.

497th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 497th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and activated on 20 Nov. Prepared for overseas duty with B-29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Oct 1944, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Began operations in Oct 1944 with attacks against Iwo Jima and the Truk Islands. Took part in the first attack (24 Nov 1944) on Japan by AAF planes based in the Marianas. Flew many missions against strategicrobjectives in Japan; on numerous raids, made its attacks in daylight and from high altitude. Received a DUC for a mission on 27 Jan 1945: although weather conditions prevented the group from bombing its primary objective, the unescorted B-29's withstood severe enemy attacks to strike an alternate target, the industrial area of Hamamatsu. Awarded second DUC for attacking strategic centers in Japan during Jul and Aug 1945. Assisted the assault on Okinawa in Apr 1945 by bombing enemy airfields to cut down air attacks against the invasion force. Beginning in Mar 1945 and continuing until the end of the war the group made incendiary raids against Japan, flying at night and at low altitude to bomb area targets. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946.

Squadrons. 513th: 1945-1946. 869th: 1943-1946. 870th: 1943-1946. 871st: 1943-1946. 872d: 1943-1946.

498th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 498th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and activated on 20 Nov. Equipped with B -29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Nov 1944, for duty with Twentieth AF. Flew its first combat missions against Iwo Jima and the Truk Islands. On 24 Nov 1944 participated in the first assault on Japan by B-29's operating from the Marianas. Conducted numerous attacks against industrial targets in Japan, flying in daylight and at high altitude to carry out these missions. Received a DUC for striking an aircraft engine plant at Nagoya on 13 Dec 1944. Began flying missions at night in Mar 1945, operating from low altitude to drop incendaries on area targets in Japan; received second DUC for incendiary raids on urban industries near Kobe and Osaka during Jun 1945. Operations also included strikes against Japanese airfields during the Allied invasion of Okinawa in Apr 1945. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 4 Aug 1946.

Squadrons. 514th: 1945-1946. 873d: 1943-1946. 874th: 1943-1946. 875th: 1943-1946. 876th: 1943-1944.

499th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 499th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and activated on 20 Nov. Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Nov 1944, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Began operations with attacks in the Truk Islands and on Iwo Jima, and took part on 24 Nov 1944 in the first strike against Japan by AAF planes stationed in the Marianas. Flew numerous missions in daylight, operating from high altitude to bomb strategic targets in Japan. Received a DUC for striking the Mitsubishi aircraft engine plant at Nagoya on 23 Jan 1945. In Mar 1945 began to conduct night attacks, flying at low altitude to drop incendiaries on area targets in Japan. Completed a series of attacks against enemy airfields on Kyushu to aid the Allied assault on Okinawa in Apr 1945 and received another DUC for this action. Also dropped propaganda leaflets on Japan, and after the war dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners of war. Returned to the US in Nov 1945. Inactivated on 16 Feb 1946.

Squadrons. 877th: 1943-1946. 878th 1943-1946. 879th: 1943-1946. 880th: 1943-1944.

500th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 500th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 19 Nov 1943 and activated on 20 Nov. Equipped first with B-17's; later trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Nov 1944, for service with Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 11 Nov 1944 with an attack against a submarine base in the Truk Islands. On 24 Nov participated in the first attack on Japan by B-29's based in the Marianas. After that, conducted many daylight raids, operating from high altitude to bomb strategic targets in Japan. Struck the Mitsubishi aircraft engine plant at Nagoya in Jan 1945 and received a DUC for the mission. Bombed enemy airfields and other installations on Kyushu in support of the Allied assault on Okinawa in Apr 1945. Beginning in Mar 1945, flew missions at night and at low altitude to drop incendiaries on area targets in Japan. Received second DUC for incendiary attacks on the urban-industrial section of Osaka, feeder industries at Hamamatsu, and shipping and rail targets on Kyushu, in Jun 1945. Released propaganda leaflets over the Japanese home islands, Jul-Aug 1945. Dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners in Japan, Korea, China, and Formosa after the war. Returned to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 17 Jan 1946.

Squadrons. 881st: 1943-1946. 882d: 1943-1946. 883d: 1943-1946. 884th: 1943-1944.

501st Bombardment Group

Constituted as 501st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 25 May 1944. Activated on 1 Jun 1944. Moved to Guam, Mar-Apr 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 19 Jun 1945 when its B-29's bombed Japanese fortifications in the Truk Islands. Flew its first mission against Japan on 27 Jun 1945, and afterward operated principally against the enemy's petroleum industry on Honshu. Received a DUC for attacks on the Maruzen oil refinery at Shimotsu, the Utsubo oil refinery at Yokkaichi, and the petroleum center at Kawasaki, in Jul 1945. After the war, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners in Japan, China, Korea, and Manchuria. Inactivated on Guam on 10 Jun 1946.

Squadrons. 21st: 1944-1946. 41st: 1944-1946. 485th: 1944-1946.

502d Bombardment Group

Constituted as 502d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 25 May 1944 Activated on 1 Jun 1944. Trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to Guam, Apr-Jun 1945, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered combat on 30 Jun 1945 when the group bombed enemy installations on Rota. Bombed Japanese-held Truk early in Jun 1945. Flew its first mission against the Japanese home islands on 15 Jul 1945, and afterward operated principally against the enemy's petroleum industry. Awarded a DUC for attacks on the coal liquefaction plant at Ube, the tank farm at Amagasaki and the Nippon oil refinery at Tsuchizaki in Aug 1945. After the war, dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners in Japan and participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan. Inactivated on Guam on is Apr 1946.

Squadrons. 402d: 1944-1946. 411th: 1944-1946. 430th: 1944-1946.

504th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 504th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 18 Feb 1944. Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Equipped first with B-17's; later trained for combat with B-29's. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater late in 1944 for service with Twentieth AF. Began combat operations from Tinian in Jan 1945 with attacks on Japanese airfields and other installations on Maug and Iwo Jima and in the Truk Islands. Flew its first mission against the Japanese home islands early in Feb 1945 when the group bombed the industrial area of Kobe. Continued to attack strategic targets in Japan, operating in daylight and at high altitude to bomb such objectives as aircraft factories, chemical plants, harbors, and arsenals. Received a DUC for striking the industrial center at Yokohama late in May 1945. Began incendiary raids in Mar 1945, flying at night and at low altitude to strike area targets in Japan. Started mining operations against enemy shipping late in Mar, receiving a DUC for mining Korean shipping lanes, the Shimonoseki Strait, and harbors of the Inland Sea, Jul-Aug 1945. In Apr and May 1945 the group hit airfields from which the Japanese launched kamikaze planes against the invasion force during the assault on Okinawa. After the war it dropped food and supplies to Allied prisoners, participated in show-of-force missions, and flew over Japan to evaluate damage inflicted by bombardment operations. Moved to the Philippines in Mar 1946. Inactivated on Luzon on 15 Jun 1946.

Squadrons. 393d: 1944. 398th: 1944-1946. 421st: 1944-1946. 507th: 1944. 680th: 1944-1946.

505th Bombardment Group

Constituted as 505th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) on 28 Feb 1944. Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Equipped first with B-17's; later trained for overseas duty with B-29's. Moved to Tinian late in 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Entered combat in Feb 1945 with strikes on Iwo Jima and the Truk Islands. Then began daylight missions against Japan, operating at high altitude to bomb strategic objectives. Received a DUC for a strike against the Nakajima aircraft factory at Ota in Feb 1945. Conducted incendiary raids on area targets in Japan, carrying out these missions at night and at low altitude. Bombed in support of the Allied assault on Okinawa in Apr 1945. Engaged in mining operations against Japanese shipping, receiving second DUC for mining the Shimonoseki Strait and harbors of the Inland Sea, Jun-Jul 1945. After V-J Day, dropped supplies to Allied prisoners, participated in show-of-force missions, and flew over Japan to evaluate bombardment damage. Moved to the Philippine Islands in Mar 1946. Inactivated on Luzon on 30 Jun 1946.

Squadrons. 482d: 1944-1946. 483d: 1944-1946. 484th: 1944-1946. 485th: 1944.

506th Fighter Group

Constituted as 506th Fighter Group on 5 Oct 1944 and activated on 21 Oct. Equipped with P-51 aircraft. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Feb-Apr 1945, the air echelon flying patrols from Tinian before joining the rest of the group on Iwo Jima. The group, assigned to Twentieth AF, flew its first mission from Iwo on 18 May when it bombed and strafed an airfield in the Bonin Islands. Afterward attacked airfields, antiaircraft emplacements, shipping, barracks, radio and radar stations, railway cars, and other targets in the Bonin Islands or Japan. Also provided air defense for Iwo and escorted B-29's during bombardment mission from the Marianas to Japan. Received DUC for defending B-29's against attack by fighter aircraft during the period 7-10 Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 16 Dec 1945.

Squadrons. 457th: 1944-1945. 458th: 1944-1945. 462nd: 1944-1945.

507th Fighter Group

Constituted as 507th Fighter Group on 5 Oct 1944 and activated on 12 Oct. Moved to the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Apr-Jun 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF; reassigned to Eighth AF in Aug 1945. Entered combat on 1 Jul 1945, operating from Ie Shima with P-47's. Flew missions to Japan, Korea, and China to attack such targets as shipping, railroad bridges, airfields, factories, and barracks. Met little fighter opposition until 8 Aug 1945 when the group, flying its only B-29 escort mission of the war, encountered many enemy planes over Yawata, Japan. Received a DUC for its performance on 13 Aug 1945: while flying a long-range sweep to Korea, the group engaged a host of interceptors and destroyed a number of them. Moved to Okinawa in Jan 1946. Inactivated on 27 May 1946.

Redesignated 507th Fighter Group (Air Defense). Activated on 18 Aug 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command and equipped with F-89's.

Squadrons. 438th: 1955-. 463d: 1944-1946. 464th: 1944-1946. 465th: 1944-1946.

508th Fighter Group

Constituted as 508th Fighter Group on 5 Oct 1944 and activated on 12 Oct. Trained with P-47 aircraft to provide very-long-range escort for bombardment units. Moved to Hawaii in Jan 1945 and served as part of the defense force for the islands. Also trained replacement pilots for other organizations, repaired P-47's and P-51's received from combat units, and ferried aircraft to forward areas. Inactivated in Hawaii on 25 Nov 1945.

Squadrons. 466th: 1944-1945. 467th: 1944-1945. 468th: 1944-1945.

509th Composite Group

Constituted as 509th Composite Group on 9 Dec 1944 and activated on 17 Dec. Became the first AAF group to be organized, equipped, and trained for atomic warfare. Moved to Tinian, Apr-Jun 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Flew practice missions in Jun and Jul. On 6 Aug 194 one of the group's B-29's, the "Enola Gay," piloted by the group commander Col Paul W Tibbets Jr, dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later a B-29, "Bock's Car," piloted by Maj Charles W Sweeney, dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. These two bombs, the first atomic weapons ever employed, quickly brought the war to an end. The group returned to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946, providing the nucleus for the command's atomic striking force. Redesignated 509th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) in Jul 1946. Participated in atomic tests (Operation Crossroads) in the Marshall Islands in 1946. Redesignated 509th Bombardment Group (Medium) in Jul 1948. Converted from B-29 to B-50 aircraft, 1949-1950. Inactivated on 16 Jun 1952.

Squadrons. 320th Troop Carrier: 1944-1946. 393d Bombardment: 1944-1952. 715th: 1946-1952. 830th: 1946-1952.

1st Bombardment Wing

Organized as 1st Pursuit Wing in France on 6 Jul 1918. Served in combat, Jul-Nov 1918. Operated first in the defensive sector near Toul. During the St Mihiel offensive in Sep, flew reconnaissance sorties, protected observation aircraft, attacked enemy observation balloons, strafed enemy troops, flew counter-air patrols, and bombed towns, bridges, and railroad stations behind the enemy's lines. During the Meuse-Argonne offensive (26 Sep-11 Nov 1918) bombardment aircraft continued their attacks behind the lines while pursuit ships concentrated mainly on large-scale counter-air patrols. Demobilized in France in Dec 1918.

Reconstituted and consolidated (1936) with 1st Wing, which was organized in the US on 16 Aug 1919 and was engaged in border patrol activities until it became an advanced flying training wing in 1922. Inactivated on 26 Jun 1924.

Redesignated 1st Bombardment Wing in 1929. Activated on 1 Apr 1931. Redesignated 1st Pursuit Wing in 1933, 1st Wing in 1935, and 1st Bombardment Wing in 1940. Became one of the original wings of GHQAF in 1935 and conducted much of the Army's pursuit, bombardment, attack, and observation activities in the western part of the US until 1941. Moved to England, Jul-Aug 1942, and became a heavy bombardment wing of Eighth AF. Redesignated 1st Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943, and 1st Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Served in combat in the European theater from Aug 1942 until 25 Apr 1945, receiving a DUC for an attack on aircraft factories in Germany on 11 Jan 1944. Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Groups. 1st Pursuit: 19119-1922; 1933-1935. 2d (formerly 1st) Bombardment: 1918; 1919-1922. 2d Pursuit: 1918. 3d Pursuit: 1918. 3d Attack (formerly 1st Surveillance): 1919-1924. 7th Bombardment: 1931-1933, 1935-1941. 8th Pursuit: 1933-1935. 17th Bombardment: 1931-1941. 19th Bombardment: 1935-1941. 20th Pursuit: 1939-1941. 35th Pursuit: 1940-1941. 41st Bombardment: 1941. 91st Bombardment: 1942-1945. 92d Bombardment: 1942, 1943. 97d Bombardment: 1942. 97th Bombardment: 1942. 301st Bombardment: 1942. 303d Bombardment: 1942-1943. 305th Bombardment: 1942-1943. 306th Bombardment: 1942-1943. 351st Bombardment: 1943. 379th Bombardment: 1943. 381st Bombardment: 1943-1945. 384th Bombardment: 1943. 398th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 482d Bombardment: 1943.

