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Battle of Greece - Operation Marita


Battle of Greece - Operation Marita

The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, German: Unternehmen Marita) was a World War II battle that occurred on the Greek mainland and in southern Albania. The battle was fought between the Allied (Greece and the British Commonwealth) and Axis (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria) forces. With the Battle of Crete and several naval actions, the Battle of Greece is considered part of the wider Aegean component of the Balkans Campaign of World War II.

The Battle of Greece is generally regarded as a continuation of the Greco-Italian War, which began when Italian troops invaded Greece on October 28, 1940. Within weeks the Italians were driven from Greece and Greek forces pushed on to occupy much of southern Albania. In March 1941, a major Italian counterattack failed, and Germany was forced to come to the aid of its ally. Operation Marita began on April 6, 1941, with German troops invading Greece through Bulgaria in an effort to secure its southern flank. The combined Greek and British forces fought back with great tenacity, but were vastly outnumbered and outgunned, and finally collapsed. Athens fell on April 27. However, the British Commonwealth managed to evacuate about 50,000 troops. The Greek campaign ended in a quick and complete German victory with the fall of Kalamata in the Peloponnese; it was over within twenty-four days. Nevertheless, both German and Allied officials have expressed their admiration for the strong resistance of the Greek soldiers.

Some historians regard the German campaign in Greece as decisive in determining the course of World War II, maintaining that it fatally delayed the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. Others hold that the campaign had no influence on the launching of Operation Barbarossa, and characterize British intervention in Greece as a hopeless undertaking, a "political and sentimental decision" or even a "definite strategic blunder."


Prelude to Greco-Italian War

“ Hitler always faces me with a fait accompli. This time I am going to pay him back in his own coin. He will find out from the papers that I have occupied Greece.”

—Benito Mussolini speaking to Count Ciano

At the outbreak of World War II, Ioannis Metaxas, the Prime Minister of Greece, sought to maintain a position of neutrality. However, Greece was increasingly subject to pressures from Italy, which culminated in the Italian submarine Delfino's torpedoing of the Greek cruiser Elli on August 15, 1940. Mussolini was irritated that Nazi leader Adolf Hitler had not consulted with him on his war policy, and wished to establish his independence, and to match the military success of the Germans through a victorious attack on Greece, a country he regarded as an easy opponent. On October 15, 1940, Mussolini and his closest advisers decided to invade Greece. In the early hours of October 28, Italian Ambassador Emmanuel Grazzi presented Metaxas with a three-hour ultimatum, in which he demanded free passage for troops to occupy unspecified "strategic sites" within Greek territory. Metaxas rejected the ultimatum (the refusal is commemorated as Okhi Day, a national holiday in Greece), but even before its expiration, Italian troops had invaded Greece through Albania. The principal Italian thrust was directed at Pindus, near the city of Ioannina, and initially made progress. The Italians then crossed the Thyamis (Kalamas) river, but were driven back and pursued into Albania. Within three weeks, Greek territory was clear of the invaders, and a successful counterattack was underway. A few villages of South Albania fell to Greek forces, and neither a change in Italian commanders, nor the arrival of a substantial number of reinforcements had much effect.

First Italian offensive: October 28 – November 13, 1940.

Greek counter-offensive: November 14, 1940 – March, 1941.

After weeks of inconclusive winter warfare, the Italians launched a full-scale counterattack across the entire front on March 9, 1941, which, despite the superiority of the Italian armed forces, failed. After one week and 12,000 casualties, Mussolini called off the counterattack, and left Albania twelve days later. Modern analysts believe that the Italian campaign failed because Mussolini and his generals initially allocated meagre military resources to the campaign (an expeditionary force of 55,000 men), failed to reckon with the autumn weather, and launched an attack without the advantage of surprise and without the support of the Bulgarians. Even elementary precautions, such as the issue of winter clothing had not been taken. Nor had Mussolini taken into consideration the recommendations of the Italian Commission of War Production, which had warned that Italy would not be able to sustain a full year of continuous warfare until 1949.

Second Italian offensive: March 9 – April 23, 1941.

During the six month fight against Italy, the Greek army made local gains by eliminating enemy salients. Nevertheless, Greece did not have a substantial armaments industry, and both its equipment and ammunition supplies relied on stocks captured by British forces from defeated Italian armies in North Africa. In order to feed the battle in Albania, the Greek command was forced to make withdrawals from Eastern Macedonia and Western Thrace. Anticipation of a German attack expedited the need to reverse the position; the available forces were proving unable to sustain resistance on both fronts. The Greek command decided to support its success in Albania, regardless of how the situation might develop under the impact of a German attack from the Bulgarian border.

Hitler's decision to attack British aid to Greece

"I wanted, above all to ask you to postpone the operation until a more favorable season, in any case until after the presidential election in America. In any event I wanted to ask you not to undertake this action without previously carrying out a blitzkrieg operation on Crete. For this purpose I intended to make practical suggestions regarding the employment of a parachute and of an airborne division."
From a letter Adolf Hitler addressed to Mussolini on November 20, 1940.

Hitler intervened on November 4, 1940, four days after the British took both Crete and Lemnos. The Führer ordered his Army General Staff to prepare for an invasion of Northern Greece via Romania and Bulgaria. His plans for this campaign were incorporated into a master plan aimed at depriving the British of their Mediterranean bases. On November 12, the German Armed Forces High Command issued Directive No. 18, in which they scheduled simultaneous operations against Gibraltar and Greece for the following January. However, in December 1940, German ambition in the Mediterranean underwent considerable revision when Spain's General Francisco Franco rejected plans for an attack on Gibraltar. Consequently, Germany's offensive in Southern Europe was restricted to the campaign against Greece. The Armed Forces High Command issued Directive No. 20 on December 13, 1940. The document outlined the Greek campaign under the code designation "Operation Marita", and planned for German occupation of the northern coast of the Aegean Sea by March, 1941. It also planned for the seizure of the entire Greek mainland, if that became necessary. During a hastily called meeting of Hitler's staff after the unexpected March 27 coup d'état against the Yugoslav government, orders for the future campaign in Yugoslavia were drafted, as well as changes to the plan for the attack on Greece. On April 6, both Greece and Yugoslavia were to be attacked.

“The Yugoslav coup came suddenly out of the blue. When the news was brought to me on the morning of the 27th I thought it was a joke.”

—Hitler speaking to his Commanders-in-Chief

Britain was bound to assist Greece by the declaration of 1939, which stated that in the event of a threat to Greek or Romanian independence, "His Majesty's Government would feel themselves bound at once to lend the Greek or Romanian Government all the support in their power." The first British effort was the deployment of RAF squadrons commanded by John d'Albiac, which were sent in November 1940. With the consent of the Greek government, British forces were dispatched to Crete on October 31 to guard Suda Bay, enabling the Greek government to redeploy the 5th Cretan Division to the mainland.

On November 17, 1940, Metaxas proposed to the British government the undertaking of a joint offensive in the Balkans with the Greek strongholds in South Albania as the base of the operations. The British side however was reluctant to discuss Metaxas' proposal, because the deployment of the troops the implementation of the Greek plan demanded would seriously endanger the Commonwealth military operations in North Africa. During a meeting of British and Greek military and political leaders in Athens on January 13, 1941 General Alexandros Papagos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hellenic Army, asked Britain for nine fully-equipped divisions and corresponding air support. The British responded that, because of their commitment to the fight in North Africa, and all they could offer was the immediate dispatch of a small token force of less than divisional strength. This offer was rejected by the Greeks who feared that the arrival of such a contingent would precipitate a German attack without giving them any sizable assistance. British help would be requested if and when German troops crossed the Danube from Romania into Bulgaria.

"We did not then know that Hitler was already deeply set upon his gigantic invasion of Russia. If we had we should have felt more confidence in the success of our policy. We should have seen that he risked falling between two stools, and might easily impair his supreme undertaking for the sake of a Balkan preliminary. This is what actually happened, but we could not know that at the time. Some may think we builded rightly; at least we builded better than we knew at the time. It was our aim to animate and combine Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey. Our duty so far as possible was to aid the Greeks."

Winston Churchill:

Churchill held to his ambition to recreate a Balkan Front comprising Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey, and ordered Anthony Eden and Sir John Dill to resume negotiations with the Greek government. A meeting attended by Eden and the Greek leadership, including King George II, Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis—the successor of Metaxas, who had died on January 29, 1941—and Papagos took place in Athens on February 22. There the decision to send a British Commonwealth expeditionary force was made. German troops had been massing in Romania and on March 1, 1941, Wehrmacht forces began to move into Bulgaria. At the same time, the Bulgarian Army mobilized and took up positions along the Greek frontier. On March 2 Operation Lustre, the transportation of troops and equipment to Greece, began and 26 troopships arrived at the port of Piraeus. On April 3, during a meeting of British, Yugoslav, and Greek military representatives, the Yugoslavs promised to block the Strimon valley in case of a German attack across their territory. During this meeting, Papagos laid stress on the importance of a joint Greco-Yugoslavian offensive against the Italians, as soon as the Germans launched their offensive against the two countries. Until April 24, more than 62,000 Commonwealth troops (British, Australians, New Zealanders, Palestinians and Cypriots) were sent to Greece, comprising the 6th Australian Division, the New Zealand 2nd Division, and the British 1st Armoured Brigade. The three formations later became known as 'W' Force, after their commander, Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson.