2d Bombardment Wing

Organized as 2d Wing on 4 Sep 1919. Served as an observation organization. Inactivated on 30 Sep 1921.

Activated on 8 Aug 1922. Redesignated 2d Bombardment Wing in 1929, 2d Wing in 1935, and 2d Bombardment Wing in 1940. Engaged primarily in bombardment activities for more than a decade. Became one of the original wings of GHQAF in 1935 and conducted much of the Army's pursuit, bombardment, and observation operations in the eastern part of the US. Inactivated on 5 Sep 1941.

Activated on 7 June 1942. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and became a heavy bombardment wing of Eighth AF. In the fall of 1942, helped to train bombardment groups assigned to Twelfth AF. Served in combat in the European theater from Nov 1942 to June 1943. Ceased combat temporarily during Jul-Aug 1943 when its groups were on detached duty in the Mediterranean theater. Redesignated 2d Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug. Served on detached duty in the Mediterranean theater during Sep-Oct 1943. Resumed combat in the European theater in Oct 1943 and continued operations until Apr 1945. Redesignated 2d Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Groups. 1st Pursuit: 1935-1941. 2d Bombardment: 1922-1941. 7th Bombardment (formerly 1st Army Observation): 1919-1921; 1933-1935. 8th Pursuit: 1932-1933, 1935-1941. 9th Bombardment: 1935-1940. 22d Bombardment: 1940-1941. 31st Pursuit: 1940-1941. 44th Bombardment: 1942-1943, 1943. 93d Bombardment: 1942-1943. 389th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 392d Bombardment: 1943. 445th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 453d Bombardment: 1944-1945.

4th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 4th Bombardment Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1941. Inactivated on 1 Oct 1941.

Activated on 7 Jun 1942. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942. Assigned to Eight AF. Redesignated 4th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Had no groups assigned until the spring of 1943 and was not manned from 29 Sep 1942 to 19 Jan 1943. Began combat in May 1943 and received a DUC for a mission on 17 Aug 1943 when the wing attacked an aircraft factory at Regensburg. Brig Gen Frederick W Castle, wing commander, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 24 Dec 1944 when he kept a burning B-17 from crashing until other members of the crew had parachuted to safety. The wing remained in combat until Apr 1945. Disbanded in England on 18 Jun 1945.

Reconstituted, redesignated 4th Bombardment Wing (Light), and allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 4th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 4th Air Division. Organized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 34th: 1941. 43d: 1941. 94th: 1943-1945. 95th: 1943. 96th: 1943. 100th: 1943. 319th: 1946-1949. 320th: 1947-1949. 385th: 1943-1945. 388th: 1943. 390th: 1943. 447th: 1943-1945. 486th: 1945. 487th: 1945.

Wings. 91st Reconnaissance: 1951. 301st Bombardment: 1951-. 376th Bombardment: 1951-.

5th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 5th Bombardment Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Assigned to Second AF. Inactivated on 5 Sep 1941.

Activated on 10 Jul 1942. Moved to North Africa, Oct-Dec 1942, and began operations with Twelfth AF. Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943. Redesignated 5th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jan 1945. Served in combat until May 1945. Inactivated in Italy on 2 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 5th Air Division. Activated in the US on 14 Jan 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Transferred without personnel and equipment, to French Morocco in May 1951. Had no combat elements assigned but operated with bombardment wings temporarily deployed from the US and attached for short periods of duty.

Groups. 1st Fighter: 1943, 1943-1944. 2d Bombardment: 1943-1945. 12th Bombardment: 1941. 14th Fighter: 1943-1944. 17th Bombardment: 1941. 39th Bombardment: 1941. 47th Bombardment: 1942-1943. 68th Reconnaissance: 1942-1943. 82d Fighter: 1944. 97th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 98th Bombardment: 1943. 99th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 301st Bombardment: 1943-1945. 325th Fighter: 1943-1944. 376th Bombardment: 1943. 463d Bombardment: 1944-1945. 483d Bombardment: 1944-1945.

6th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 6th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 7 Dec 1941.

Redesignated 6th Fighter Wing. Activated on 7 Jun 1942. No combat groups were assigned. Moved to England in Aug 1942 for duty with Eighth AF. Trained replacement pilots for fighter organizations. Disbanded in England in 13 Sep 1943.

Reconstituted on 5 Aug 1946 and activated in the Panama Canal Zone on 25 Aug. Inactivated in the Canal Zone on 28 Jul 1948.

Redesignated 6th Air Division. Organized in the US on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 1st Pursuit: 1940-1941. 31st Pursuit: 1940-1941. 36th Fighter: 1946-1948. 52d Pursuit: 1941.

Wings. 305th Bombardment: 1951. 306th Bombardment: 1951-. 307th Bombardment: 1951-1953.

7th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 7th Fighter Wing on 31 Mar 1944. Activated in Hawaii on 21 Apr 1944. Assigned to Seventh AF to provide air defense for the Hawaiian Islands. Redesignated 7th Air Division in Dec 1947. Inactivated in Hawaii on 1 May 1948.

Activated in England on 20 Mar 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Operated with components of Strategic Air Command temporarily deployed to the United Kingdom.

Groups. 15th Fighter: 1945-1946. 21st Fighter: 1944. 30th Bombardment: 1945-1946. 81st Fighter: 1946-1948. 508th Fighter: 1945.

9th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 9th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 1 Oct 1941.

Redesignated 9th Fighter Wing. Activated on 24 Jul 1942. Moved to the Middle East, Dec 1942-Feb 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF. Apparently no combat groups were assigned to the wing during 1942-1943. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1943.

Groups. 14th: 1941. 51st: 1941.

10th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 10th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 7 Dec 1941.

Redesignated 10th Fighter Wing. Activated on 1 Oct 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF but attached to Third AF for manning and training. No groups were assigned. Inactivated on 1 May 1943. Disbanded on 1 Dec 1943.

Groups. 20th: 1940-1941. 35th: 1940-1941.

11th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 11th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 1 Oct 1941.

Redesignated 11th Fighter Wing. Activated on 1 Nov 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF but attached to Third AF for manning and training. No groups were assigned. Inactivated in the US on 1 May 1943. Disbanded on 1 Dec 1943.

Groups. 54th: 1941. 55th: 1941.

12th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 12th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated in the Panama Canal Zone on 20 Nov 1940. Inactivated on 6 Mar 1942.

Redesignated 12th Bombardment Wing. Activated in the US on 8 Sep 1942. No groups were assigned. Moved to England, Nov-Dec 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF. All personnel and equipment were withdrawn in Jan 1943. Disbanded in England on 9 Oct 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 12th Bombardment Wing (Light), and allotted to the reserve, on 3 Jul 1947. Activated in the US on 3 Aug 1947. Redesignated 12th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 12th Air Division. Organized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 16th: 1940-1942. 32d: 1941-1942. 37th: 1940-1942. 53d: 1941-1942. 321st: 1947-1949. 322d: 1947-1949.

Wings. 22d Bombardment: 1951-. 44th Bombardment: 1951. 106th Bombardment: 1951-1952. 320th Bombardment: 1952-.

13th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 13th Composite Wing on 2 Oct 1940 and activated on 10 Oct. Moved to Puerto Rico at the end of the same month. Inactivated on 25 Oct 1941.

Redesignated 13th Bombardment Wing. Activated in the US on 1 Oct 1942. Assigned to Eighth AF. Redesignated 13th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Feb 1943. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943. Redesignated 13th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Groups were assigned in Sep 1943 and the wing served in combat in the European theater until Apr 1945. Redesignated 13th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Redesignated 13th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Groups. 25th Bombardment: 1940-1941. 36th Pursuit: 1941. 40th Bombardment: 1941. 95th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 100th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 390th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 490th Bombardment: 1945. 493d Bombardment: 1945.

14th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 14th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated in Hawaii on 1 Nov 1940. Suffered heavy losses during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 Dec 1941 but managed to shoot down several enemy aircraft. Inactivated in Hawaii on 23 Jan 1942.

Redesignated 14th Bombardment Wing. Activated in the US on 1 Oct 1942. Redesignated 14th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Feb 1943. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943. Redesignated 14th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Received groups in Sep 1943 and served in combat in the European theater until Apr 1945. Redesignated 14th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Aug. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 14th Air Division. Organized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 15th Pursuit: 1940-1942. 18th Pursuit: 1940-1942. 44th Bombardment: 1943, 1943-1945. 94th Bombardment: 1945. 392d Bombardment: 1943-1945. 447th Bombardment: 1945. 486th Bombardment: 1945. 487th Bombardment: 1945. 491st Bombardment: 1944-1945. 492d Bombardment: 1944.

Wings. 5th Bombardment: 1951-. 9th Bombardment: 1951-1953.

15th Bombardment Training Wing

Constituted as 15th Bombardment Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Apparently never had sufficient personnel to carry out effectively its mission of light bombardment operations and training. Inactivated on 3 Sep 1941.

Activated on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated 15th Bombardment Training Wing in Jan 1943, and 15th Bombardment Operational Training Wing in Apr 1943. Trained groups and heavy bombardment replacement crews until Feb 1945 when it ceased all activity. Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 47th: 1941. 48th: 1941. (Various groups assigned for training, 1942-1945.)

16th Bombardment Training Wing

Constituted as 16th Bombardment Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Apparently did not have sufficient personnel for effective training and operations. Inactivated on 1 Sep 1941.

Activated on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated 16th Bombardment Training Wing in Jan 1943, 16th Bombardment Operational Training Wing in Apr 1943, and 16th Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Very Heavy) in May 1945. Began training heavy bombardment groups and personnel in Jun 1942; later changed to very heavy bombardment training, which lasted until operations ceased late in 1945. Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 45th: 1941. 46th: 1941. (Various groups assigned for training, 1942-1945.)

17th Bombardment Training Wing

Constituted as 17th Bombardment Wing on 3 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 1 Sep 1941.

Activated on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated 17th Bombardment Training Wing in Jan 1943, and 17th Bombardment Operational Training Wing in Apr 1943. Trained a number of heavy bombardment groups; also trained heavy bombardment crews. Inactivated on 15 Nov 1943.

Redesignated 17th Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Very Heavy). Activated on 11 Mar 1944. Assigned to Second AF. Trained very heavy bombardment organizations and personnel. Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 3d Bombardment: 1940-1941. 27th Bombardment: 1940-1941.

18th Replacement Wing

Constituted as 18th Composite Wing on 8 May 1929. Activated in Hawaii on 1 May 1931. Served as part of the defense force for the Hawaiian Islands. Redesignated 18th Wing in 1937, and 18th Bombardment Wing in 1940. Inactivated in Hawaii on 29 Jan 1942.

Redesignated 18th Replacement Wing. Activated in the US on 23 Jun 1942. Assigned to Second AF. Processed personnel entering Second AF for assignments to units. Disbanded on 11 Apr 1944.

Groups. 5th Bombardment: 1931-1942. 11th Bombardment: 1940-1942. 18th Pursuit: 1931-1940.

20th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 20th Bombardment Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 1 Sep 1941.

Activated on 1 Nov 1942. Redesignated 20th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Feb 1943. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, for duty with Eighth AF. Redesignated 20th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Received its first groups in Nov 1943 and served in combat in the European theater from Dec 1 1943 until Apr 1945. Redesignated 10th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Returned to the US in Aug 1945. Redesignated 20th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in Aug, and VIII Bomber Command (Very Heavy) in Oct 1945. Apparently had no combat components assigned after Aug 1945. Inactivated on 10 Nov 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 7th: 1940-1941. 34th: 1945. 42d: 1941. 93d: 1943-1945. 385th: 1945. 388th: 1945. 446th: 1943-1945. 448th: 1943-1945. 452d: 1945. 489th: 1944.

21st Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 21st Bombardment Wing on 16 Dec 1942 and activated on 22 Dec. Assigned to Second AF. Functioned throughout the war as a staging wing, processing heavy bombardment crews and aircraft to prepare them for overseas movement; in Apr 1944 began processing men returning to the US from combat zones. Redesignated I Staging Command in Sep 1945. Assigned to Fourth AF in Nov. Inactivated on 3 Apr 1946.

Redesignated 21st Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 21st Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 21st Air Division. Activated on 16 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

(This wing is not related to a 21st Bombardment Wing that was constituted on 19 Oct 1940, activated at Barksdale Field on 1 Nov 1940, inactivated on 1 Nov 1941, and disbanded on 15 Dec 1942.)

Components. Groups. 95th: 1947-1949. 384th: 1947-1949.

Wings. 44th Bombardment: 1951-1952. 55th Reconnaissance: 1952-. 90th Reconnaissance: 1951-.

24th Composite Wing

Constituted as 24th Composite Wing on 19 Nov 1942. Activated in Iceland on 25 Dec 1942. Served in the defense of Iceland. Disbanded on 15 Jun 1944.