Military preparations


To enter Northern Greece, the German army was compelled to cross the Rhodope mountains, which possessed few river valleys or passes capable of accommodating the movement of large military units. Two invasion courses were located west of Kyustendil; another was along the Yugoslav-Bulgarian border, via the Strimon valley to the south. Greek border fortifications had been adapted for the terrain, and a formidable defense system covered the few available roads. The Strimon and Nestos rivers cut across the mountain range along the Greek-Bulgarian frontier, and both of their valleys were protected by strong fortifications, as part of the larger Metaxas Line. This system of concrete pillboxes and field fortifications was constructed along the Bulgarian border in the late 1930s, and was based on principles similar to those applied to the Maginot Line. Its strength resided mainly in the inaccessibility of the intermediate terrain leading up to the defense positions.

Strategic factors:

The mountainous terrain of Greece favored a defensive strategy, and the high ranges of the Rhodope, Epirus, Pindus, and Olympus mountains offered many opportunities to stop an invader. However, sufficient air power was required to prevent defending ground forces from becoming trapped in the many defiles. Although an invading force from Albania can be stopped by a relatively small number of troops positioned in the high Pindus mountains, the northeastern part of the country was difficult to defend against an attack from the north.

Following a conference in Athens that March, the British command believed that they would combine with Greek forces to occupy the Haliacmon Line—a short front facing northeastward along the Vermion Mountains, and the lower Haliacmon river. Papagos awaited clarification from the Yugoslav government, and later proposed to hold the Metaxas Line—by then a symbol of national security to the Greek populace—and not withdraw any of his divisions from Albania. He argued that to do so would be seen as a concession of victory to the Italians. The strategically important port of Thessaloniki lay practically indefensible, and transportation of British troops to the city remained dangerous. Papagos proposed to take advantage of the area's difficult terrain and prepare fortifications, while at the same time protecting Thessaloniki.

Winston Churchill believed it was vital for the UK to take every measure possible to support Greece. On January 8, 1941, he stated that "there was no other course open to us but to make certain that we had spared no effort to help the Greeks who had shown themselves so worthy."

Winston Churchill believed it was vital for the UK to take every measure possible to support Greece. On January 8, 1941, he stated that "there was no other course open to us but to make certain that we had spared no effort to help the Greeks who had shown themselves so worthy."

General Dill described Papagos' attitude as "unaccommodating and defeatist", and argued that his plan disregarded the fact that Greek troops and artillery were capable of only token resistance. The British believed that the Greek rivalry with Bulgaria—the Metaxas line was designed specifically for use in the event of war with Bulgaria—as well as their traditionally good terms with the Yugoslavs, left their north-western border largely undefended. Despite their concerns over the vulnerability of the border system, and their awareness that it was likely to collapse in the event of a German thrust from the Strimon and Axios rivers, the British eventually conceded to the Greek command. On March 4, Dill accepted the plans for the Metaxas line, and on March 7, agreement was ratified by the British Cabinet. The overall command was to be retained by Papagos, and the Greek and British commands resigned themselves to fighting a delaying action in the northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, the British did not move their troops, because General Wilson regarded them as too weak to maintain such a broad front line. Instead, he took a position some forty miles west of the Axios, across the Haliacmon Line. The two main objectives in establishing this position were to maintain contact with the Greek First Army in Albania, and to deny German access to Central Greece. This had the advantage of requiring a smaller force than other options, while still allowing more time for preparation. However, it meant abandoning nearly the whole of Northern Greece, and was thus unacceptable to the Greeks for both political and psychological reasons. Moreover, the left flank of the line was susceptible to flanking from Germans operating through the Monastir gap in Yugoslavia. However, the possibility of a rapid disintegration of the Yugoslav Army, and a German thrust into the rear of the Vermion position, was not taken into consideration.

The German strategy was based on utilization of the blitzkrieg tactics which had proved successful during the invasions of Western Europe, and confirmed their effectiveness during the invasion of Yugoslavia. The German command planned to couple an attack of ground troops and tanks with support from the air, and make a rapid thrust into the territory. Once Thessaloniki was captured, Athens and the port of Piraeus would be the next principal targets. With Piraeus and the Isthmus of Corinth in German hands, the withdrawal and evacuation of British and Greek forces would be fatally compromised.

Defense and attack forces:

The Fifth Yugoslav Army was given responsibility for the defense of the southeastern border between Kriva Palanka and the Greek border. At the time of the German attack, the Yugoslav troops were not yet fully mobilized, and lacked a sufficient amount of modern equipment or weapons to be fully effective. Following the entry of German forces into Bulgaria, the majority of Greek troops were evacuated from Western Thrace. By this time, the total strength of the Greek forces defending the Bulgarian border totaled roughly 70,000 men, under the command of the Greek Second Army. The remainder of the Greek forces—the First Army, composed of fourteen divisions—was committed in Albania.

On March 28, the Greek forces in Central Macedonia—the 12th and 20th Infantry Divisions—were put under the command of General Wilson, who established his headquarters northwest of Larissa. The New Zealand division took a position north of Mount Olympus, while the Australian division blocked the Haliacmon valley up to the Vermion range. The Royal Air Force continued to operate from airfields in Central and Southern Greece; however, few planes could be diverted to the theater. The British forces were near to fully motorized, but their equipment was more suited to desert warfare than to the steep mountain roads of Greece. There was a shortage of tanks and anti-aircraft guns, and the lines of communication across the Mediterranean were vulnerable, because each convoy had to pass close to enemy-held islands in the Aegean; despite the fact that the British Navy dominated the Aegean Sea. These logistical problems were aggravated by the limited availability of shipping and capacity of the Greek ports.

The German Twelfth Army, under the command of Field Marshal Wilhelm List, was charged with the execution of Operation Marita. His army was composed of six units:

1. First Panzer Group, under the command of General Ewald von Kleist.
2. XL Panzer Corps, under Lieutenant General Georg Stumme.
3. XVIII Mountain Corps, under Lieutenant General Franz Böhme.
4. XXX Infantry Corps, under Lieutenant General Otto Hartmann.
5. L Infantry Corps, under Lieutenant General Georg Lindemann.
6. 16th Panzer Division, deployed behind the Turkish-Bulgarian border to support the Bulgarian forces in case of a Turkish attack.

German plan of attack and assembly: The German plan of attack was informed by their army's experiences during the Battle of France. Their strategy was to create a diversion through the campaign in Albania, thus stripping the Greek Army of sufficient manpower for the defense of their Yugoslavian and Bulgarian borders. By driving armored wedges through the weakest links of the defense chain, the ability to penetrate into enemy territory would be more easily achieved, and would not necessitate the maneuver of their armor behind an infantry advance. Once the weak defense system of Southern Yugoslavia were overrun by German armor, the Metaxas Line could be outflanked by highly mobile forces thrusting southward from Yugoslavia. Thus possession of Monastir and the Axios valley leading to Thessaloniki became essential for such an outflanking maneuver.

The Yugoslav coup d'état led to a sudden change in the plan of attack, and confronted the Twelfth Army with a number of difficult problems. According to the March 28 Directive No. 25, the Twelfth Army was to regroup its forces in such a manner that a mobile task force would be available to attack via Niš toward Belgrade. With only nine days left before D-Day, every hour became valuable, and each fresh assembly of troops would need time to mobilize. By the evening of April 5, each attack force intended to enter either Southern Yugoslavia or Greece had been assembled.

German Invasion:

On the dawn of April 6, the German armies invaded Greece, while the Luftwaffe began an intensive bombardment of Belgrade. The XL Panzer Corps—which had been intended for use in an attack across southern Yugoslavia—began their assault at 05:30 a.m., and made thrusts across the Bulgarian frontier at two separate points. By the evening of April 8, the 1st SS Division Adolf Hitler captured Prilep, thus severing an important rail line between Belgrade and Thessaloniki, and isolating Yugoslavia from its allies. The Germans were now in possession of terrain which was favorable to the continuation of the offensive. On the evening of April 9, General Stumme deployed his forces north of Monastir, in preparation for the extension of the attack across the Greek border toward Florina. This position threatened to encircle the Greeks in Albania and W Force in the area of Florina, Edessa, and Katerini. While weak security detachments covered the rear of his corps against a surprise attack from central Yugoslavia, elements of the 9th Panzer Division drove westward to link up with the Italians at the Albanian border.

The 2nd Panzer Division (XVIII Mountain troops) entered Yugoslavia from the east on the morning of April 6, and advanced westward through the Strimon Valley. It encountered little enemy resistance, but was delayed by road clearance demolitions, land mines, and muddy roads. Nevertheless, the division was able to reach the objective of the day, the town of Strumica. On April 7, a Yugoslav counter attack against the northern flank of the division was repelled, and the following day the division forced its way across the mountains and overran the Greek 19th Motorized Infantry Division Units stationed south of Doiran lake. Despite many delays along the narrow mountain roads, an armored advance guard dispatched in the direction of Thessaloniki succeeded in entering the city by the morning of April 9. The seizure of Thessaloniki took place without struggle, following the collapse of the Greek Second Army.