Reconstituted on 5 Aug 1946 and activated in Puerto Rico on 25 Aug. Assigned to Caribbean Air Command. No tactical groups were assigned, but the wing supervised various air force units and bases in the Antilles. Inactivated in Puerto Rico on 28 Jul 1948.

Groups. 342d: 1942-1944.

25th Antisubmarine Wing

Constituted as 25th Antisubmarine Wing on 17 Nov 1942 and activated on 20 Nov. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine Command and later (Aug 1943) to First AF. Conducted patrols, primarily off the eastern coast of the US. Disbanded on 15 Oct 1943.

Squadrons. 1st: 1942-1943. 2d (formerly 523d Bombardment): 1942-1943. 3d: 1942-1943. 4th: 1942-1943. 5th: 1942-1943. 6th: 1942-1943. 11th: 1942-1943. 12th: 1942-1943. 13th: 1942-1943. 14th: 1942-1943. 16th (formerly 521st Bombardment): 1942-1943. 18th: 1942-1943. 19th: 1942-1943. 20th: 1943. 22d: 1943. 24th: 1943.

26th Antisubmarine Wing

Constituted as 26th Antisubmarine Wing on 17 Nov 1942 and activated on 20 Nov. Assigned to AAF Antisubmarine Command and later (Aug 1943) to First AF. Flew patrols in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Disbanded on 15 Oct 1943.

Squadrons. 7th: 1942-1943. 8th: 1942-1943. 9th: 1942-1943. 10th: 1942-1943. 15th: 1942-1943. 17th: 1942-1943. 21st: 1943. 23d: 1943. 25th: 1943.

40th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 40th Bombardment Wing on 15 Jan 1943 and activated on 21 Jan. Redesignated 40th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in May 1943. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, for duty with Eight AF. Redesignated 40th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943, and 40th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun 1945. Served in combat in the European theater from Sep 1943 until Apr 1945, receiving a DUC for an attack on aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944. Remained in Europe after the war as part of United States Air Force in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 25 Dec 1946.

Redesignated 40th Air Division. Organized in the US on 14 Mar 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 2d: 1945-1946. 92d: 1943-1946. 305th: 1943-1945, 1945-1946. 306th: 1943-1945, 1945-1946. 384th: 1945-1946. 492d: 1944-1945.

Wings. 31st Fighter: 1951-. 108th Fighter: 1951. 146th Fighter: 1951. 508th Fighter: 1952-.

41st Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 41st Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 29 Jan 1943. Activated on 16 Feb 1943. Moved to England in Jul 1943 for duty with Eighth AF. Redesignated 41st Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Served in the European theater from Sep 1943 to Apr 1945, receiving a DUC for a raid on aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944. Disbanded in England on 18 Jun 1945.

Groups. 303d: 1943-1945. 379th: 1943-1945. 384th: 1943-1945.

42d Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 42d Bombardment Wing (Dive) on 8 Feb 1943 and activated on 6 Feb. Redesignated 42d Bombardment Wing (Medium), transferred overseas without personnel and equipment, and assigned to Twelfth AF, on 31 Jul 1943. Received groups in Aug 1943 and served in combat in the Mediterranean and European theaters until the end of the war. Returned to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 25 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 42d Air Division. Organized on 10 Mar 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 1st Fighter: 1943. 17th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 319th Bombardment: 1943-1944. 320th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 325th Fighter: 1943.

Wings. 1st Fighter: 1951-. 27th Fighter: 1951-. 531st Fighter: 1951.

45th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 45th Bombardment Wing (Medium) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Apr 1943. Redesignated 45th Bombardment Wing (Heavy). Moved to England in Aug 1943 for duty with Eighth AF. Redesignated 45th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy). Groups were assigned in Sep 1943 and the wing participated in combat in the European theater until Apr 1945. Disbanded in England on 18 Jun 1945.

Reconstituted and redesignated 45th Air Division, on 24 Sep 1954. Activated in the US on 8 Oct 1954. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 34th: 1945. 96th: 1943-1945. 385th: 1945. 388th: 1943-1945. 452d: 1944-1945.

Wings. 42d Bombardment: 1954-.

47th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 7th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Inactivated on 31 Aug 1941.

Redesignated 7th Fighter Wing. Activated on 7 Jun 1942. Moved to North Africa, Oct-Nov 1942, to operate with Twelfth AF. Redesignated 47th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Feb 1943. Assigned to Fifteenth AF in Nov 1943 and afterward operated as a heavy bombardment organization until the war ended. Redesignated 47th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Apr 1945. Returned to the US in May. Redesignated 47th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in Jun. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 47th Air Division. Organized on 10 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 8th Pursuit: 1940-1941. 17th Bombardment: 1943. 33d Fighter: 1940-1941; 1942-1943, 1943. 57th Pursuit: 1940-1941. 81st Fighter: 1942-1943. 82d Fighter: 1943-1944. 98th Bombardment: 1943, 1943-1945. 310th Bombardment: 1943. 319th Bombardment: 1943. 320th Bombardment: 1943. 321st Bombardment: 1943. 325th Fighter: 1943. 376th Bombardment: 1943, 1943-1945. 449th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 450th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 451st Bombardment: 1944. 489th Bombardment: 1945.

Wings. 6th Bombardment: 1951-. 509th Bombardment: 1951-.

49th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 49th Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Medium) on 17 Mar 1943 and activated on 31 Mar. Redesignated 49th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Oct 1943, and 49th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Dec. Moved to Italy (Feb-Apr 1944) where groups were assigned. Operated with Fifteenth AF in the Mediterranean and European theaters from Apr 1944 until May 1945. Inactivated in Italy on 16 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 49th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 49th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 49th Air Division. Activated on 7 Nov 1951. Assigned to Tactical Air Command. Redesignated 49th Air Division (Operational) in Apr 1952. Moved to England, May-Jun 1952, and assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. No combat elements were assigned but wings were attached for operations.

Groups. 100th: 1946-1949. 380th: 1946-1949. 451st: 1944-1945. 461st: 1944-1945. 484th: 1944-1945.

50th Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 50th Transport Wing on 8 Jan 1941 and activated on 14 Jan. Assigned to Office, Chief of the Air Corps. Transported personnel, supplies, and materiel in the US, Alaska, and the Caribbean area. Assigned to Air Transport Command (later I Troop Carrier Command) in Apr 1942. Redesignated 50th Troop Carrier Wing in Jul 1942. Functioned as a training organization. Moved overseas, Sep-Oct 1943, and assigned to Ninth AF. Operated in the European and Mediterranean theaters until after the war. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in Sep 1945. Remanned and re-equipped. Inactivated on 31 Jul 1946.

Groups. 439th: 1944-1945. 440th: 1944-1945. 441st: 1944-1945. 442d: 1944-1945. (Numerous other groups assigned for training or operations, 1941-1944.)

51st Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 51st Transport Wing on 30 May 1942. Activated on 1 Jun 1942. Redesignated 51st Troop Carrier Wing in Jul 1942. Arrived in England in Sep 1942 and trained for the invasion of North Africa. Operated with Twelfth AF in North Africa and the Mediterranean area from Nov 1942 to May 1945. Moved to Germany in Sep 1945. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 5 Jan 1948.

Groups. 60th: 1942-1945, 1946-1947. 61st: 1942, 1946-1947. 62d: 1942-1945. 64th: 1942-1945. 313th: 1946-1947. 314th: 1945-1946. 441st: 1945-1946. 442d: 1945-1946. 516th: 1945-1946.

52d Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 52d Transport Wing on 30 May 1942. Activated on 15 Jun 1942. Redesignated 52d Troop Carrier Wing in Jul 1942. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, Apr-May 1943, and served with Twelfth AF until Feb 1944. Moved to England, Feb-Mar 1944, assigned to Ninth AF, and engaged in operations in the European theater until Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Jun-Jul 1945. Inactivated on 27 Aug 1946.

Redesignated 52d Fighter Wing. Allotted to ANG (NY) on 28 Aug 1946 Extended federal recognition on 3 Oct 1947. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 10th: 1942-1943. 61st: 1942, 1943-1945. 63d: 1942. 64th: 1943. 313th: 1942, 1942-1945. 314th: 1942, 1943-1945. 315th: 1942, 1944-1945. 316th: 1942, 1943-1946. 317th: 1942. 349th: 1945, 1946. 433d: 1943. 434th: 1945-1946. 439th: 1945-1946.

53d Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 53d Troop Carrier Wing on 27 Jul 1942. Activated on 1 Aug 1942. Moved to England, Jan-Mar 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Operated in the European theater until after V-E Day. Returned to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 11 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 53d Fighter Wing. Allotted to ANG (Pa) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 17 Jan 1947. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 61st: 1942-1943. 63d: 1942-1943. 89th: 1942. 313th: 1942. 314th: 1942. 316th: 1942. 433d: 1943. 434th: 1943, 1944-1945. 435th: 1943, 1944-1945. 436th: 1943, 1944-1945. 437th: 1943, 1944-1945. 438th: 1943, 1944-1945. 439th: 1943. 440th: 1943.

54th Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 54th Troop Carrier Wing on 26 Feb 1943. Activated in Australia on 13 Mar 1943. Assigned to Fifth AF. Engaged in troop carrier and transport operations from May 1943 until after the end of the war. Inactivated in the Philippines on 31 May 1946.

Redesignated 54th Fighter Wing. Allotted to ANG (Ga) on 1 Jun 1946. Extended federal recognition on 2 Oct 1946. Called to active service on 10 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 11 Oct 1950.

Groups. 2d Combat Cargo: 1944-1946. 317th Troop Carrier: 1943-1946. 374th Troop Carrier: 1943. 375th Troop Carrier: 1943-1946. 433d Troop Carrier: 1943-1946.

55th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 55th Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Medium) on 17 Mar 1943 and activated on 31 Mar. Various groups were attached for training prior to Oct 1943. Redesignated 55th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Oct 1943, and 55th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Dec. Moved to Italy (Feb-Mar 1944) where combat elements were assigned. Operated with Fifteenth AF in the Mediterranean and European theaters from Mar 1944 until May 1945. Inactivated in Italy on 9 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 55th Fighter Wing. Allotted to ANG (Ohio) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 7 Dec 1947. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 460th: 1944-1945. 461st: 1944. 464th: 1944-1945. 465th: 1944-1945. 485th: 1944-1945.

57th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 8th Pursuit Wing on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 6 Nov 1940. Inactivated on 1 Nov 1941.

Redesignated 8th Fighter Wing. Activated on 24 Jul 1942. Moved to Egypt, Oct-Dec 1942, and served with Ninth AF in the Middle East and North Africa. Redesignated 57th Bombardment Wing in Apr 1943. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1943 and continued operations in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war. Inactivated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 57th Air Division. Organized on 16 Apr 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 12th Bombardment: 1943-1944. 47th Bombardment: 1943-1944. 49th Pursuit: 1941. 57th Fighter: 1943-1944. 79th Fighter: 1943-1944. 310th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 319th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 321st Bombardment: 1943-1944, 1944-1945. 340th Bombardment: 1943-1944, 1944-1945.

Wings. 92d Bombardment: 1951-. 98th Bombardment: 1951-1953. 99th Bombardment: 1953-. 111th Reconnaissance: 1951-1953.

58th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 58th Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Heavy) on 22 Apr 1943. Activated on 1 May 1943. Redesignated 58th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jul 1943, and 58th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in Nov 1943. Moved to India in the spring of 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in very-long-range bombardment operations from Jun to Oct 1944. Disbanded in India on 12 Oct 1944.

Reconstituted on 1 Feb 1945 and activated in India on 8 Feb. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in combat until the war ended. Returned to the US late in 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Redesignated 58th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 16 Oct 1948.

Redesignated 58th Air Division (Defense). Activated on 8 Sep 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. No combat elements were assigned to the division prior to 31 Dec 1955.

Groups. 40th: 1943-1944; 1945-1946. 444th: 1943-1944; 1945-1946. 462d: 1943-1944; 1945-1946. 468th: 1943-1944; 1945-1946. 472d: 1943-1944.

60th Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 60th Troop Carrier Wing on 5 Jun 1943 and activated on 12 Jun. Assigned to I Troop Carrier Command. Trained groups and glider crews and participated in several airborne maneuvers. Inactivated on 8 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 60th Fighter Wing. Allotted to ANG (Wash) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 19 Apr 1948. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

61st Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 61st Troop Carrier Wing on 5 Jun 1943 and activated on 13 Jun. Assigned to I Troop Carrier Command. Trained groups, troop carrier replacement personnel, and glider crews. Inactivated on 4 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 61st Fighter Wing. Allotted to ANG (Calif) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 4 Apr 1948. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

62d Fighter Wing

Constituted as 1st Air Defense Wing on 12 Dec 1942 and activated the same day. Moved to the Mediterranean theater in Jan 1943. Redesignated 62d Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served with Twelfth AF until the end of the war. Inactivated in Italy on 12 Sep 1945.

Allotted to ANG (Calif) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 14 Sep 1946. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 52d: 1943. 81st: 1943, 1943-1944. 332d: 1944. 350th: 1944-1945.

63d Fighter Wing

Constituted as 2d Air Defense Wing on 12 Dec 1942 and activated the same day. Moved to North Africa in Jan 1943. Redesignated 63d Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Operated with Twelfth AF until Nov 1944 when the wing moved to the European theater and lost its combat elements. Returned to the US in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 11 Dec 1945.

Allotted to ANG (Tex) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 23 May 1948. Ordered into active service on 10 Oct 1950. Inactivated on 11 Oct 1950.