Metaxas Line:

The Metaxas Line was defended by the Eastern Macedonia Army Section, which comprised the 7th, 14th and 17th Infantry Divisions under the command of Lieutenant General Konstantinos Bakopoulos. The line ran for c.170 km along the river Nestos to the east, and then to the east following the Bulgarian border as far as Mount Beles near the Yugoslav border. The fortifications were designed to garrison an army of over 200,000 troops, but due to a lack of available manpower, the actual number was roughly 70,000. As a result of the low numbers, the line's defenses were thinly spread.

The initial German attacks against the line were undertaken by a single German infantry unit reinforced by two mountain divisions of the XVIII Mountain Corps. These first forces encountered strong resistance, and had limited success. A German report at the end of the first day described how the German 5th Mountain Division "was repulsed in the Rupel Pass despite strongest air support and sustained considerable casualties". Of the twenty-four forts which made up the Metaxas Line, only two had fallen, and then only after they had been destroyed.

The line was penetrated following a three-day struggle during which the Germans pummeled the forts with artillery and dive bombers. The main credit for this achievement must be given to the 6th Mountain Division, which crossed a 7,000-foot (2,100 m) snow-covered mountain range and broke through at a point that had been considered inaccessible by the Greeks. The force reached the rail line to Thessaloniki on the evening of April 7. The other XVIII Mountain Corps units advanced step by step under great hardship. The 5th Division, together with the reinforced 125th Infantry Regiment, penetrated the Strimon defenses on April 7, and attacked along both banks of the river, clearing one bunker after another as they passed. Nevertheless the unit suffered heavy casualties, to the extent that it was withdrawn from further action after it had reached its objective location. The 72d Infantry Division advanced from Nevrokop across the mountains, and, although it was handicapped by a shortage of pack animals, medium artillery, and mountain equipment, it managed to break through the Metaxas Line on the evening of April 9, when it reached the area northeast of Serres. Even after General Bakopoulos surrendered the Metaxas Line, isolated fortresses held out for days, and were not taken until heavy artillery was utilised against them. Some field troops and soldiers manning the frontier continued to fight on, and as a result a number were able to evacuate by sea.

Capitulation of the Greek Second Army

The XXX Infantry Corps on the left wing reached its designated objective on the evening of April 8, when the 164th Infantry Division captured Xanthi. The 50th Infantry Division advanced far beyond Komotini towards the Nestos river, which both divisions reached on the next day. On April 9, the Greek Second Army capitulated unconditionally following the collapse of Greek resistance east of the Axios river. In an April 9 estimate of the situation, Field Marshal List expressed the opinion that as a result of the swift advance of the mobile units, his 12th Army was now in a favorable position to gain access to Central Greece by breaking the enemy buildup behind the Axios river. On the basis of this estimate List requested the transfer of the 5th Panzer Division from First Panzer Group to the XL Panzer Corps. He reasoned that its presence would give additional punch to the German thrust through the Monastir gap. For the continuation of the campaign he formed two attack groups, an eastern one under the command of XVIII Mountain Corps, and a western group led by XL Panzer Corps.

Breakthrough to Kozani:

By the morning of April 10, the XL Panzer Corps had finished its preparations for the continuation of the offensive, and continued the advance in the direction of Kozani. Against all expectations, the Monastir gap had been left open, and the Germans exploited their chance. First contact with Allied troops was made north of Vevi at 11:00 a.m. on April 10. SS troops seized Vevi on April 11, but were stopped at the Klidi Pass just south of the town, where a mixed Commonwealth-Greek formation, known as Mackay Force, was assembled to, as Wilson put it, "....stop a blitzkrieg down the Florina valley." During the next day the SS regiment reconnoitered the enemy positions, and at dusk launched a frontal attack against the pass. Following heavy fighting, the Germans overcame the enemy resistance, and broke through the defense. By the morning of April 14, the spearheads of the 9th Panzer Division reached Kozani.

Olympus and Servia passes:

Wilson faced the prospect of being pinned by Germans operating from Thessaloniki, while being flanked by the German XL Panzer Corps descending through the Monastir Gap. On April 13, he decided to withdraw all British forces to the Haliacmon river, and then to the narrow pass at Thermopylae. On April 14 the 9th Panzer Division established a bridgehead across the Haliacmon river, but an attempt to advance beyond this point was stopped by intense enemy fire. This defense had three main components: the Platamon tunnel area between Olympus and the sea, the Olympus pass itself, and the Servia pass to the southeast. By channelling the attack through these three defiles, the new line offered far greater defensive strength for the limited forces available. The defenses of the Olympus and Servia passes consisted of the 4th New Zealand Brigade, 5th New Zealand Brigade, and the 16th Australian Brigade. For the next three days the advance of the 9th Panzer Division was stalled in front of these resolutely held positions.

A ruined castle dominated the ridge across which the coastal pass led to Platamon. During the night of April 15 a German motorcycle battalion supported by a tank battalion attacked the ridge, but the Germans were repulsed by the 21st New Zealand Battalion under Colonel Macky, which suffered heavy losses in the process. Later that day a German armored regiment arrived and struck the coastal and inland flanks of the battalion, but the New Zealanders held their ground. After being reinforced during the night of the 15th-16th, the Germans managed to assemble a tank battalion, infantry battalion, and motor cycle battalion. The German infantry attacked the New Zealanders' left company at dawn, while the tanks attacked along the coast several hours later.

The New Zealand battalion withdrew, crossed the Pineios river, and by dusk reached the western exit of the Pineios Gorge, suffering only light casualties. Macky was informed that it was "essential to deny the gorge to the enemy till April 19 even if it meant extinction". He sank the crossing barge at the western end of the gorge once all his men were across and began to set up defenses. The 21st battalion was reinforced by the Australian 2/2nd Battalion and later by the 2/3rd, this force became known as Allen force after Brigadier "Tubby" Allen. The 2/5th and 2/11th battalions moved to the Elatia area south-west of the gorge and were ordered to hold the western exit possibly for three or four days.

On April 16 General Wilson met General Papagos at Lamia and informed him of his decision to withdraw to Thermopylae. General Blamey divided responsibility between generals Mackay and Freyberg during the leapfrogging move back to Thermopylae. Mackay would protect the flanks of the New Zealand Division as far south as an east-west line through Larissa and would control the withdrawal through Domokos to Thermopylae of the Savige and Zarkos Forces, and finally of Lee Force; the 1st Armored Brigade would cover the withdrawal of Savige Force to Larissa and thereafter the withdrawal of the 6th Division under whose command it would come; Freyberg would control the withdrawal of Allen Force which was to move along the same route as the New Zealand Division. The British Commonwealth forces remained under constant attack throughout the entire withdrawal.

On the morning of April 18 the struggle for the Pineios gorge was over, when German armored infantry crossed the river on floats and the 6th Mountain Division troops worked their way around the New Zealand battalion, which was subsequently annihilated. On April 19 the first XVIII Mountain Corps troops entered Larissa and took possession of the airfield, where the British had left their supply dumps intact. The seizure of ten truckloads of rations and fuel enabled the spearhead units to continue their drive without ceasing. The port of Volos, at which the British had re-embarked numerous units during the last few days, fell on April 21; there, the Germans captured large quantities of valuable diesel and crude oil.

Withdrawal and surrender of the Greek First Army:

As the invading Germans advanced deep into Greek territory, the Greek First Army operating in Albania was reluctant to retreat. General Wilson described this unwillingness as "the fetishistic doctrine that not a yard of ground should be yielded to the Italians." It was not until April 13 that the first Greek elements began to withdraw toward the Pindus mountains. The Allies' retreat to Thermopylae uncovered a route across the Pindus mountains by which the Germans might flank the Greek army in a rearguard action. An SS regiment was given the mission of cutting off the Greek First Army's line of retreat from Albania by driving westward to the Metsovon pass, and from there to Ioannina. On April 14, heavy fighting took place at Kastoria pass, where the Germans blocked the Greek withdrawal. The withdrawal extended across the entire Albanian front, with the Italians in hesitant pursuit.

General Papagos rushed Greek units to the Metsovon pass where the Germans were expected to attack. On April 18, a pitched battle between several Greek units and the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler brigade—which had by then reached Grevena— erupted. The Greek units lacked the equipment necessary to fight against a motorised unit and were soon encircled and overwhelmed. The Germans advanced further and on April 19 captured Ioannina, the final supply route of the Greek First Army. Allied newspapers dubbed the Greek army's fate as a modern day Greek tragedy. Historian and former war-correspondent, Christopher Buckley, when describing the fate of the Greek army, states that "one experienced a genuine Aristotelian catharsis, an awe-inspiring sense of the futility of all human effort and all human courage."

On April 20, the commander of the Greek forces in Albania, General Georgios Tsolakoglou, realized the hopelessness of the situation and offered to surrender his army, which then consisted of fourteen divisions. World War II historian John Keegan writes that Tsolakoglou "was so determined... to deny the Italians the satisfaction of a victory they had not earned that... he opened quite unauthorized parley with the commander of the German SS division opposite him, Sepp Dietrich, to arrange a surrender to the Germans alone." On strict orders from Hitler negotiations were kept secret from the Italians, and the surrender was accepted. Outraged by this decision Mussolini ordered counterattacks against the Greek forces, which were repulsed. It took personal representation from Mussolini to Hitler to bring together an armistice in which Italy was included on April 23. Greek soldiers were not treated as prisoners of war, and were allowed instead to go home after the demobilization of their units, while their officers were permitted to retain their side arms.