Groups. 52d: 1943-1944. 350th: 1943-1944.

64th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 3d Air Defense Wing on 12 Dec 1942 and activated the same day. Moved to Algeria in Feb 1943. Redesignated 64th Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served with Twelfth AF in the Mediterranean theater until Nov 1944. Moved to the European theater and continued operations until the war ended. Remained in Germany after the war as part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated on 5 Jun 1947.

Redesignated 64th Air Division (Defense). Activated in Newfoundland on Apr 1952. Assigned to Northeast Air Command.

Components. Groups. 27th Fighter: 1943, 1946-1947. 31st Fighter: 1943. 33d Fighter: 1943. 36th Fighter: 1945-1946. 52d Fighter: 1946-1947. 86th Fighter: 1943, 1945-1946, 1946-1947. 324th Fighter: 1943, 1945. 354th Fighter: 1945-1946. 355th Fighter: 1946. 363d Reconnaissance: 1945. 366th Fighter: 1945-1946. 370th Fighter: 1945. 404th Fighter: 1945. 406th Fighter: 1945-1946.

Squadrons. 59th Fighter: 1952-. 61st Fighter: 1953-. 79th Fighter: 1954-. 318th Fighter: 1953-1954.

65th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 4th Air Defense Wing on 25 Mar 1943 and activated on 27 Mar. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, for duty with Eighth AF. Redesignated 65th Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served in combat in the European theater from Jul 1943 to late in Apr 1945. Inactivated in England on 21 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 65th Air Division (Defense). Organized in Iceland on 24 Apr 1952. Assigned to Military Air Transport Service. Served in the air defense of Iceland, its combat elements being fighter squadrons temporarily deployed from the US. Discontinued on 8 Mar 1954.

Activated in Spain on 8 Apr 1957. Assigned to Sixteenth AF. No combat elements were assigned at the time of activation.

Groups. 4th: 1943-1945. 56th: 1943-1945. 78th: 1943. 355th: 1943-1945. 356th: 1943-1944. 361st: 1944-1945, 1945. 479th: 1944-1945.

66th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 5th Air Defense Wing on 25 Mar 1943 and activated on 27 Mar. Moved to England, May-Jun 1943, and assigned to Eighth AF. Redesignated 66th Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Participated in combat in the European theater from Nov 1943 to late in Apr 1945. Inactivated in England on 21 Nov 1945.

Allotted to ANG (Ill) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 26 Nov 1946. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 4th: 1945. 55th: 1943-1945. 56th: 1945. 78th: 1943-1945. 339th: 1944-1945. 353d: 1943-1945. 357th: 1944-1945. 358th: 1943-1944. 359th: 1943. 361st: 1943-1944, 1945. 479th: 1945.

67th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 6th Air Defense Wing 14 Jun 1943 and activated on 15 Jun. Redesignated 67th Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Moved to England in Aug 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Served in combat in the European theater from Dec 1943 until late in Apr 1945. Inactivated in England on 21 Nov 1945.

Allotted to ANG (Mass) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 15 Oct 1946. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 20th: 1943-1945. 352d: 1943-1945. 356th: 1944-1945. 359th: 1943-1945. 361st: 1944. 364th: 1944-1945.

68th Composite Wing

Constituted as 68th Fighter Wing on 9 Aug 1943. Activated in China on 3 Sep 1943. Assigned to Fourteenth AF. Redesignated 68th Composite Wing in Dec 1943. Served in combat from Dec 1943 until Aug 1945. Inactivated in China on 10 Oct 1945.

Groups. 23d Fighter: 1943-1945.

69th Composite Wing

Constituted as 69th Bombardment Wing on 9 Aug 1943. Activated in China on 3 Sep 1943. Assigned to Fourteenth AF. Redesignated 69th Composite Wing in Dec 1943. Served in combat from Dec 1943 until Aug 1945. Assigned to Tenth AF in Aug. Engaged in transport operations after V-J Day, being awarded a DUC for the period 1-30 Sep 1945 when the wing ferried troops and supplies in China, helped to evacuate prisoners of war, and flew mercy and other special missions to areas in China, French Indochina, and Manchuria. Inactivated in China on 26 Dec 1945.

Redesignated 69th Troop Carrier Wing. Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 23 Mar 1947. Redesignated 69th Air Division (Troop Carrier) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 51st Fighter: 1943-1945. 341st Bombardment: 1943-1945. 375th Troop Carrier: 1947-1949. 419th Troop Carrier: 1947-1949. 433d Troop Carrier: 1947-1949.

70th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 70th Fighter Wing on 11 Aug 1943 and activated on 15 Aug. Moved to England in Nov 1943 and assigned to Ninth AF. Served in the European theater from Feb 1944 to May 1945, operating with various fighter groups assigned or attached for brief periods of time. Remained in Europe after the war as part of United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 25 Sep 1947.

Components. (See narrative.)

71st Fighter Wing

Constituted as 71st Fighter Wing on 11 Aug 1943 and activated on 15 Aug. Moved to the European theater in Dec 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF. Served in combat from Mar to Aug 1944 when its combat elements were relieved of assignment. Returned to the US, Nov-Dec 1945. Inactivated on 3 Dec 1945.

Allotted to ANG (Mo) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 3 Jul 1946. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

Groups. 366th: 1944. 368th: 1944. 370th: 1944.

72d Fighter Wing

Constituted as 72d Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Heavy) on 12 Aug 1943 and activated on 20 Aug. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated 72d Fighter Wing in Sep 1943. Trained fighter organizations and replacement crews. Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946.

Groups. 36th: 1943-1944. 84th: 1943-1944. 357th: 1943. 407th: 1943-1944. 408th: 1943-1944. 476th: 1944. 507th: 1944-1945. 508th: 1944.

73d Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 5th Heavy Bombardment Processing Headquarters on 9 Feb 1943 and activated on 17 Feb. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated 73d Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Heavy) in Aug 1943. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1943.

Redesignated 73d Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy). Activated on 20 Nov 1943. Moved to Saipan, Jul-Sep 1944, and assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in very heavy bombardment operations from Oct 1944 to Aug 1945. Returned to the US late in 1945. Assigned to Strategic Air Command on 21 Mar 1946. Inactivated on 31 May 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 12 Jun 1947. Redesignated 73d Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 73d Air Division (Weapons). Activated on 8 Jul 1957. Assigned to Air Defense Command. No combat elements were assigned at the time of activation.

Groups. 338th: 1947-1949. 381st: 1947-1949. 497th: 1943-1946. 498th: 1943-1946. 499th: 1943-1946. 500th: 1943-1946.

84th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 84th Fighter Wing on 4 Nov 1943 and activated on 10 Nov. Moved to the European theater in Jan 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Engaged in combat from Mar 1944 until May 1945, operating with various groups that were assigned or attached for short periods of time. Disbanded in Europe on 12 Aug 1945.

Components. (See narrative.)

85th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 85th Fighter Wing on 4 Nov 1943 and activated on 10 Nov. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Jan-Feb 1944. Served in combat with Fifth AF until May 1945 when the wing lost its tactical groups. Afterwards, operated an aircraft warning system for the Philippines. Remained on Luzon as part of Far East Air Forces after the war. Was not manned from late in 1945 until early in 1946 when the wing was given control of fighter groups on Luzon. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Japan in Jun 1947 and evidently was not remanned. Inactivated on 30 Jun 1948.

Redesignated 85th Air Division (Defense). Activated on 8 Sep 1955. Assigned to Air Defense Command. No combat elements were assigned prior to 31 Dec 1955.

Groups. 18th: 1946-1947. 49th: 1944. 348th: 1944-1945. 414th: 1946. 475th: 1944-1945.

86th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 86th Fighter Wing on 19 Nov 1943. Activated on 1 Dec 1943. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Mar-May 1944. Assigned to Fifth AF. Engaged in combat from May until early in 1945 when the wing became responsible for establishing and operating an aircraft warning system in the Philippine Islands. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 Mar 1946.

Allotted to ANG (Colo) on 24 May 1946. Extended federal recognition on 3 Jul 1946. Inactivated on 31 Oct 1950.

(This wing is not related to an 86th Fighter Wing that was constituted on 1 Jul 1948 and activated in Germany the same day by United States Air Forces in Europe.)

Groups. 8th: 1944-1945. 49th: 1944-1945. 58th: 1944-1945.

87th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 87th Fighter Wing on 14 Oct 1943 and activated on 25 Oct. Moved overseas, Dec 1943-Jan 1944, and operated with Twelfth AF in the Mediterranean theater from Apr 1944 until the wing's groups were reassigned in Sep 1944. Disbanded in Italy on 1 Apr 1945.

Groups. 57th: 1944. 79th: 1944. 86th: 1944.

90th Reconnaissance Wing

Constituted as 90th Photographic Wing (Reconnaissance) on 11 Oct 1943. Activated in North Africa on 22 Nov 1943. Provided photographic reconnaissance for both Twelfth AF and Fifteenth until the wing's groups were reassigned on 1 Oct 1944. Afterward, aided in establishing a photographic library for use in the European and Mediterranean theaters. Returned to the US in Apr 1945. Redesignated 90th Reconnaissance Wing in Jun. Inactivated on 23 Oct 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 90th Air Division (Reconnaissance) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 3d: 1943-1944. 5th: 1943-1944. 26th: 1947-1949. 65th: 1946-1949.

91st Reconnaissance Wing

Constituted as 91st Photographic Wing (Reconnaissance) on 9 Oct 1943 and activated on 20 Oct. Redesignated 91st Reconnaissance Wing in Jun 1945. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Feb-Mar 1944, and served with Fifth AF until the end of the war. Inactivated in Japan on 27 Jan 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 91st Air Division (Reconnaissance) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 6th: 1944-1945. 66th: 1946-1949. 71st: 1944-1945. 74th: 1946-1949.

92d Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 92d Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 25 Oct 1943. Activated in England on 1 Nov 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Entered combat on 11 Dec 1943 but its group were reassigned on 15 Dec. Re-entered combat with new groups in May 1944 and continued operations until the groups were taken away in Feb 1945. Moved to the US in Jul. Disbanded on 18 Aug 1945.

Groups. 351st: 1943. 401st: 1943. 486th: 1944-1945. 487th: 1944-1945.

93d Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 93d Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 25 Oct 1943. Activated in England on 1 Nov 1943. Did not receive groups until the spring of 1944. Served in combat with Eighth AF in the European theater from May 1944 until Apr 1945. Moved to the US in Jul 1945. Disbanded on 28 Aug 1945.

Groups. 34th: 1944-1945. 385th: 1945. 490th: 1944-1945. 493d: 1944-1945.

94th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 94th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 2 Nov 1943. Activated in England on 12 Dec 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Served in combat in the European theater until Apr 1945. Received a DUC for an attack on German aircraft factories on 11 Jan 1944. Disbanded in England on 18 Jun 1945.

Groups. 351st: 1943-1945. 401st: 1943-1945. 457th: 1944-1945.

95th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 95th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 2 Nov 1943. Activated in England on 12 Dec 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Had no groups until Apr 1944. Flew in combat in the European theater from 2 Jun until 14 Aug 1944 when its groups were taken away. Moved to the US in Jul 1945. Disbanded on 28 Aug 1945.

Groups. 489th: 1944. 491st: 1944.

96th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 96th Combat Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 8 Nov 1943. Activated in England on 11 Jan 1944. Served in combat in the European theater with Eighth AF from Mar 1944 until Apr 1945. Redesignated 96th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) in Jun. Moved to the US in Aug. Redesignated 96th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in Aug. Inactivated on 17 Oct 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated on 12 Jun 1947. Redesignated 96th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 44th: 1945. 93d: 1945. 351st: 1948-1949. 381st: 1947-1948. 392d: 1945. 446th: 1945. 448th: 1945. 458th: 1944-1945. 466th: 1944-1945. 467th: 1944-1945. 491st: 1945.

97th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 97th Combat Bombardment Wing (Medium) on 2 Nov 1943 and activated in England on 12 Nov. Assigned to Ninth AF. Redesignated 97th Combat Bombardment Wing (Light) in Jul 1944. Participated in combat operations in the European theater, Apr 1944-May 1945. Redesignated 97th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Jun 1945. Moved to the US in Oct. Inactivated on 11 Oct 1945.

Groups. 409th: 1944-1945. 410th: 1944-1945. 416th: 1944-1945.

98th Bombardment Wing

Authorized on the inactive list as 3d Wing on 24 Mar 1923. Redesignated 3d Attack Wing in 1929. Activated on 15 Jun 1932. Redesignated 3d Wing in 1935. Became one of the original wings of GHQAF. Redesignated 3d Bombardment Wing in 1940. Inactivated on 5 Sep 1941.

Activated on 7 Jun 1942. Assigned tc Eighth AF. Moved to the European theater, Aug-Sep 1942, and entered combat in May 1943. Redesignated 98th Combat Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Nov 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF and continued combat operations until Apr 1945. Redesignated 98th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Jun 1945. Inactivated in Europe on 27 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 3d Bombardment Wing (Light) and allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 3d Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 3d Bombardment: 1932-1940. 13th Bombardment: 1941. 20th Pursuit: 1932-1939. 29th Bombardment: 1940-1941. 44th Bombardment: 1941. 305th Bombardment: 1945. 306th Bombardment: 1945. 310th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 322d Bombardment: 1942-1943. 323d Bombardment: 1942-1945. 341st Bombardment: 1947-1949. 344th Bombardment: 1945. 386th Bombardment: 1942-1943, 1945. 387th Bombardment: 1942-1945. 391st Bombardment: 1945. 394th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 397th Bombardment: 1944-1945.

99th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 44th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 15 Feb 1943. Activated on 1 Mar 1943. Moved to England in Jul 1943 and assigned to Eighth AF. Combat elements apparently were not assigned and wing headquarters was not fully manned prior to Nov 1943. Redesignated 99th Combat Bombardment Wing (Medium). Served in combat with Ninth AF until May 1945. Redesignated 99th Bombardment Wing (Medium) in Jun 1945. Returned to the US, Sep-Oct 1945. Inactivated on 4 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 44th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 26 Jun 1947. Redesignated 44th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 312th: 1947-1949. 322d: 1943-1945. 344th: 1943-1945. 386th: 1944-1945. 391st: 1944-1945. 394th: 1945. 401st: 1947-1949. 447th: 1947-1949.

100th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 100th Fighter Wing on 8 Nov 1943 and activated in England on 24 Nov. Assigned to Ninth AF. Engaged in combat in the European theater from Apr 1944 to May 1945. Moved to the US, Aug-Sep 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Groups. 48th: 1944. 354th: 1943, 1944, 1945. 358th: 1944. 361st: 1944-1945. 362d: 1944, 1945. 363d: 1944. 365th: 1944-1945. 367th: 1944, 1945. 368th: 1944-1945. 371st: 1944, 1945. 405th: 1945. 406th: 1945. 474th: 1944.

301st Fighter Wing

Constituted as 301st Fighter Wing on 5 Oct 1944 and activated on 15 Oct. Moved to Ie Shima, May-Jul 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in combat during the last few days of the war. Assigned to Eighth AF in Aug 1945 and to Far East Air Forces in 1946. Inactivated on Okinawa on 20 Jan 1949.

Groups. 51st: 1946-1948. 408th: 1944. 413th: 1944-1946. 414th: 1944-1945. 506th: 1944-1945. 507th: 1944-1945.

303d Fighter Wing

Constituted as 303d Fighter Wing on 15 Nov 1943 and activated on 24 Nov. Moved to the European theater, Feb-Mar 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Served in combat from May 1944 until May 1945, operating with various groups that were assigned or attached for brief periods of time. Disbanded in Europe on 12 Aug 1945.

Components. (See narrative.)

304th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 304th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 7 Dec 1943 and activated in Italy on 29 Dec. Operated with Fifteenth AF in the Mediterranean and European theaters from Feb 1944 until May 1945. Moved to the US, Sep-Oct 1945. Inactivated on 13 Oct 1945.

Redesignated 304th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 19 Apr 1947. Redesignated 304th Air Division (Bombardment) Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 448th: 1947-1949. 452d: 1947-1949. 454th: 1944-1945. 455th: 1944-1945. 456th: 1944-1945. 459th: 1944-1945; 1947-1949.

305th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 305th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 7 Dec 1943 and activated in Italy on 29 Dec. No combat components were assigned until 13 Jun 1945. Inactivated in Italy on 9 Sep 1945.

Redesignated 305th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) and allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 12 Jul 1947. Redesignated 305th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 1st Fighter: 1945. 54th Fighter: 1945. 31st Fighter: 1945. 52d Fighter: 1945. 82d Fighter: 1945. 325th Fighter: 1945. 332d Fighter: 1945. 445th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 454th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 456th Bombardment: 1947-1949.

306th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 306th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 7 Dec 1943. Activated in Italy on 15 Jan 1944. Assigned to Fifteenth AF. Entered combat in Mar as a fighter organization. Redesignated 306th Fighter Wing in May 1944. Operated in the Mediterranean and European theaters until the end of the war. Moved to the US, Jul-Aug 1945. Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945.

Groups. 1st: 1944. 14th: 1944. 31st: 1944-1945. 52d: 1944-1945. 82d: 1944. 325th: 1944-1945. 332d: 1944-1945.

307th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 307th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 7 Dec 1943. Activated in Italy on 15 Jan 1944. No combat elements were assigned. Disbanded in Italy on 15 Jun 1944.

Reconstituted, redesignated 307th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy), and allotted to the reserve, on 10 Feb 1947. Activated in the US on 31 Mar 1947. Redesignated 307th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 482d: 1947-1949.

308th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 308th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 20 Jan 1944. Activated in New Guinea on 1 Feb 1944. Served in combat with Fifth AF from Feb 1944 to Aug 1945, operating with various groups that were attached for brief periods. Moved to Korea late in 1945 and, as a component of Far East Air Forces, became part of the occupation force. Redesignated 308th Bombardment Wing (Light) in May 1946. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Japan in 1947 and was not remanned. Inactivated on 30 Jun 1948.

Groups. 475th Fighter: 1945-1947.

309th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 309th Bombardment Wing (Heavy) on 20 Jan 1944. Activated in New Guinea on 1 Feb 1944. Assigned to Fifth AF. Served in combat until the end of the war, operating with various groups that were attached for short periods of time. Inactivated in Japan on 25 Mar 1946.

Redesignated 309th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 10 Jan 1947. Redesignated 309th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 3d Air Commando: 1946. 446th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 455th Bombardment: 1947-1949.

310th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 310th Bombardment Wing (Medium) on 20 Jan 1944. Activated in New Guinea on 1 Feb 1944. Assigned to Fifth AF. Engaged in combat from Feb 1944 until the end of the was operating with various groups that wer attached for short periods. Inactivated in Japan on 25 Mar 1946.

Redesignated 310th Bombardment Wing (Light). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 26 Jun 1947. Redesignated 310th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 42d Bombardment: 1946. 323d Bombardment: 1947-1949. 340th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 348th Fighter: 1946.

311th Reconnaissance Wing

Constituted as 311th Photographic Wing (Mapping and Charting) on 31 Jan 1944. Activated on 1 Feb 1944. Assigned directly to AAF. Redesignated 311th Reconnaissance Wing in Jul 1945. Operated in the US and sent detachments to various areas of the world to perform mapping and charting duties. Assigned to Continental Air Forces in Dec 1945. Became the major reconnaissance organization of Strategic Air Command in Mar 1946. Redesignated 311th Air Division (Reconnaissance) in Apr 1948, and 311th Air Division in Jan 1949. Inactivated on 1 Nov 1949.

Components. Groups. 1st: 1944. 11th: 1944. 55th: 1947-1948. 91st: 1947-1948.

Wings. 5th: 1949. 9th: 1949. 55th: 1948-1949. 91st: 1948-1949.

312th Fighter Wing

Constituted as 312th Fighter Wing on 7 Mar 1944 and activated in China on 1 Mar. Assigned to Fourteenth AF. Served in combat in China from Jul 1944 until Aug 1945. Moved to the US, Oct-Nov 1945. Inactivated on 5 Nov 1945.

Groups. 33d: 1944. 81st: 1944-1945. 311th: 1944-1945.

313th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 313th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) on 15 Apr 1944 and activated on 23 Apr. Moved to the Marianas late in 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in very heavy bombardment operations from Jan to Aug 1945. Moved to the Philippine Islands and assigned to Far East Air Forces in Mar 1946. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 Jun 1948.

Redesignated 313th Air Division. Activated on Okinawa on 1 Mar 1955. Assigned to Far East Air Forces.

Components. Groups. 5th: 1946-1948. 6th: 1944-1948. 9th: 1944-1948. 504th: 1944-1946. 505th: 1944-1946.

Wings. 18th Fighter: 1955-. 51st Fighter: 1955-.

314th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 314th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) on 15 Apr 1944 and activated on 23 Apr. Moved to Guam, Dec 1944-Feb 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in very heavy bombardment operations from Feb to Aug 1945. Redesignated 314th Composite Wing in Jan 1946. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Moved to Japan in Jun 1946. Inactivated on 20 Aug 1948.

Redesignated 314th Air Division. Activated in Japan on 1 Dec 1950. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Provided air defense for Japan and logistic support for combat operations in Korea. Inactivated in Japan on 1 Mar 1952.

Activated in Korea on 15 Mar 1955. Assigned to Far East Air Forces.

Components. Groups. 3d Bombardment: 1946-1948. 19th Bombardment: 1944-1946. 29th Bombardment: 1944-1946. 35th Fighter: 1946-1948. 39th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 49th Fighter: 1946-1948. 330th Bombardment: 1944-1945.

Wings. 35th Fighter: 1951-1952. 58th Fighter: 1955-. 374th Troop Carrier: 1950-1951. 437th Troop Carrier: 1950-1951.

315th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 315th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) on 7 Jul 1944 and activated on 17 Jul. Moved to Guam, Mar-Apr 1945. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in very heavy bombardment operations from Jun to Aug 1945. Redesignated 315th Composite Wing in Jan 1946. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Moved to Japan in May 1946. Inactivated on 20 Aug 1948.

Redesignated 315th Air Division (Combat Cargo). Activated in Japan on 25 Jan 1951. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Participated in aerial supply and evacuation operations for United Nations forces in Korea, 1951-1953. Assisted the French in Indochina, 1953-1954.

Components. Groups. 8th Fighter: 1946-1947. 16th Bombardment: 1944-1946. 38th Bombardment: 1946-1948. 331st Bombardment: 1944-1946. 501st Bombardment: 1944-1946. 502d Bombardment: 1944-1946.

Wings. 315th Troop Carrier: 1952-1954. 374th Troop Carrier: 1951-. 403d Troop Carrier: 1952. 437th Troop Carrier: 1951-1952. 483d Troop Carrier: 1954-.

316th Bombardment Wing

Constituted as 316th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) on 4 Aug 1944 and activated on 14 Aug. Moved to Okinawa, Jul-Sep 1945. Assigned to Eighth AF and later (1946) to Far East Air Forces. Redesignated 316th Composite Wing in Jan 1946, and 316th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in May 1946. Inactivated on Okinawa on 21 Jun 1948.

Redesignated 316th Air Division (Defense). Organized in French Morocco on 18 Sep 1953. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe.

Components. Groups. 22d: 1946-1948. 333d: 1944-1946. 346th: 1944-1946. 382d: 1944-1945. 383d: 1944-1945. Squadrons. 35th Fighter: 1953-. 45th Fighter: 1953-.

322d Troop Carrier Wing

Constituted as 322d Troop Carrier Wing on 4 Dec 1944 and activated by Far East Air Forces on 30 Dec. Operated in the southwestern and western Pacific areas until the end of the war. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 Feb 1946.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 12 Jun 1947. Redesignated 322d Air Division (Troop Carrier) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 322d Air Division (Combat Cargo). Activated in Germany on i Mar 1954. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe.

Components. Groups. 374th: 1945-1946. 440th: 1947-1949.

Wings. 60th Troop Carrier: 1955-. 317th Troop Carrier: 1955-. 465th Troop Carrier: 1955-.

323d Combat Crew Training Wing

Constituted as Boston Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 11 Aug. Redesignated Boston Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Defended the New England area; also trained fighter organizations and personnel. Apparently was not manned from Jul 1944 until Feb 1945. Redesignated 323d Combat Crew Training Wing. Trained very heavy bombardment personnel from Mar until Aug 1945. Apparently had no personnel assigned after Aug. Inactivated on 8 Apr 1946.

Redesignated 323d Troop Carrier Wing and allotted to the reserve. Activated on 1 Aug 1947. Redesignated 323d Air Division (Troop Carrier) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 323d Air Division. Activated on 1 Jul 1958. Assigned to Military Air Transport Service.

Groups. 58th Fighter: 1943. 79th Fighter: 1942. 325th Fighter: 1942-1943. 359th Fighter: 1943. 434th Troop Carrier: 1947-1949. 436th Troop Carrier: 1947-1948. (Other groups assigned for short periods for operations or training, 1942-1944.)

325th Reconnaissance Wing

Constituted as 325th Photographic Wing (Reconnaissance) on 17 Jul 1944. Activated in England on 9 Aug 1944. Assigned to Eighth AF. Served in the European theater until after V-E Day. Redesignated 325th Reconnaissance Wing in Jun 1945. Inactivated in England on 20 Oct 1945.

Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 9 Apr 1947. Redesignated 325th Air Division (Reconnaissance) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Groups. 7th Reconnaissance: 1944-1945. 25th Bombardment (Reconnaissance): 1944-1945. 68th Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. 70th Reconnaissance: 1947-1949. 72d Reconnaissance: 1947-1949.

Los Angeles Fighter Wing

Constituted as Los Angeles Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 20 Aug. Assigned to Fourth AF. Redesignated Los Angeles Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Provided air defense for the Los Angeles area. Also trained fighter groups and personnel. Disbanded on 7 Jun 1944.

Groups. 20th: 1943. 329th: 1943-1944. 360th: 1943-1944. 364th: 1943-1944. 412th: 1943-1944. 473d: 1943-1944. 474th: 1943-1944. 479th: 1943-1944.

NEW YORK Fighter Wing

Constituted as New York Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 11 Aug. Assigned to First AF. Redesignated New York Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served in defense of the New York area and also trained fighter groups and personnel. Evidently not manned after Jul 1944. Inactivated on 3 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 56th: 1942. 58th: 1943. Both: 1942-1943. 326th: 1942-1943. 348th: 1942-1943. 352d: 1942-1943. 356th: 1943-359th: 1943. 362d: 1943. 368th: 1943. 370th: 1943. 373d: 1943. 402d: 1943.