Thermopylae position:

As early as April 16, the German command realized that the British were evacuating troops on ships at Volos and Piraeus. The whole campaign had taken on the character of a pursuit. For the Germans it was now primarily a question of maintaining contact with the retreating British forces, and foiling their evacuation plans. German infantry divisions were withdrawn from action due to a lack of mobility. The 2nd and 5th Panzer Divisions, the 1st SS Motorized Infantry Regiment, and both mountain divisions launched a pursuit on enemy forces.

To allow an evacuation of the main body of British forces, Wilson ordered the rear guard to make a last stand at the historic Thermopylae pass, the gateway to Athens. General Freyberg was given the task of defending the coastal pass, while Mackay was to hold the village of Brallos. After the battle Mackay was quoted as saying "I did not dream of evacuation; I thought that we'd hang on for about a fortnight and be beaten by weight of numbers." When the order to retreat was received on the morning of April 23 it was decided that each of the two positions was to be held by one brigade each. These brigades, the Australian 19th and 6th New Zealand were to hold the passes as long as possible, allowing the other units to withdraw. The Germans attacked on April 24 at 11:30 a.m., met fierce resistance, lost fifteen tanks and sustained considerable casualties. The Allies held out the entire day; with the delaying action accomplished, they retreated in the direction of the evacuation beaches and set up another rearguard at Thebes. The Panzer units launching a pursuit along the road leading across the pass made slow progress because of the steep gradient and a large number of difficult hairpin bends.

German Drive on Athens

"The quarrel over the troops' victorious entry into Athens was a chapter to itself: Hitler wanted to do without a special parade, to avoid injuring Greek national pride. Mussolini, alas, insisted on a glorious entry into the city for his Italian troops. The Führer yielded to the Italian demand and together the German and Italian troops marched into Athens This miserable spectacle, laid on by our gallant ally whom they had honorably beaten, must have produced some hollow laughter from the Greeks."
Wilhelm Keitel.

After abandoning the Thermopylae area, the British rear guards withdrew to an improvised switch position south of Thebes, where they erected a last obstacle in front of Athens. The motorcycle battalion of the 2nd Panzer Division, which had crossed to the island of Euboea to seize the port of Chalcis, and had subsequently returned to the mainland, was given the mission of outflanking the British rear guard. The motorcycle troops encountered only slight resistance, and on the morning of April 27, 1941, the first Germans entered Athens, followed by armored cars, tanks, and infantry. They captured intact large quantities of POL (petroleum, oil and lubricants) several thousand tons of ammunition, ten trucks loaded with sugar and ten truckloads of other rations in addition to various other equipment, weapons, and medical supplies. The people of Athens had been expecting the Germans to enter the city for several days and kept themselves confined to their homes with their windows shut. The previous night Athens Radio had made the following announcement:

You are listening to the voice of Greece. Greeks, stand firm, proud, and dignified. You must prove yourselves worthy of your history. The valor and victory of our army has already been recognized. The righteousness of our cause will also be recognized. We did our duty honestly. Friends! Have Greece in your hearts, live inspired with the fire of her latest triumph and the glory of our army. Greece will live again and will be great, because she fought honestly for a just cause and for freedom. Brothers! Have courage and patience. Be stouthearted. We will overcome these hardships. Greeks! With Greece in your minds you must be proud and dignified. We have been an honest nation and brave soldiers.

The Germans drove straight to the Acropolis and raised the Nazi flag. According to the most popular account of the events, the Evzone soldier on guard duty, Konstantinos Koukidis, took down the Greek flag, refusing to hand it to the invaders wrapped himself in it, and jumped off the Acropolis. Whether the story was true or not, many Greeks believed it and viewed the soldier as a martyr.

Evacuation of Commonwealth forces

“Little news from Greece, but 13,000 men got away to Crete on Friday night, and so there are hopes of a decent percentage of evacuation. It is a terrible anxiety... War Cabinet. Winston says "We will lose only 5,000 in Greece." We will in fact lose at least 15,000. W. is a great man, but he is more addicted to wishful thinking every day.”
— Robert Menzies, Excerpts from his personal diary, April 27 and 28, 1941

General Archibald Wavell, the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East, when in Greece on April 11–13, had warned Wilson that he must expect no reinforcements, and had authorised Major General Freddie de Guingand to discuss evacuation plans with certain responsible officers. Nevertheless, the British could not at this stage adopt or even mention this course of action; the suggestion had to come from the Greek Government. The following day Papagos made the first move when he suggested to Wilson that W Force should be withdrawn. Wilson informed Middle East Headquarters and on 17 April Rear admiral H. T. Baillie-Grohman was sent to Greece to prepare for the evacuation. That day Wilson hastened to Athens where he attended a conference with the King, Papagos, d'Albiac and Rear admiral Turle. In the evening, Koryzis after telling the King that he felt he had failed him in the task entrusted to him, committed suicide. On April 21 the final decision for the evacuation of the Commonwealth forces to Crete and Egypt was taken, and Wavell, in confirmation of verbal instructions, sent his written orders to Wilson.

5,200 men, most of which belonged to the 5th New Zealand Brigade were evacuated on the night of April 24 from Porto Rafti of East Attica, while the 4th New Zealand Brigade remained to block the narrow road to Athens, which was dubbed the 24 Hour Pass by the New Zealanders. On April 25 (Anzac Day), the few RAF squadrons left Greece (d'Albiac established his headquarters in Heraklion, Crete), and some 10,200 Australian troops were evacuated from Nauplion and Megara. 2,000 more men had to wait until April 27, because Ulster Prince ran aground in shallow waters close to Nauplion. Because of this event, the Germans realized that the evacuation was also taking place from the ports of East Peloponnese.

"We cannot remain in Greece against wish of Greek Commander-in-Chief, and thus expose country to devastation. Wilson or Palairet should obtain endorsement by Greek Government of Papagos' request. Consequent upon this assent, evacuation should proceed, without however prejudicing any withdrawal to Thermopylae position in co-operation with the Greek Army. You will naturally try to save as much material as possible."

Winston Churchill's response to the Greek proposal on April 17, 1941

On April 25, the Germans staged an airborne operation to seize the bridges over the Corinth canal, with the double aim of both cutting off the British line of retreat and securing their own way across the isthmus. The attack met with initial success, until a stray British shell destroyed the bridge. The 1st SS Motorized Infantry Regiment, assembled at Ioannina, thrust along the western foothills of the Pindus Mountains via Arta to Messolonghi, and crossed over to the Peloponnese at Patras in an effort to gain access to the isthmus from the west. Upon their arrival at 5:30 p.m. on April 27 the SS forces learned that the paratroops had already been relieved by Army units advancing from Athens.

The erection of a temporary span across the Corinth canal permitted 5th Panzer Division units to pursue the enemy forces across the Peloponnese. Driving via Argos to Kalamata, from where most Allied units had already begun to evacuate, they reached the south coast on April 29, where they were joined by SS troops arriving from Pyrgos. The fighting on the Peloponnese consisted merely of small-scale engagements with isolated groups of British troops who had been unable to make ship in time. The attack came a few days too late to cut off the bulk of the British troops in Central Greece, but did manage to isolate the Australian 16th and 17th Brigades. By April 30 the evacuation of about 50,000 soldiers was completed, but was heavily contested by the German Luftwaffe, which sank at least twenty-six troop-laden ships. The Germans captured around 7–8,000 Commonwealth (including 2,000 Cypriots and Palestinians) and Yugoslav troops in Kalamata who had not been evacuated, while liberating many Italian prisoners from POW camps.


The three occupation zones: Italian, German, Bulgarian

Triple occupation:

On April 13, 1941, Hitler issued his Directive No. 27, which illustrated his future occupying policy in Greece. He finalized jurisdiction in the Balkans with his Directive No. 31 issued on June 9. Mainland Greece was divided between Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria. German forces occupied the strategically more important areas, namely Athens, Thessaloniki with Central Macedonia, and several Aegean islands, including most of Crete. They also occupied Florina, which was claimed by both Italy and Bulgaria. On the same day that Tsolakoglou offered his surrender, the Bulgarian Army invaded Thrace. The goal was to gain an Aegean Sea outlet in Western Thrace and Eastern Macedonia. The Bulgarians occupied territory between the Strimon river and a line of demarcation running through Alexandroupoli and Svilengrad west of Evros river. The remainder of Greece was left to Italy. Italian troops started occupying the Ionian and Aegean islands on April 28. On June 2 they occupied the Peloponnese, on June 8 Thessaly, and on June 12 most of Attica.

The occupation of Greece, during which civilians suffered terrible hardships, and died from privation and hunger, proved to be a difficult and costly task. It led to the creation of several resistance groups, which launched guerilla attacks against the occupying forces and set up espionage networks.

Battle of Crete:

On April 25, 1941, King George II and his government left the Greek mainland for Crete, which was attacked by Nazi forces on May 20, 1941. The Germans employed parachute forces in a massive airborne invasion, and launched their offensive against three main airfields of the island in Maleme, Rethymno, and Heraklion. After seven days of fighting and tough resistance, Allied commanders decided that the cause was hopeless, and ordered a withdrawal from Sfakia. By June 1, 1941, the evacuation of Crete by the Allies was complete and the island was under German occupation. In light of the heavy casualties suffered by the élite 7th Flieger Division, Hitler forbade further airborne operations. General Kurt Student would dub Crete 'the graveyard of the German paratroopers' and a 'disastrous victory', During the night of May 24, George II and his government were evacuated from Crete to Egypt.

Birth of New Zealand Legend Captain Charles Upham VC & Bar

Captain Charles Upham, who has died aged 86, twice won the Victoria Cross.

Only three men have ever won double VCs, and the other two were medical officers: Col A Martin-Leake, who received the decoration in the Boer War and the First World War; and Capt N G Chavasse, who was killed in France in 1917. Chavasse's family was related to Upham's.

For all his remarkable exploits on the battlefield, Upham was a shy and modest man, embarrassed when asked about the actions he had been decorated for. "The military honours bestowed on me," he said, "are the property of the men of my unit." In a television interview in 1983 he said he would have been happier not to have been awarded a VC at all, as it made people expect too much of him. "I don't want to be treated differently from any other bastard," he insisted.

When King George VI was conferring Upham's second VC he asked Maj-Gen Sir Howard Kippenberger, his commanding officer: "Does he deserve it?"

"In my respectful opinion, Sir," replied Kippenberger, "Upham won this VC several times over."

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In writing about death, all life is there 08 Nov 2012

A great-great nephew of William Hazlitt, and the son of a British lawyer who practised in New Zealand, Charles Hazlitt Upham was born in Christchurch on Sept 21 1908.

Upham was educated at the Waihi Preparatory School, Christ's College and Canterbury Agricultural College, which he represented at rugby and rowing.

He then spent six years as a farm manager, musterer and shepherd, before becoming a government valuer in 1937.

In 1939 he volunteered for the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force as a private in the 20th Battalion and became a sergeant in the first echelon advance party. Commissioned in 1940, he went on to serve in Greece, Crete and the Western Desert.

Upham won his first VC on Crete in May 1941, commanding a platoon in the battle for Maleme airfield. During the course of an advance of 3,000 yards his platoon was held up three times. Carrying a bag of grenades (his favourite weapon), Upham first attacked a German machine-gun nest, killing eight paratroopers, then destroyed another which had been set up in a house. Finally he crawled to within 15 yards of a Bofors anti-aircraft gun before knocking it out.

When the advance had been completed he helped carry a wounded man to safety in full view of the enemy, and then ran half a mile under fire to save a company from being cut off. Two Germans who tried to stop him were killed.

The next day Upham was wounded in the shoulder by a mortar burst and hit in the foot by a bullet. Undeterred, he continued fighting and, with his arm in a sling, hobbled about in the open to draw enemy fire and enable their gun positions to be spotted. With his unwounded arm he propped his rifle in the fork of a tree and killed two approaching Germans; the second was so close that he fell on the muzzle of Upham's rifle.

During the retreat from Crete, Upham succumbed to dysentery and could not eat properly. The effect of this and his wounds made him look like a walking skeleton, his commanding officer noted. Nevertheless he found the strength to climb the side of a 600 ft deep ravine and use a Bren gun on a group of advancing Germans.

At a range of 500 yards he killed 22 out of 50. His subsequent VC citation recorded that he had "performed a series of remarkable exploits, showing outstanding leadership, tactical skill and utter indifference to danger". Even under the hottest fire, Upham never wore a steel helmet, explaining that he could never find one to fit him.

His second VC was earned on July 15 1942, when the New Zealanders were concluding a desperate defence of the Ruweisat ridge in the 1st Battle of Alamein. Upham ran forward through a position swept by machine-gun fire and lobbed grenades into a truck full of German soldiers.

When it became urgently necessary to take information to advance units which had become separated, Upham took a Jeep on which a captured German machine-gun was mounted and drove it through the enemy position.

At one point the vehicle became bogged down in the sand, so Upham coolly ordered some nearby Italian soldiers to push it free. Though they were somewhat surprised to be given an order by one of the enemy, Upham's expression left them in no doubt that he should be obeyed.

By now Upham had been wounded, but not badly enough to prevent him leading an attack on an enemy strong-point, all the occupants of which were then bayoneted. He was shot in the elbow, and his arm was broken. The New Zealanders were surrounded and outnumbered, but Upham carried on directing fire until he was wounded in the legs and could no longer walk.

Taken prisoner, he proved such a difficult customer that in 1944 he was confined in Colditz Castle, where he remained for the rest of the war. His comments on Germans were always sulphurous.

For his actions at Ruweisat he was awarded a Bar to his VC. His citation noted that "his complete indifference to danger and his personal bravery have become a byword in the whole of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force".

After his release from Colditz in 1945 Upham went to England and inquired about the whereabouts of one Mary ("Molly") McTamney, from Dunedin. Told that she was a Red Cross nurse in Germany, he was prepared, for her sake, to return to that detested country. In the event she came to England, where they were married in June 1945.

Back in New Zealand, Upham resisted invitations to take up politics. In appreciation of his heroism the sum of £10,000 was raised to buy him a farm. He appreciated the tribute, but declined the money, which was used to endow the Charles Upham Scholarship Fund to send sons of ex-servicemen to university.

Fiercely determined to avoid all publicity, Upham at first refused to return to Britain for a victory parade in 1946, and only acceded at the request of New Zealand's Prime Minister.

Four years later he resisted even the Prime Minister's persuasion that he should go to Greece to attend the opening of a memorial for the Australians and New Zealanders who had died there - although he eventually went at Kippenberger's request. In 1946, Upham bought a farm at Rafa Downs, some 100 miles north of Christchurch beneath the Kaikoura Mountains, where he had worked before the war. There he found the anonymity he desired.

In 1962, he was persuaded to denounce the British government's attempt to enter the Common Market: "Britain will gradually be pulled down and down," Upham admonished, "and the whole English way of life will be in danger." He reiterated the point in 1971: "Your politicians have made money their god, but what they are buying is disaster."
He added: "They'll cheat you yet, those Germans."
Upham and his wife had three daughters, including twins.
Published November 23 1994


The Greek campaign ended in a complete German victory. The British did not have the necessary military resources in the Middle East to permit them to carry out simultaneous Iarge-scale operations in North Africa and the Balkans. Moreover, even if they had been able to block the German advance into Greece, they would have been unable to exploit the situation by a counterthrust across the Balkans. However, the British came very near to holding on to Crete and originally must have had reasonable prospects of holding Crete and perhaps some other islands which would have been extremely valuable as airbases from which to support naval operations throughout the eastern Mediterranean.

In enumerating the reasons for the complete German victory in Greece, the following factors seem to have been of the greatest significance:

1. Germany's superiority in ground forces and equipment;
2. German supremacy in the air combined with the inability of the Greeks to provide to the RAF more airfields;
3. Inadequacy of the British expeditionary force, since the Imperial force available was small;
4. Poor condition of the Greek Army and its shortage of modern equipment;
5. Inadequate port, road and railway facilities;
6. Absence of a unified command and lack of cooperation between the British, Greek, and Yugoslav forces;
7. Turkey's strict neutrality; and
8. The early collapse of Yugoslav resistance.

After the defeat of the Allies, the decision to send British forces into Greece was met with fierce criticism in the UK. Field Marshal Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff during World War II, considered intervention in Greece to be "a definite strategic blunder", as it denied Wavell the necessary reserves to complete the conquest of Italian-held Libya, or to successfully withstand Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps March offensive. It thus prolonged the North African Campaign, which otherwise might have been successfully concluded within 1941. In 1947 de Guingand asked the British government to recognize the mistakes it made when it laid out its strategy in Greece. Buckley, on the other hand, argued that, if the UK had not answered its commitment of 1939 to defend Greece's independence, it would have severely damaged the ethical rationalizations of its struggle against Nazi Germany. According to Professor of History, Heinz Richter, Churchill tried through the campaign in Greece to influence the political atmosphere in the United States, and he insisted on this strategy even after the defeat. According to John Keegan, "the Greek campaign had been an old-fashioned gentlemen's war, with honor given and accepted by brave adversaries on each side", and the Greek and Allied forces, being vastly outnumbered, "had, rightly, the sensation of having fought the good fight."

Freyberg and Blamey had also serious doubts about the feasibility of the operation, but failed to advise their governments of their reservations and apprehensions. The campaign caused a furor in Australia, when it became known that, when he received his first warning of the move to Greece on February 18, 1941, General Blamey was worried but had not informed the Australian Government, having been told by General Wavell that Prime Minister Menzies had already given his approval of the plan. Indeed, the proposal had been accepted by a meeting of the War Cabinet in London at which Mr Menzies was present, but the Australian Prime Minister had been told by Churchill that both Freyberg and Blamey approved of the expedition. On March 5, in a letter to Menzies, Blamey said that "the plan is, of course, what I feared: piecemeal dispatch to Europe", and the next day he called the operation "most hazardous". However, thinking that he was agreeable, the Australian Government had already committed the Australian Imperial Force to the Greek Campaign.