Norfolk Fighter Wing

Constituted as Norfolk Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 11 Aug. Assigned to First AF. Redesignated Norfolk Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served in the defense of the Norfolk area. Not manned after Jul 1944. Inactivated on 3 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. (Operated with attached AAF organizations and cooperating naval aircraft.)

Orlando Fighter Wing

Constituted as Air Defense Department, AAF School of Applied Tactics on 27 Nov 1942. Activated on 3 Dec 1942. Helped to develop air defense tactics and trained organizations and personnel in the techniques of air defense. Also served in defense of the Orlando area, using such tactical organizations as were assigned or attached. Redesignated Orlando Fighter Wing in Oct 1943. Continued to provide defense for the Orlando area but engaged primarily in training fighter and light bombardment organizations and personnel. Disbanded on 1 Apr 1944.

Components. (See the narrative.)

Philadelphia Fighter Wing

Constituted as Philadelphia Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 11 Aug. Assigned to First AF. Redesignated Philadelphia Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served in defense of the Philadelphia area and also trained fighter groups and personnel. Not manned after 31 Jul 1944. Inactivated on 3 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 33d: 1942. 58th: 1943. 83d: 1943. 87th: 1943. 324th: 1942. 327th: 1943. 353d: 1942-1943. 355th: 1943. 358th: 1943. 361st: 1943. 365th: 1943. 366th: 1943. 371st: 1943.

San Diego Fighter Wing

Constituted as San Diego Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 20 Aug. Assigned to Fourth AF. Redesignated San Diego Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served in defense of the San Diego area. Disbanded on 7 Jun 1944.

Components. (Operated with an attached AAF squadron and cooperating naval aircraft.)

San Francisco Fighter Wing

Constituted as San Francisco Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 20 Aug. Assigned to Fourth AF. Redesignated San Francisco Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Served in defense of the San Francisco area. Also trained fighter groups and personnel. Disbanded on 7 Jun 1944.

Groups. 328th: 1943-1944. 354th: 1943. 357th: 1943. 363d: 1943. 367th: 1943-1944. 369th: 1943-1944. 372d: 1943. 478th: 1943-1944.

Seattle Fighter Wing

Constituted as Seattle Air Defense Wing on 6 Aug 1942 and activated on 20 Aug. Assigned to Fourth AF. Redesignated Seattle Fighter Wing in Jul 1943. Provided air defense for the northwest. Also trained fighter groups and personnel. Disbanded on 7 Jun 1944.

Groups. 55th: 1943. 372d: 1943-1944. 478th: 1944.

Trinidad Wing, Antilees Air Command

Constituted as VI Interceptor Command on 17 Oct 1941 and activated in Puerto Rico on 25 Oct. Redesignated VI Fighter Command in May 1942, and Trinidad Wing, Antilles Air Command in Oct 1943. Disbanded in Trinidad on 15 Mar 1944.

Components. Unkn.

Divisions

1st AIR Division

Constituted as 1st Bombardment Division on 30 Aug 1943. Activated in England on 13 Sep 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Redesignated 1st Air Division in Dec 1944. Served in combat in the European theater from Sep 1943 until Apr 1945, receiving a DUC for an attack on aircraft factories in central Germany on 11 Jan 1944. Inactivated in England on 31 Oct 1945.

Activated on Okinawa on 7 Jun 1946. Assigned to Far East Air Forces. Served as an air defense organization. Inactivated on 1 Dec 1948.

Activated in the US on 1 Jul 1954. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Apparently had no combat components assigned and was never adequately manned. Inactivated on 1 Apr 1955.

Activated on 15 Apr 1955. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Had no combat elements assigned. Conducted high altitude meteorological research. Inactivated on 20 May 1956.

Redesignated 1st Missile Division. Activated on 15 Apr 1957. Assigned to Air Research and Development Command. No combat elements were assigned at the time of activation.

Wings. 1st Bombardment: 1943-1945. 2d Bombardment: 1945. 32d Composite: 1948. 40th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 41st Bombardment: 1943-1945. 51st Fighter: 1948. 67th Fighter: 1944-1945. 71st Reconnaissance: 1948. 92d Bombardment: 1943. 94th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 301st Fighter: 1946-1948. 316th Bombardment: 1946-1948.

I Tactical Air Division

Constituted as IV Air Support Command on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 3 Sep 1941. Redesignated IV Ground Air Support Command in Apr 1942, IV Air Support Command in Sep 1942, III Tactical Air Division in Aug 1943, and I Tactical Air Division in Apr 1944. At various times, supervised heavy bomber flights to Hawaii, gave air support to ground units in training, participated in air-ground maneuvers, and put on air support demonstrations. Inactivated on 22 Dec 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

2d Air Division

Constituted as 2d Bombardment Division on 30 Aug 1943. Activated in England on 13 Sep 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Redesignated 2d Air Division in Dec 1944. Served in combat in the European theater from Sep 1943 until Apr 1945 Moved to the US in Jun 1945. Disbanded on 28 Aug 1945.

Organized in Germany on 1 Jun 1949. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe as a fighter-bomber organization. Discontinued in Germany on 7 May 1951.

Activated in Germany on 20 Apr 1953. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Was inadequately manned and had no combat components assigned. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Saudi Arabia in Mar 1954. Manned in the spring of 1954, but had no combat components assigned. Supervised USAF facilities in Saudi Arabia.

Wings. 2d Bombardment: 1943-1945. 14th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 20th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 36th Fighter: 1949-1951. 65th Fighter: 1944-1945. 86th Fighter: 1949-1951. 93d Bombardment: 1943-1944. 96th Bombardment: 1944-1945.

II Tactical Air Division

Constituted as II Air Support Command on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Redesignated II Ground Air Support Command in Apr 1942, II Air Support Command in Sep 1942, and II Tactical Air Division in Aug 1943. Participated in various air-ground maneuvers, supported ground units in training, and put on air support demonstrations. Inactivated on 22 Dec 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

3d Air Division

Constituted as 3d Bombardment Division on 30 Aug 1943. Activated in England on 13 Sep 1943. Assigned to Eighth AF. Redesignated 34 Air Division in Dec 1944. Served in combat in the European theater from Sep 1943 until Apr 1945. Inactivated in England on 21 Nov 1945.

Organized in England on 23 Aug 1948. Assigned first to United States Air Forces in Europe, later (Jan 1949) directly to USAF, and again (Jan 1951) to United States Air Forces in Europe. Had no combat elements assigned but directed the training of Strategic Air Command components on temporary duty in the United Kingdom. Also provided some logistic support for the Berlin airlift, 1948-1949. Discontinued in England on 1 May 1951.

Activated in Germany on 25 Oct 1953. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Apparently was inadequately manned and had no combat components assigned. Inactivated in Germany on 1 Mar 1954.

Activated on Guam on 18 Jun 1954. Assigned to Strategic Air Command. Given operational control over Strategic Air Command wings on temporary duty in the Far East.

Wings. 4th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 13th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 14th Bombardment: 1945. 20th Bombardment: 1945. 45th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 65th Fighter: 1945. 66th Fighter: 1944-1945. 67th Fighter: 1945. 92d Bombardment: 1943-1945. 93d Bombardment: 1944-1945.

9th Air Division

Constituted as 19th Composite Wing on 8 May 1929. Activated on 1 Apr 1931. Moved to the Panama Canal Zone in Jan 1933. Redesignated 19th Wing in 1937, and 19th Bombardment Wing in 1940. Inactivated in the Canal Zone on 25 Oct 1941.

Activated in the US on 24 Jul 1942. Moved to Egypt, Sep-Nov 1942. Assigned to Ninth AF. Redesignated IX Bomber Command in Nov 1942. Operated in the Mediterranean area until Oct 1943. Moved to the European theater, Oct-Nov 1943, and served as a tactical bombardment force in that area until V-E Day. Redesignated 9th Bombardment Division (Medium) in Aug 1944, and 9th Air Division in May 1945. Inactivated in Europe on 20 Nov 1945.

Redesignated 19th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy). Allotted to the reserve. Activated in the US on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated 19th Air Division (Bombardment) in Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.

Redesignated 19th Air Division. Organized on 16 Feb 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Components. Groups. 6th Bombardment: 1931-1941. 9th Bombardment: 1940_1941. 12th Bombardment: 1942-1943. 16th Pursuit 1933-1940. 20th Pursuit: 1931-1933. 37th Pursuit: 1940. 94th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 96th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 98th Bombardment: 1942-1943. 99th Bombardment: 1947-1949. 321st Bombardment: 1942-1943. 376th Bombardment: 1942-1943.

Wings. 7th Bombardment: 1951-. 11th Bombardment: 1951-. 97th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 98th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 99th Bombardment: 1943-1945.

Commands

I Bomber Command

Constituted as Army Air Forces Antisubmarine Command on 13 Oct 1942 and activated in the US on 15 Oct. Assigned directly to AAF. Redesignated 1 Bomber Command in Aug 1943. Assigned to First AF. Conducted antisubmarine Operations from bases in the US, the Caribbean, Newfoundland, Northwest Africa, and England from Oct 1942 until Oct 1943. Afterward, trained bombardment organizations and personnel. Inactivated on 21 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 25th Antisubmarine: 1942-1943. 26th Antisubmarine: 1942-1943.

I Fighter Command

Constituted as 1 Interceptor Command Stations. Activated on 5 Jun 1941. Assigned to First AF. Redesignated I Fighter Command in May 1942. Provided air defense for the east coast of the US (until Aug 1944); trained fighter personnel and organizations. Inactivated on 21 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. Boston Fighter: 1942-1944. New York Fighter: 1942-1944. Norfolk Fighter: 1942-1944. Philadelphia Fighter: 1942-1944.

I Troop Carrier Command

Established as Air Transport Command on 30 Apr 1942. Assigned directly to AAF. Redesignated 1 Troop Carrier Command in Jul 1942. Trained troop carrier organizations and personnel. Disbanded on 4 Nov 1945.

Wings. 50th: 1942-1943, 1945. 51st: 1942. 52d: 1942-1943, 1945. 53d: 1942-1944. 60th: 1943-1945. 61st: 1943-1945.

II Bomber Command

Constituted as II Bomber Command on 4 Sep 1941 and activated on 5 Sep. Assigned to Second AF. Trained bombardment organizations. Also patrolled the west coast (until May 1943). Disbanded on 6 Oct 1943.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

III Air SUPPORT Command

Constituted as III Air Support Command on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Assigned to Third AF. Trained air force organizations for support operations and assisted in training ground forces. Also conducted antisubmarine patrols. Disbanded on 16 Mar 1942.

Components. (Various observation and light bombardment organizations.)

III Bomber Command

Constituted as III Bomber Command on 4. Sep 1941 and activated on 5 Sep. Assigned to Third AF. Trained bombardment organizations and personnel. Also patrolled in search of enemy submarines, Dec 1941-Aug 1942. Inactivated on 8 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

III Fighter Command

Constituted as III Interceptor Command on 26 May 1941. Activated on 17 Jun [or 14 Jul?] 1941. Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated III Fighter Command in May 1942. Trained fighter organizations and personnel. Also served in the defense of the southeastern US. Inactivated on 8 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

III Reconnaissance Command

Constituted as I Air Support Command on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Redesignated I Ground Air Support Command in Apr 1942, I Air Support Command in Sep 1942, I Tactical Air Division in Aug 1943, III Tactical Air Division in Apr 1944, and III Reconnaissance Command in Jun 1945. Flew antisubmarine patrols off the east coast, 7 Dec 1941-15 Oct 1942. Trained light bombardment crews, participated in air-ground maneuvers, and demonstrated air support techniques, Sep 1941-May 1944. Trained reconnaissance personnel and organizations, May 1944-1946. Inactivated on 9 Apr 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

III Tactical Air Command

Constituted as III Ground Air Support Command on 15 May 1942 and activated on 19 May. Assigned to Third AF. Redesignated III Air Support Command in Sep 1942, III Reconnaissance Command in Aug 1943, and III Tactical Air Command in Mar 1944. At various times, trained dive bombardment, light bombardment, and reconnaissance organizations and personnel; also gave air support to ground units in training and participated in airground maneuvers and demonstrations. Disbanded on 24 Oct 1945.

Divisions. I (formerly III) Tactical Air: 1944-1945. II Tactical Air: 1944-1945. III (formerly II Tactical Air): 1944.

IV Bomber Command

Constituted as IV Bomber Command on Sep 1941 and activated on 19 Sep. Assigned to Fourth AF. Trained bombardment organizations and personnel. Also flew patrols along the west coast. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

IV Fighter Command

Constituted as IV Interceptor Command on 26 May 1941. Activated on 8 Jul 1941. Assigned to Fourth AF. Redesignated IV Fighter Command in May 1942. Provided air defense for the west coast; trained fighter organizations and personnel. Disbanded on 31 Mar 1944.

Wings. Los Angeles Fighter: 1942-1944. Seattle Fighter: 1942-1944. San Diego Fighter: 1942-1944. San Francisco Fighter: 1942-1944.