In 1942 members of the British Parliament characterized the campaign in Greece as a "political and sentimental decision". Eden rejected the critics, argued that the UK's decision was unanimous, and asserted that the Battle of Greece delayed the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. This is an argument that some historians such as Keegan have also used in order to prove that Greek resistance may have been a turning point in World War II. According to Leni Riefenstahl, Hitler said that "if the Italians hadn't attacked Greece and needed our help, the war would have taken a different course. We could have anticipated the Russian cold by weeks and conquered Leningrad and Moscow. There would have been no Stalingrad". Despite his reservations, Brooke seems also to have conceded that the start of the offensive against the Soviet Union was in fact delayed because of the Balkan Campaign. John N. Bradley and Thomas B. Buell conclude that "although no single segment of the Balkan campaign forced the Germans to delay Barbarossa, obviously the entire campaign did prompt them to wait." On the other hand, Richter calls Eden's arguments a "falsification of history". Basil Liddell Hart and de Guingand asserted that, even if Operation Marita delayed the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, this was not enough to vindicate the decision of the British government, because this was not its initial strategic goal. In 1952 a scientific research of the Historical Branch of the UK Cabinet Office concluded that the Balkan Campaign had no influence on the launching of Operation Barbarossa. According to Robert Kirchubel, "the main causes for deferring Barbarossa's start from May 15 to June 22 were incomplete logistical arrangements, and an unusually wet winter that kept rivers at full flood until late spring."

There were political consequences from this campaign for the population of Greece. Had the Greek government held onto some foothold in Greece, such as Crete, they could have maintained a greater degree of legitimacy in the eyes of the Greek population. With luck the civil war could have been avoided.

Homage to the Greek resistance

"Everyone can recall the sentiments of admiration which the heroic defense of Greece, first against the Italians and then against the German invader, aroused throughout the civilized world."
Winston Churchill

In a speech made at the Reichstag in 1941, Hitler expressed his admiration for the Greek resistance, saying of the campaign: "Historical justice obliges me to state that of the enemies who took up positions against us, the Greek soldier particularly fought with the highest courage. He capitulated only when further resistance had become impossible and useless." The Führer also ordered the release, and repatriation of all Greek prisoners of war, as soon as they had been disarmed, "because of their gallant bearing." According to Hitler's Chief of Staff, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, the Führer "wanted to give the Greeks an honorable settlement in recognition of their brave struggle, and of their blamelessness for this war: after all the Italians had started it." Inspired by the Greek resistance during the Italian and German invasions, Churchill said, "Hence we will not say that Greeks fight like heroes, but that heroes fight like Greeks". In response to a letter from George II dated December 3, 1940, American President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated that "all free peoples are deeply impressed by the courage and steadfastness of the Greek nation".

Germany and the Balkans[1]

From the outset, Italy had proved a poor ally to Germany, and this was a contributory factor (albeit a minor one) in Hitler's eventual failure. Hitler responded to Italian defeats, and to the possibility of weakening the British in the Mediterranean, by sending assistance to Mussolini. From January 1941, the dispatch of German planes to Sicily helped make the central Mediterranean hazardous for British shipping. British plans for amphibious attacks on Italian positions in the Mediterranean - Pantelleria or the Dodecanese - now seemed redundant.

Furthermore, in North Africa, the British position was weakened from November 1940 by the dispatch of British supplies and aircraft to Greece to help against the Italians in Albania. German forces sent to Libya proved better than the British (and much better than the Italians) at mobile warfare and combined land-air operations, and drove the British back into Egypt in late March-June 1941. Rommel was a bold and effective commander of the German forces, while British tank-infantry-artillery co-operation was inadequate and British tanks were poor.

This was part of a major advance in German power around the Mediterranean. Already, in 1940, German support had been crucial in obliging Romania to cede the Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria (June) and Transylvania to Hungary (September), and had helped lead to the seizure of power by a Fascist dictatorship, which was followed by a growing German political, economic and military presence: German military missions arrived on 12 October.

The Romanian oilfields at Ploesti were to be Germany's leading source of supply throughout the war. Mussolini found that the Balkans were increasingly under German influence.Turkey's proclamation of non-belligerency represented a renunciation of the Tripartite Treaty of Alliance with France and Britain (October 1939), which had provided for Turkish assistance to them if they had to come to the support of Greece or Romania. On 1 March 1941, Bulgaria joined the Axis and German troops began to enter the country in order to be able to threaten Greece.Hitler had decided that Italian failure required German intervention in Greece. In response to German demands,Yugoslavia joined the German alliance system on 25 March.

The Germans responded to an unexpected nationalist coup by the military in Yugoslavia on 27 March with an invasion in conjunction with Bulgarian, Hungarian and Italian forces, none of which, in fact, contributed much, apart from territory from which the Germans could operate. Virtually surrounded by these opponents, Yugoslavia was as vulnerable as Poland had been, and it fell rapidly. The Germans deployed six divisions against the 31-division-strong Yugoslav army, but (like the Poles in 1939) the Yugoslavs chose to resist attack on all parts of their country, instead of falling back to ensure a stronger defence, and the army was strung out along over 1,000 miles of frontier. As a result, only seven divisions fought the Germans. The attack was mounted, without ultimatum or declaration of war, on 6 April 1941.

In Operation Punishment, the Germans advanced from Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Austria (since 1938 part of Germany).At the same time, German forces from Bulgaria invaded Greece. The attack on Yugoslavia included the terror-bombing of undefended Belgrade on 6 April in order to cause heavy civilian casualties: over 17,000 people were killed.

The initial German advances from Bulgaria rapidly took Skopje, the capital of the province of Macedonia (7 April), and Nis in southern Serbia (8 April). German armoured advances proved particularly effective in the absence of anti-tank guns. Advancing from Germany, other armoured forces captured Zagreb on 10 April and crossed the Drava River en route for Belgrade. The Germans benefited from the unwillingness of many Croats, including most of the Croat units in the military, to support what they saw as a Serb-dominated Yugoslavia. Belgrade surrendered on 12 April and, with resistance collapsing, the Germans advanced into the interior, taking Sarajevo on 16 April. Already, on 14 April, the Yugoslavs had requested an armistice, and three days later they capitulated. Italian forces invading from Italy and Albania helped overrun Dalmatia, but made little real contribution to the course of the campaign.Yugoslavia was partitioned, with German, Italian, Hungarian and Bulgarian territorial gains, an independent Fascist Croatia and a Serb puppet state. Fewer than 200 Germans had been killed in the invasion.

The Germans pressed on to conquer Greece, which they had also invaded on 6 April. As with Poland and Yugoslavia, the defence was weakened by an overly long perimeter, specifically the Metaxas Line that protected Thrace from Bulgaria but could not block German forces when they advanced via Yugoslavia. The British had sent an expeditionary force to help the Greeks, but with inadequate air support, and it was pushed back.The tempo of the German advance, especially its rapid use of airborne troops and armour, brought a decisive advantage, as did the effective use of ground-support aircraft. Thessaloniki fell on 9 April, successive defensive lines could not be held, Athens fell on 27 April, and the British withdrew their forces from the Peloponnese on 28-30 April. An Italian advance in Albania made scant difference to the campaign. German air attacks destroyed Greek warships.

Fuller argued that it was mistaken for the British to confront the German 'mechanised hordes' in the Balkans, and that 'to plunge into the Balkan bog before we can fully be supported by America is the height of folly'. He also suggested that there had been a serious violation of the concept of concentration of force due to intervention in Eritrea rather than consolidating the gains in Libya. Fuller commented on Rommel's advance: 'like a ladder in a girl's stocking, our splendid desert campaign is running backwards up our strategical leg from its ankle to its knee'; and on Greece:'We should have blitzed our enemy before he blitzed our allies. And if we were not in a position to do that, then we should never have gone to Greece at all.'32 The dispatch of forces there had, indeed, greatly weakened the British in North Africa. Churchill, who had backed the policy for political reasons, in order to show that Britain was supporting all opposition to the Axis, swiftly recognised it as an error.

The Balkan campaign culminated with the capture of Crete by German parachute and glider troops that landed on 20 May 1941 and had captured the island by the 31st; although German losses (5,567 dead) were so great that Hitler ordered that no similar operation should be mounted in the future. Although warned of German plans by intelligence from ULTRA (deciphered German intercepts) material, the British defence was poorly prepared: much of the garrison had hastily retreated from Greece and was short of equipment, particularly artillery, and lacking in air support. The German success in seizing Maleme airfield provided a bridgehead for reinforcements.

German air attacks hit the British attempt to reinforce, supply and, eventually, evacuate Crete by sea: the Mediterranean Fleet took many losses, including three cruisers and six destroyers sunk, although two German convoys en route for Crete to support Operation Mercury were intercepted.33 Fuller fulminated in a heavily censored piece in the Sunday Pictorial of 8 June, 'Because we could not think cubically we expected a caterpillar crawl and got a dragonfly assault'. Criticism of Churchill increased, while the British Expeditionary Force gained the nickname 'Back Every Friday'. Admiral Cunningham, the British naval commander in the Mediterranean, feared that the Germans might press on to attack Cyprus and to deploy in Vichy-run Syria.[1]

Battle of Greece Timeline

6th April 1941 The German armies invade Greece.
8th April 1941 The German 164th Infantry Division captures Xanthi.
9th April 1941 German troops seize Thessaloniki.
  The German 72d Infantry Division breaks through the Metaxas Line.
  The Greek Second Army capitulates unconditionally.
10th April 1941 The Germans overcome the enemy resistance north of Vevi, at the Klidi Pass.
13th April 1941 General Wilson decides to withdraw all British forces to the Haliacmon river, and then to Thermopylae.
  Elements of the Greek First Army operating in Albania withdraw toward the Pindus mountains.
  Hitler issues his Directive No. 27, which illustrates his future occupying policy in Greece.
14th April 1941 The spearheads of the 9th Panzer Division reach Kozani.
  After fighting at Kastoria pass, the Germans block the Greek withdrawal, which extends across the entire Albanian front.
16th April 1941 Wilson informs General Papagos of his decision to withdraw to Thermopylae.
17th April 1941 Rear admiral H. T. Baillie-Grohman is sent to Greece to prepare for the evacuation of the Commonwealth forces.
18th April 1941 After a three-days struggle, German armored infantry crosses the Pineios river.
  The 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler—which had reached Grevena— overwhelms several Greek units.
19th April 1941 German troops enter Larissa and take possession of the airfield.
  German troops capture Ioannina.
20th April 1941 The commander of the Greek forces in Albania, General Georgios Tsolakoglou, offers to surrender his army to the Germans alone.
  The Bulgarian Army invades Thrace.
21th April 1941 The final decision for the evacuation of the Commonwealth forces to Crete and Egypt is taken.
  The Germans capture the port of Volos.
23th April 1941 Official surrender of the Greek forces in Albania to both the Germans and the Italians after a personal representation from Mussolini to Hitler
24th April 1941 The Germans attack the Commonwealth forces at Thermopylae. The British rear guards withdraw to Thebes.
  5,200 Commonwealth soldiers are evacuated from Porto Rafti, East Attica.
25th April 1941 The few RAF squadrons leave Greece. Some 10,200 Australian troops are evacuated from Nauplion and Megara.
  The Germans stage an airborne operation to seize the bridges over the Corinth Canal.
27th April 1941 The first Germans enter Athens.
28th April 1941 Italian troops start occupying the Ionian and Aegean islands.
29th April 1941 5th Panzer Division units reach the south coast of Peloponnese, where they are joined by SS troops arriving from Pyrgos.
30th April 1941 The evacuation of 42,311 Commonwealth soldiers is completed. The Germans manage to capture around 7 to 8,000 Commonwealth troops.

Photographs of The Balkans Campaign Apr-May 1941 Mixed

KG30.7 raid on Piraeus Harbour by Hptm. Hajo Herrmann April 6-7, 1941 01

Photo’s 01-03: Taken from a Ju-87, this photograph shows a daylight attack on Piraeus Harbour, but on the night of 6/7 April 1941, Hptm. Hajo Herrmann, the Staffelkapitan of 7./KG30, particularly distinguished himself when he took off from Gerbini in Sicily to bomb this target. Despite bad weather which forced some other aircraft to turn back, Herrmann pressed on and, flying into calmer weather and clear, moonlit skies, located the harbour. The bomb-aimer released the bombs during a glide attack from 10,000 feet and Herrmann climbed to await results. To the amazement of the German crew, there was a huge explosion which lit up the sky for miles around and caused a shock-wave which completely wrecked the harbour and severely buffeted Herrmann's aircraft. The bombs had hit the Clan Frazer, a vessel still loaded with 250 tons of explosives. The Clan Frazer completely disappeared in the blast and another ten ships were also destroyed. The loss of the harbour facilities was a severe blow to the British who were deprived of the one harbour through which supplies could be passed to the British Army in Greece.

Pilots JG52.3 $Gunther Rall Germany 1941 01

Photo 01: At the end of July 1940, III./JG52 was recalled to Germany after suffering heavy losses during the Battle of Britain. The Gruppe spent August and September at Zerbst, near lnnsbruck, where the Staffelkapitane were kept very busy rebuilding their Staffeln. Here, at Zerbst, Lt. Gunther Rall (centre) is addressing the pilots of his 8. Staffel.

German air attacks on Belgrade 1941 01

Photo 01: An aerial view of Belgrade following the German air attacks on the city during the opening phase of 'Operation Marita'.

Photo 02: Other photographs show damage near the administrative sector of the city

Photo 03: members of III./JG54 inspecting destroyed bridges.

Messerschmitt Bf-109E JG28.1 formation flypast 01

Photo 01: A formation flypast of Bf-109Es from I./JG28.

Messerschmitt Bf-109E JG52.3 (Y12+~) Bucharest, Rumania 1941 01

Photo 01: Damaged Bf-109Es of III./JG52 assembled in Bucharest in 1941, shortly before the Gruppe departed to take part in the Balkan campaign. Note the two different types of canopy and the up-ended engine cowling, left, which shows the machine-gun troughs have been painted yellow. Also visible on several of the engine cowlings is the Running Wolf badge of III./JG52.

Messerschmitt Bf-109E JG77.3 Deta 1941 01

Photo 01: Aircraft of III./JG77 seen soon after they arrived at Deta and shortly before the campaign in the Balkans. The wolf's head badge of III. Gruppe is plainly visible on the nose, but less obvious is the 'Curly Head' emblem of 9. Staffel under the cockpit.

Messerschmitt Bf-109E JG77.2 Bulgaria 1941 01

Photo 01: An Orthodox priest visiting 7./JG27 in Bulgaria. The Bf-109's spinner has been painted white, the Staffel's colour, but is showing signs of wear.

Destroyed aircraft at Larissa airfield 1941 01

Photo 01: This view of wrecked aircraft on Larissa airfield includes a Bristol Blenheim, an Hs 123, Bf-109s and Ju-87s.

German Tanks - PzKpfw III XI. Panzer Korps Greece 01

Photo 01: On 10 April, XL Panzer Korps advanced into Greece through the Monastir Gap and, after being held for a few days, moved forwards to attack Allied defences in the Servia and Olympus Passes. The Germans were harassed as they advanced on these new positions, but on account of their control of the air and the speed of their armour were only temporarily delayed. By 17 April German forces were heading for Thermopylae where the Allies were planning their last major defence line. Here a PzKpfw III advances past a flak position.

Pilots JG77.9 $Otto Unertl grave 01

Photo 01: On 25 April 1941, Fw. Otto Unertl of 9./JG77 was shot down by anti-aircraft fire over Nauplion and was still in the aircraft when it crashed into the ground. The British buried his body close to the remains of his aircraft and marked the grave 'An unknown German pilot' .At the end of 'Marita', Emil Omert set about locating the grave of his comrade. Having found it, he erected a wooden cross properly marked with Fw. Unertl's full name and rank and bearing the inscription, 'He met a flier's death on 25.4.41 and died for Greater Germany'.

British Matilda Tank abandoned Greece 01

Photo 01: A Luftwaffe officer inspecting an abandoned British Matilda tank.

Destroyed Vehicles Greece 01

Photo 01: A column of Commonwealth motor-transport deliberately destroyed during the Allied withdrawal in Greece to prevent the vehicles from falling into German hands.

Bloch-151 Royal Hellenic AF 01

Photo 01: A captured Bloch 151 fighter of the Royal Hellenic Air Force. Nine aircraft of this type are believed to have been delivered to Greece.

Blenheim Royal Hellenic AF 01

Photo 01: A Bristol Blenheim in Greek markings which fell intact into German hands. A total of 18 Blenheims were delivered to 32 Bomber Squadron of the Royal Hellenic Air Force. The squadron's most successful air operations were against the Italians.

Potez PZL P.24 Royal Hellenic AF 01

Photo 01: A captured PZL P.24.This Polish-built aircraft was one of the main fighters of the Royal Hellenic Air Force.

Potez PZL P.25 Royal Hellenic AF 01

Photo 01: Captured Greek Potez 25 A2 two-seat army co-operation aircraft, photographed at Athens-Tatoi airport in May 1941. The Royal Hellenic Air Force took delivery of 30 of these aircraft, all with Hispano-Suiza 12 Jb engines, but a total of some 3,500 were built and served with twenty different air forces. Other engines installed included Lorraine-Dietrich, Renault, and Gnome-Rhone types.

Savoia Marchetti SM-79 Sparviero at Greece 01

Photo 01-02: The passengers aboard these aircraft at Larissa comprised the delegation of Italian officers which signed the instrument of Greece's surrender on 23 April 1941.

Balkans mixed 01

Pilots $Wilhelm Fulda

Photo’s 01-02: In addition to paratroops, the attack on the Corinth Canal involved a glider assault led by Lt. Wilhelm Fulda, for which he received the Knight's Cross. In these later photographs, taken in early 1944, Fulda is seen visiting a Staffel of Luftlandegeschwader 2, then based near Aschaffenburg in Germany. Note that the tail of the DFS glider in the background with an interesting triangle marking as also seen on some Ju-52/3ms. Fulda had an notable and varied career, also serving with JG301 and JG302 and at the end of the war was Kommandeur of the Me163 Gruppe I./JG400.

Balkans mixed 02

Photo 02: On 26 April 1941, XI. Fliegerkorps launched a parachute and airborne attack by the whole of the specially reinforced Fallschirmjager Regiment 2 on the bridge spanning the canal at Corinth and the outskirts of the town. The parachute troops were flown into action by four Ju-52/3m Gruppen, I./KGzbV I, KGzbV60, KGvbV102 and I./LLG1, while some ten DFS-230 gliders landed more parachute troops close to the bridge spanning the isthmus. These Ju-52/3ms were photographed shortly before they took off from Larissa.

Balkans mixed 03

Photo 03: Recognisable by the Edelweiss badge on their right sleeve, Gebirgsjager, or mountain troops, raise the German flag over the Acropolis, the citadel of ancient Athens. After the glider and main parachute assault on Crete, troops from the 5th Mountain Division and a Mountain Assault Battalion of the 6th Mountain Division were air-landed on the island.