V Bomber Command

Constituted as V Bomber Command on 28 Oct 1941. Activated in the Philippines on 14 Nov 1941. Participated in the defense of the Philippines in Dec 1941. Late in Dec the remaining bombers and some men were evacuated to Australia, and in Jan 1942 they were moved to Java to help delay the Japanese advance in the Netherlands Indies. The command ceased to function in Mar 1942 (the AAF bombardment organizations in the Southwest Pacific being under the control of American-British-Dutch-Australian Command and later Allied Air Forces). Headquarters was remanned in Sep 1942 and shortly afterward it assumed control of AAF bombardment groups in Australia and New Guinea. The command served in combat with Fifth AF until the end of the war. Brig Gen Kenneth N Walker, who was lost during a mission to Rabaul on 5 Jan 1943, was awarded the Medal of Honor; he had repeatedly taken part in combat missions and had developed an effective technique for bombing when opposed by enemy interceptors and antiaircraft fire. After the war the command became part of the occupation force for Japan. Inactivated on 31 May 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 3d Bombardment: 1942-1946. 6th Reconnaissance: 1943. 7th Bombardment: 1942. 8th Fighter: 1942. 19th Bombardment: 1941-1942. 22d Bombardment: 1942-1945. 27th Bombardment: 1941-1942. 35th Fighter: 1945-1946. 38th Bombardment: 1942-1945. 43d Bombardment: 1942-1945. 49th Fighter: 1945-1946. 71st Reconnaissance: 1943. 90th Bombardment: 1942-1945. 312th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 345th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 380th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 417th Bombardment: 1944-1945.

V Fighter Command

Constituted as II Interceptor Command on 26 May 1941. Activated on 4 Jun 1941. Redesignated II Fighter Command in May 1942, and V Fighter Command in Aug 1942. Moved to the Southwest Pacific, Oct-Nov 1942, and operated with Fifth AF until the end of the war. Afterward, served with the occupation force in Japan. Inactivated on 31 May 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

(This V Fighter Command bas no connection with a 5th Interceptor Command that was constituted on 14 Oct 1941, activated on 30 Oct, and redesignated Fighter Command School in Aug 1942. Nor is it related to a 5th Interceptor Command - probably a provisional organization - that was located in the Philippines in 1941-1942.)

Groups. 3d Air Commando: 1944-1945. 8th Fighter: 1942-1946. 35th Fighter: 1942-1945. 38th Bombardment: 1945-1946. 42d Bombardment: 1946. 49th Fighter: 1942-1945. 54th Fighter: 1941. 55th Fighter: 1941. 58th Fighter: 1943-1945. 312th Bombardment: 1943-1944. 348th Fighter: 1943-1945, 1946. 475th Fighter: 1943-1945.

VI Bomber Command

Constituted as VI Bomber Command on 17 Oct 1941 and activated in the Panama Canal Zone on 25 Oct. Assigned to Caribbean (later Sixth) AF. Engaged in antisubmarine operations; served as part of the defense force for the Panama Canal. Inactivated on 1 Nov 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 6th: 1941-1943. 9th: 1941-1942. 25th: 1941-1944. 40th: 1941-1943.

VII Bomber Command

Constituted as VII Bomber Command on 23 Jan 1942 and activated in Hawaii on 29 Jan. Assigned to Hawaiian (later Seventh) AF. Engaged in patrol operations from Hawaii until late in 1943. Afterward, served in combat in the Central and Western Pacific. Inactivated on Okinawa, [31] Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 5th: 1942. 11th: 1942, 1943-1945. 30th: 1943-1945. 41st: 1943-1944, 1945. 307th: 1942-1943. 312th: 1945. 345th: 1945. 380th: 1945. 494th: 1944-1945.

VII Fighter Command

Constituted as VII Interceptor Command on 23 Jan 1942. Activated in Hawaii on 2 Feb 1942. Redesignated VII Fighter Command in May 1942. Assigned to Seventh AF. Engaged in patrol activity from Hawaii. Later, served in combat in the Western Pacific. Remained in the theater as part of Far East Air Forces after the war. Redesignated 20th Fighter Wing in May 1946, and 46th Fighter Wing in Dec 1947. Inactivated in the Marianas on 24 Aug 1948.

Groups. 15th: 1942-1945. 18th: 1942-1943. 21st: 1944-1946. 23d: 1946-1948. 318th: 1942-1945.

VIII Air Support Command

Constituted as VIII Ground Air Support Command on 24 Apr 1942 and activated on 28 Apr. Assigned to Eighth AF. Moved to England, without tactical components, Jun-Aug 1942. Redesignated VIII Air Support Command in Sep 1942. Engaged in training, with one reconnaissance and one troop carrier group assigned, until Jul 1943. Afterward, carried out medium bombardment operations against the enemy on the Continent until Oct 1943 when all components and personnel were withdrawn from the command. Disbanded in England on 1 Dec 1943.

Wings. 3d Bombardment: 1943. 44th Bombardment: 1943.

VIII Fighter Command

Constituted as VIII Interceptor Command on 19 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Feb 1942. Redesignated VIII Fighter Command in May 1942. Moved to England, May-Jul 1942, and served with Eighth AF until after V-E Day. Inactivated in England on 20 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 6th: 1942-1943. 65th (formerly 4th Air Defense): 1943-1944, 1945. 66th (formerly 5th Air Defense): 1943-1944, 1945. 67th: 1943-1944, 1945.

IX Air Defense Command

Constituted as IX Air Defense Command on 19 Jun 1944. Activated in England on 1 Jul 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Provided air defense for areas behind the advancing ground forces in northern Europe. Inactivated in Europe on 25 Jun 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 71st Fighter: 1944.

IX Fighter Command

Constituted as IX Interceptor Command on 19 Jan 1942. Activated on 1 Feb 1942. Redesignated IX Fighter Command in May 1942. Moved to Egypt, Nov 1942-Jan 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF. Operated in the Mediterranean area until Sep 1943. Moved to England, Oct-Nov 1943, for operations in the European theater. Inactivated in Europe on 16 Nov 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 8th: 1942-1943. 9th: 1942-1943. 70th: 1943-1944. 71st: 1943-1944. 84th: 1944, 1944-1945. 100th: 1943-1944. 303d: 1944, 1944-1945.

IX Tactical Air Command

Constituted as IX Air Support Command on 29 Nov 1943. Activated in England on 4 Dec 1943. Assigned to Ninth AF. Redesignated IX Tactical Air Command in Apr 1944. Operated in the European theater, primarily in support of US First Army, until V-E Day. Moved to the US in Oct 1945. Inactivated on 25 Oct 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 70th Fighter: 1944-1945. 71st Fighter: 1944. 84th Fighter: 1944. 100th Fighter: 1944.

IX Troop Carrier Command

Constituted as IX Troop Carrier Command on 11 Oct 1943 and activated in England on 16 Oct. Assigned to Ninth AF. Served in the European theater, engaging in airborne and transport operation until after V-E Day. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, in Sep 1945 to the US where the command was again manned and equipped. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 50th: 1943-1945, 1945-1946. 52d: 1944-1945. 53d: 1944-1945.

XI Bomber Command

Constituted as XI Bomber Command on 4 Mar 1943 and activated in Alaska on ig Mar. Operated in combat with Eleventh AF. Disbanded in Alaska on 31 Mar 1944.

Groups. 28th Composite: 1943-1944-

XI Fighter Command

Constituted as XI Interceptor Command on 8 Mar 1942 and activated in Alaska on 15 Mar. Assigned to Eleventh AF. Redesignated XI Fighter Command in May 1942. Engaged in combat from Jun 1942 to Oct 1943. Disbanded in Alaska on 31 Mar 1944.

Groups. 343d: 1942-1944.

XII Bomber Command

Constituted as XII Bomber Command on 26 Feb 1942. Activated on 13 Mar 1942. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1942 and transferred, without personnel and equipment, to England where the command was re-formed. Moved to North Africa, with the first of its elements arriving during the invasion in Nov 1942. Served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until 1 Nov 1943 when most of the personnel were withdrawn. Received additional personnel in Jan 1944 and served in combat until 1 Mar 1944. Disbanded in Corsica on 10 Jun 1944.

Wings. 5th: 1943. 42d: 1943, 1944. 47th (formerly 7th Fighter): 1943. 57th: 1944.

XII Tactical Air Command

Constituted as XII Ground Air Support Command on 10 Sep 1942 and activated on 17 Sep. Assigned to Twelfth AF. Redesignated XII Air Support Command in Sep 1942, and XII Tactical Air Command in Apr 1944. Moved to North Africa, Oct-Nov 1942. Col Demas T Craw was awarded the Medal of Honor for action during the invasion of Algeria-French Morocco: when the Allies landed on 8 Nov 1942, Col Craw volunteered to negotiate an armistice; while trying to pass through the lines near Port Lyautey, he was killed by machine-gun fire. The command served in combat in the Mediterranean and European theaters until May 1945. Afterward, remained in Europe as part of the occupation force. Inactivated in Germany on 10 Nov 1947. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 5th Bombardment: 1942. 7th Fighter: 1942. 42d Bombardment: 1945. 57th Bombardment: 1943-1944. 63d Fighter: 1945. 64th Fighter (formerly 3d Air Defense): 1943-1944, 1945-1947. 70th Fighter: 1945-1947. 71st Fighter: 1945. 87th Fighter: 1944.

XIII Bomber Command

Constituted as XIII Bomber Command on 14 Dec 1942. Activated in the South Pacific on 13 Jan 1943. Served in combat with Thirteenth AF until the end of the war. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 5th: 1943-1946. 11th: 1943. 42d: 1943-1945. 307th: 1943-1945.

XIII Fighter Command

Constituted as XIII Fighter Command on 14 Dec 1942. Activated in the South Pacific on 13 Jan 1943. Served in combat with Thirteenth AF until the end of the war. Inactivated in the Philippines on 15 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 18th: 1943-1946. 347th: 1943-1945. 414th: 1946.

XIX Tactical Air Command

Constituted as XIX Air Support Command on 29 Nov 1943. Activated in England on 4 Jan 1944. Assigned to Ninth AF. Redesignated XIX Tactical Air Command in Apr 1944. Operated in the European theater, primarily in support of US Third Army, until V-E Day. Moved to the US in Aug 1945. Inactivated on 31 Mar 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 100th Fighter: 1944-1945. 303d Fighter: 1944.

XX Bomber Command (formerly I Bomber Command)

Constituted as I Bomber Command on 4 Sep 1941 and activated on 5 Sep. Assigned to First AF. Engaged primarily in antisubmarine operations along the east coast. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1942. Activated on 1 May 1943. Assigned to Second AF. Redesignated XX Bomber Command in Aug 1943. Trained bombardment organizations. Disbanded on 6 Oct 1943.

Components. (Omitted because of large number and frequent changes.)

XX Bomber Command

Constituted as XX Bomber Command on 19 Nov 1943 and activated on 20 Nov. Assigned to Second AF. Moved to India early in 1944. Assigned to Twentieth AF. Engaged in very-long-range bombardment operations from Jun 1944 until all of its tactical components were relieved of assignment in Mar 1945. Moved to Okinawa, Jun-Jul 1945. Inactivated on 16 Jul 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 58th: 1943-1945. 73d: 1943-1944

XXI Bomber Command

Constituted as XXI Bomber Command on 1 Mar 1944 and activated the same day. Assigned to Second AF. Moved to the Marianas late in 1944 and, assigned to Twentieth AF, engaged in very-long-range bombardment operations until mid-Jul 1945. The history of XXI Bomber Command terminated on 16 Jul 1945. (On that date Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron, XXI Bomber Command was redesignated Headquarters Squadron, Twentieth AF. This redesignation, which brought an end to XXI Bomber Command as an establishment, had no effect on the lineage of Twentieth AF.)

Wings. 58th: 1945. 73d: 1944-1945. 313th: 1944-1945. 314th: 1944-1945. 315th: 1945.

XXII Bomber Command

Constituted as XXII Bomber Command (Very Heavy) on 4 Aug 1944 and activated on 14 Aug. Assigned to Second AF. Disbanded on 13 Feb 1945.

Wings. (Two attached.)

XXII Tactical Air Command

Constituted as XII Interceptor Command on 26 Feb 1942. Activated on 5 Mar 1942. Redesignated XII Fighter Command in May 1942, and XXII Tactical Air Command in Nov 1944. Assigned to Twelfth AF in Aug 1942. Moved to England in Sep 1942 and to North Africa during Oct-Nov 1942. Served in combat in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war. Inactivated in Italy on 4 Oct 1945. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Wings. 3d Air Defense: 1943. 62d Fighter (formerly 1st Air Defense): 1943-1945. 63d Fighter (formerly 2d Air Defense): 1943-1944. 87th Fighter: 1944-1945.

XXVI Fighter Command

Constituted as XXVI Interceptor Command on 28 Feb 1942. Activated in the Panama Canal Zone on 6 Mar 1942. Assigned to Sixth AF. Redesignated XXVI Fighter Command in May 1942. Engaged in patrol operations in the defense of the Panama Canal. Inactivated on 25 Aug 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Groups. 16th: 1942-1943. 32d: 1942-1943. 37th: 1943. 53d: 1942.

XXXVI Fighter Command

Constituted as XXXVI Fighter Command on 9 Aug 1942 and activated in Trinidad on 21 Aug. Disbanded on 30 Apr 1943.

Components. Unkn.

Antilles Air Command

Constituted as Antilles Air Task Force on 20 Feb 1943. Activated in Puerto Rico on 1 Mar 1943. Redesignated Antilles Air Command in Jun 1943. Inactivated in Puerto Rico on 25 Aug 1946. Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948.

Components. Unkn.

First Air Force

Constituted as Northeast Air District on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Redesignated First AF early in 1941. Trained new organizations and, later, replacements for combat units. Also provided air defense for the eastern US until 1943. Assigned to Air Defense Command in Mar 1946 and to Continental Air Command in Dec 1948, being concerned primarily with air defense until 1949 and with reserve and national guard activities thereafter.

Commands. I Bomber (later assigned to Second AF and redesignated XX Bomber Command): 1941-1942. I Bomber (Antisubmarine Command prior to assignment to First AF): 1943-1946. I Fighter: 1941-1946. I Ground Air Support: 1941-1942.

Second Air Force

Constituted as Northwest Air District on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Redesignated Second AF early in 1941. Served as both an air defense and a training organization in 1941. Afterward, was engaged chiefly in training units and replacements for heavy and, later, very heavy bombardment operations. Inactivated on 30 Mar 1946.

Activated on 6 Jun 1946. Assigned to Air Defense Command. Inactivated on 1 Jul 1948.

Activated on 1 Nov 1949. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Commands. II Air Support: 1941-1943. II Bomber: 1941-1943. II Fighter: 1941-1942. IV Air Support: 1942-1943. XX (formerly I) Bomber: 1943. XX Bomber (constituted Nov 1943): 1943-1944. XXI Bomber: 1944. XXII Bomber: 1944-1945.

Third Air Force

Constituted as Southeast Air District on 19 Oct 1940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Redesignated Third AF early in 1941. Trained units, crews, and individuals for bombardment, fighter, and reconnaissance operations. Also had some air defense responsibilities during 1940-1941 and engaged in antisubmarine activities from Dec 1941 to Oct 1942. Assigned in Mar 1946 to Tactical Air Command to serve as a troop carrier organization. Inactivated on 1 Nov 1946.

Organized in England on 1 May 1951. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe.

Commands. II Air Support: 1943. III Air Support: 1941-1942. III Bomber: 1941-1946. III Fighter: 1941-1946. III Reconnaissance (formerly I Ground Air Support): 1942-1946. III Tactical Air: 1942-1945.

Fourth Air Force

Constituted as Southwest Air District on 19 Oct 1 940. Activated on 18 Dec 1940. Redesignated Fourth AF early in 1941. Provided air defense for the western US until 1943, and at the same time trained new organizations. Later, was engaged primarily in training replacements for combat units. Assigned to Air Defense Command in Mar 1946 and to Continental Air Command in Dec 1948, being concerned chiefly with air defense until 1949 and with reserve and national guard activities thereafter.

Commands. IV Bomber: 1941-1944. IV Fighter: 1941-1944. IV Ground Air Support: 1941-1942.

Fifth Air Force

Constituted as Philippine Department AF on 16 Aug 1941. Activated in the Philippines on 20 Sep 1941. Redesignated Far East AF in Oct 1941, and Fifth AF in Feb 1942. This air force lost most of its men and equipment in the defense of the Philippines after 7 Dec 1941. Later in Dec 1941 headquarters and some crews and planes moved to Australia, and in Jan 1942 they were sent to Java to help delay Japanese advances in the Netherlands Indies. The Fifth did not function as an air force for some time after Feb 1942 (the AAF organizations in the Southwest Pacific being under the control of American-British-Dutch-Australian Command and later Allied Air Forces). Headquarters was remanned in Sep 1942 and assumed control of AAF organizations in Australia and New Guinea. The Fifth participated in operations that stopped the Japanese drive in Papua, recovered New Guinea, neutralized islands in the Bismarck Archipelago and the Netherlands East Indies, and liberated the Philippines. When the war ended in Aug 1945 elements of the Fifth were moving to the Ryukyus for the invasion of Japan. After the war the Fifth, a component of Far East Air Forces, remained in the theater, and from Jun 1950 to Jul 1953 it was engaged in the Korean War.

Commands. V Bomber: 1941-1946. V Fighter: 1942-1946.

Sixth Air Force

Constituted as Panama Canal AF on 19 Oct 1940. Activated in the Canal Zone on 20 Nov 1940. Redesignated Caribbean AF in Aug 1941, and Sixth AF in Feb 1942. Served primarily in defense of the Panama Canal; also engaged in antisubmarine operations. Redesignated Caribbean Air Command on 31 Jul 1946.

Commands. VI Bomber: 1941-1946. VI Fighter: 1941-1942. XXVI Fighter: 1942-1946. XXXVI Fighter: 1942.

Seventh Air Force

Constituted as Hawaiian AF on 19 Oct 1940. Activated in Hawaii on 1 Nov 1940. Redesignated Seventh AF in Feb 1942. Provided air defense for the Hawaiian Islands and, after mid-1943, served in combat in the central and western Pacific areas. Transferred back to Hawaii in Jan 1946. Redesignated Pacific Air Command in Dec 1947. Discontinued on 1 Jun 1949.

Redesignated Seventh AF. Activated in Hawaii on 5 Jan 1955. Assigned to Far East Air Forces.

Commands. VII Bomber: 1942-1946. VII Fighter: 1942-1945.

Eighth Air Force (originally VIII Bomber Command)

Constituted as VIII Bomber Command on 19 Jan 1942. Activated in the US on 1 Feb 1942. An advanced detachment was established in England on 23 Feb and units began arriving from the US during the spring of 1942. The command conducted the heavy bombardment operations of Eighth AF (see US Strategic Air Forces in Europe) from 17 Aug 1942 until early in 1944. Redesignated Eighth until AF on 22 Feb 1944. Afterward, engaged primarily in bombardment of strategic targets in Europe. Transferred, without personnel, equipment, and combat elements, to Okinawa on 16 Jul 1945. Although some personnel and combat units were assigned before V-J Day, the Eighth did not participate in combat against Japan. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US on 7 Jun 1946. Remanned and re-equipped as part of Strategic Air Command.

Components. 1st Bombardment Wing: 1942-1943. 2d Bombardment Wing: 1942-1943. 3d Bombardment Wing: 1942-1943. 4th Bombardment Wing: 1942-1943. 12th Bombardment Wing: 1942-1944. 301st Fighter Wing: 1945-1946. 316th Bombardment Wing: 1945-1946. 1st Air Division: 1943-1945. 2d Air Division: 1943-1945. 3d Air Division: 1943-1945. VIII Fighter Command: 1944-1945.

Ninth Air Force

Constituted as V Air Support Command on 21 Aug 1941. Activated on 1 Sep 1941. Redesignated Ninth AF in Apr 1942. Moved to Egypt and began operations on 12 Nov 1942, participating in the Allied drive across Egypt and Libya, the campaign in Tunisia, and the invasions of Sicily and Italy. Moved to England in Oct 1943 to become the tactical air force for the invasion of the Continent. Helped prepare for the assault on Normandy, supported operations on the beach in Jun 1944, and took part in the drive that carried the Allies across France and culminated in victory over Germany in May 1945. Inactivated in Germany on 2 Dec 1945.

Activated in the US on 28 Mar 1946. Assigned to Tactical Air Command until Dec 1948 when the Ninth, reassigned to Continental Air Command, lost its role as a tactical air organization and became concerned chiefly with reserve and national guard activities. Redesignated Ninth AF (Tactical) in Aug 1950. Assigned to Tactical Air Command in Dec 1950 and again became concerned primarily with tactical air operations. Redesignated Ninth AF in Jun 1951.

Components. 9th Air Division (formerly IX Bomber Command): 1942-1945. IX Air Defense Command: 1944-1945. IX Fighter Command: 1942-1945. IX Tactical Air Command: 1943-1945. IX Troop Carrier Command: 1943-1944. XIX Tactical Air Command: 1944-1945. XXIX Tactical Air Command: 1945.

Tenth Air Force

Constituted as Tenth AF on 4 Feb 1942 and activated on 12 Feb. Moved to India, Mar-May 1942. Served in India, Burma, and China until Mar 1943 when Fourteenth AF was activated in China. Then the Tenth operated in India and Burma until it moved to China late in Jul 1945. Returned to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Activated on 24 May 1946. Assigned first to Air Defense Command and later (Dec 1948) to Continental Air Command. Supervised reserve and national guard activities.

Groups. 3d Combat Cargo: 1944-1945. 7th Bombardment: 1942-1945. 12th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 33d Fighter: 1944-1945. Both Fighter: 1943-1945. 311th Fighter: 1943-1944. 341st Bombardment: 1942-1944. 443d Troop Carrier: 1944-1945.

Eleventh Air Force

Constituted as Alaskan AF on 28 Dec 1941. Activated in Alaska on 15 Jan 1942. Redesignated Eleventh AF in Feb 1942. Participated in the offensive that drove the Japanese from the Aleutians, attacked the enemy in the Kuril Islands, and, both during and after the war, served as part of the defense force for Alaska. Redesignated Alaskan Air Command in Dec 1945

(This Eleventh AF is not related to an organization of the same name that was constituted on 13 May 1946, assigned to Air Defense Command, activated on 13 Jun 1946, and inactivated on 1 Jul 1948.)

Commands. XI Bomber: 1943-1944. XI Fighter: 1942-1944.

Twelfth Air Force

Constituted as Twelfth AF on 20 Aug 1942 and activated the same day. Moved to England, Aug-Sep 1942, and then on to North Africa for the invasion of Algeria and French Morocco in Nov 1942. Operated in the Mediterranean theater until the end of the war, serving with Northwest African Air Forces from Feb to Dec 1943, and afterward with Mediterranean Allied Air Forces. Inactivated in Italy on 31 Aug 1945.

Activated in the US on 17 May 1946. Assigned to Tactical Air Command until Dec 1948 when the Twelfth, reassigned to Continental Air Command, lost its functions associated with tactical airpower and became concerned primarily with reserve and national guard activities. Discontinued on 1 Jul 1950.

Organized in Germany on 21 Jan 1951. Assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe.

Commands. XII Bomber: 1942-1944. XII Tactical Air: 1942-1944. XXII Tactical Air (formerly XII Fighter): 1942-1945.

Thirteenth Air Force

Constituted as Thirteenth AF on 14 Dec 1942. Activated in New Caledonia on 13 Jan 1943. Served in the South Pacific and, later, Southwest Pacific, participating in the Allied drive north and west from the Solomons to the Philippines. Remained in the Philippines, as part of Far East Air Forces, after the war. Transferred, without personnel and equipment, to Okinawa in Dec 1948 and back to the Philippines in May 1949.

Commands. XIII Bomber: 1943-1946. XIII Fighter: 1943-1946.

Fourteenth Air Force

Constituted as Fourteenth AF on 5 Mar 1943 and activated in China on 10 Mar. Served in combat against the Japanese, operating primarily in China, until the end of the war. Moved to the US, Dec 1945-Jan 1946. Inactivated on 6 Jan 1946.

Activated on 24 May 1946. Assigned first to Air Defense Command and later (1948) to Continental Air Command. Supervised reserve and national guard activities.

Wings. 68th Composite: 1943-1945. 69th Composite: 1943-1945. 312th Fighter: 1944-1945.

Fifteenth Air Force

Constituted as Fifteenth AF on 30 Oct 1943. Activated in the Mediterranean theater on 1 Nov 1943. Began operations on 2 Nov and engaged primarily in strategic bombardment of targets in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and the Balkans until the end of the war. Inactivated in Italy on 15 Sep 1945. Activated in the US on 31 Mar 1946. Assigned to Strategic Air Command.

Wings. 5th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 42d Bombardment: 1943. 47th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 49th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 55th Bombardment: 1944-1945. 304th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 305th Bombardment: 1943-1945. 306th Fighter: 1944-1945. 307th Bombardment: 1944.

Twentieth Air Force

Constituted as Twentieth AF on 4 Apr 1944 and activated the same day. Some combat elements moved in the summer of 1944 from the US to India where they carried out very heavy bombardment operations against targets in Japan, Formosa, Thailand, and Burma. Other combat elements began moving late in 1944 from the US to the Marianas, being joined there early in 1945 by the elements that had been in India. Headquarters, which had remained in the US, was transferred to Guam in Jul 1945. From the Marianas the Twentieth conducted a strategic air offensive that was climaxed by the dropping of two atomic bombs on Japan. After the war the Twentieth remained in the theater and eventually became part of Far East Air Forces. Served in combat for a short time at the beginning of the Korean War but later was concerned primarily with logistic support for the operations of other organizations and with air defense for the Ryukyus. Inactivated on Okinawa on 1 Mar 1955.

Commands. VII Fighter: 1945. XX Bomber: 1944-1945. XXI Bomber: 1944-1945.

U.S. Strategic Air Forces In Europe (originally Eighth Air Force)

Constituted as Eighth AF on 19 Jan 1942 and activated on 28 Jan. Moved to England, May-Jun 1942, and engaged primarily in bombardment of targets in Europe. Redesignated US Strategic Air Forces in Europe on 22 Feb 1944. Afterward, coordinated AAF activities in the EAME Theater, exercising some operational control over both Eighth AF (originally VIII Bomber Command) and Fifteenth, and some administrative control over Eighth AF and Ninth. Served with the occupation forces in Europe after World War II. Redesignated United States Air Forces in Europe in Aug 1945. Directed USAF operations in the Berlin airlift, Jun 1948-Sep 1949.

Commands. VIII Air Support: 1942-1943. VIII Bomber: 1942-1944. VIII Fighter: 1942-1944.


USAAF Military History Section

USAAF Chronology and War Diaries USAAF Combat Units 1941-1942 1943 1944 1945


This webpage was updated 4th September 2012

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