Balkans mixed 04

Photo 04: An aerial view of the Corinth Canal.

Balkans mixed 05

Wehrmacht victory parade in and over Athens on 3 May 1941 showing SdKfz 251 half-tracked troop carriers with Mount Lycabethus in the background and

Balkans mixed 06

Do-17 KG2 over Greece 1941 01

Photo 01: Do-17s of KG2 over the city. Although JG77 took part in the fly-past, operational wear and tear and an acute shortage of spares during the Balkans campaign had seriously affected serviceability and only a few aircraft could participate.

Junkers G-38s KGzvbV 172 Greece 1941 01

Photo 01: Only two Junkers G 38s were built, the first of which crashed in 1936.The second aircraft, a G38ce named 'Marschall van Hindenburg', flew pre-war with Lufthansa until impressed into service with the Luftwaffe where it was operated by KGzvbV 172 in Norway. Later, this machine flew some missions to Greece but it was destroyed on 17 May 1941 during an RAF bombing attack on Athens-Tatoi airfield.

Junkers Ju-52.3m KGzbV2 during the invasion of Crete 1941 01

Photo 01: Paratroops boarding a Ju52/3m of KGzbV2 for the invasion of Crete. Although the Ju52/3m could normally carry about 19 men, thee average load for one of these aircraft flying to crete was reduced to 12 so that more equipment could also be transported.

Junkers Ju-52.3m KGzbV2 during the invasion of Crete 1941 02

Photo 02: A Ju52/3m transport starting amid clouds of dust and sand which particularly affected the airfields around Athens before 'Merkur' an airfield inspection officer decided the grassed landing grounds were too uneven for transport operations and had them ploughed up to make them level! In hot, dry weather, this resulted in the slipstreams from dozens of aircraft raising hugh clouds of dust. This Ju52/3m was photographed as it began its take-off run from Topolia in Greece for a mission to Crete. During the first day of 'Merkur, the dust on overcrowded airfields lingered in the air for so long that it prevented following aircraft from taking off. Even fire engines spraying the ground with water did not subdue the dust and further problems were caused by shot-up aircraft crashing and blocking the runways. returning Ju52/3m which were supposed to rapidly reload and be ready for another mission were therefore delayed, refueling also took longer tahn had been estimated. the effect of this chaos was that the planned operational timetable for the second wave of troops landing on Crete was seriously disrupted, with near disastrous results.

Junkers Ju-52.3m towing DFS-230 during the invasion of Crete 1941 01

Photo’s 01-02: The first German troops to land on Crete arrived by glider 15 minutes ahead of the parachute force. These photograph show Ju 52/3ms towing DFS 230 gliders off from Eleusis a view from a DFS230 with the Ju-52/3m towplane in the foreground and the island of Crete in the distance, and gliders landing on Crete.

DFS-230 gliders during the invasion of Crete 1941 01

Junkers Ju-52.3m shot down during the invasion of Crete 1941 04

Photo’s 04-05:  A Ju-52/3m falling in flames after being hit by anti-aircraft fire over Crete. Moments later, the aircraft crashed into Suda Bay.

German paratroopers dropped during the invasion of Crete 1941 06

Photo 06: Fallschirmjager of the first wave soon after landing near Maleme airfield during the Crete operation. Unlike the British who used an X-type parachute, the Fallschirmjager had no control over his parachute while in flight and, 011 landing, was thrown forward onto his hands and knees. Because of this and the consequent injury to wrists and knees, there was a high casualty rate on landing amongst German paratroops. On Crete, paratroop losses were high from the start; many died while still in the air or were injured on landing in unsuitable terrain, while any survivors were frequently pinned down or killed by Allied defensive fire. Of more than 6,500 troops killed during the ten-day campaign, 5,140 were from the parachute force alone. Never again would such a large-scale parachute operation be attempted.

Map of Crete and surrounding area showing the sites of the main German parachute and airborne landings during Operation 'Merkur' and the locations of Allied warships sunk or damaged.

Map of Crete showing drop locations and Allied warships sunk 01

Map of Crete and surrounding area showing the sites of the main German parachute and airborne landings during Operation 'Merkur' and the locations of Allied warships sunk or damaged.

British ships under attack at Suda Bay, Crete 1941 01

Photo 01: The attack on Crete was supported by VIII. Fliegerkorps which carried out attacks on the British naval base at Suda Bay. Here, Allied shipping is under attack by Ju-87s.

British ships under attack at Suda Bay, Crete 1941 02

Photo 02: In addition to several hits scored on the cruiser HMS York (visible on far side of harbour, fifth from right), one tanker was set on fire, four merchant steamers were sunk and others severely damaged. The German plan of action called for the occupation of Suda Bay at the earliest opportunity in order to provide the necessary facilities for the supply of heavy arms by sea. This photograph was taken from a Ju-52/3m.

Junkers Ju-52.3m wrecked on Maleme AF Crete 1941 01

Photo’ 01-03: Wrecked Ju-52/3ms on Maleme airfield in Crete, evidence of the determination of XI. Fliegerkorps to secure the airfield, regardless of losses. The losses in transport aircraft during campaign were especially serious as the invasion of Russia was due commence within a month. The difficulties of transporting material over the long distances in Russia were already realised, and the transport forces were faced with the urgent task of re-equipping, in the space of ten days, six of the transport Gruppen which had taken part in the battle for Crete. Many units were also withdrawn and the Mediterranean theatre was therefore left very short of air transport at a time when it was need it greatly. From this time forwards there was never an supply of transport aircraft or crews for both fronts and, generally, Mediterranean forces suffered from the greater urgency of supplies for Russia.

Junkers Ju-52.3m KGrzbV 106 on Maleme AF Crete 1941 01

Photo 01: Ju 52/3m transport aircraft of KGrzbV 106 photographed on Crete in early June. The leaping stag emblem was used by this Gruppe only during the Balkans and Crete campaigns in 1941. KGrzbV 106 was one of the units which dropped paratroops during the assault on Crete and remained in the area until about 10 June when it was recalled to Germany to prepare urgently for the forthcoming invasion of Russia.

Junkers Ju-52.3m over Greece 1941 01

Photo 01: Photographed a few days after the main assault, this Ju-52/3m over Greece is believed to be flying mountain troops to Crete. As with all German aircraft types serving in the. Balkans, large areas of the aircraft have been painted yellow, but thisl11achine is unusual in that the yellow nose cowling has been enhanced by a yellow band around the forward fuselage.

General Wolfram von Richthofen 1941 01

Photo 01: General der Flieger Wolfram von Richthofen, the officer commanding VIII. Fliegerkorps, awarding decorations, in this instance probably the EK II, to members of the Luftwaffe who participated in the invasion of Crete.

Italian infantrymen from Albania into Greece 1941 01

Photo 01: Italian infantrymen advancing from Albania into Greece

Italian infantrymen firing at Greek positions 1941 01

Photo 01: Italian mountain artillery firing at Greek positions.


  1. Playfair v.I, p. 109
  2. Paterson, Ian A.. History of the British 7th Armoured Division: Engagements - 1940.
  3. Playfair v. II, pp. 159-160
  4. Playfair v.II, p. 162
  5. Rommel, p. 137
  6. Playfair, v.IV Map 31
  7. Playfair, v.IV Map 34
  8. Playfair, v.IV Pg 446
  9. Campaign 220 OPERATION CRUSADER 1941 Rommel in Retreat by KEN FORD Page 28 published by Osprey Publishing ISBN: 978 1 84603 500 5 E-book ISBN: 978 1 84908 277 8
  10. Royal Navy Aces of World War 2 By Andrew Thomas Page 91
  11. World War Two - A military history by Jeremy Black Published by Routledge 2003 ISBN 0-203-01832-X


Sources for this timeline were primarily derived from several Wikipedia pages (accessed: 2005-04-03) using text and data on maps from Western Desert Campaign and Tunisia Campaign.

  • Atkinson, Rick (2004) [2002]. An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943. Abacus. ISBN 0-34911-636-9.
  • Barclay, Brigadier C. N.. "Mediterranean Operations". GI - World War II Commemoration.
  • Keegan, John, Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280666-1
  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; and Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; with Flynn R.N., Captain F.C. & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1966]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume IV: The Destruction of the Axis Forces in Africa. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-068-8.
  • Zabecki, David T.. "The War: North Africa (1940-1943)". PBS. Retrieved 08/09/2010.
  • Paterson, Ian A.. "History of the British 7th Armoured Division: Engagements - 1940". Retrieved 2008-01-02.
  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; with Stitt R.N., Commander G.M.S.; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1954]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume I The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-065-3.
  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; with Flynn R.N., Captain F.C.; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1956]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-066-1.
  • Rommel, Erwin; Liddell-Hart, Basil (editor) (1982). The Rommel Papers. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-30680-157-4.

    Some of the most widely used Book References:: +

  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase One: July-August 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 1) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Eddie J Creek (Author)
  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Two: August-September 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 2) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Three: September-October 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 3) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Four: November 1940-June 1941 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 4) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)

    Web References: +

  • Airfix Magazines (English) -
  • Avions (French) -
  • FlyPast (English) -
  • Flugzeug Publikations GmbH (German) -
  • Flugzeug Classic (German) -
  • Klassiker (German) -
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) -
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) -
  • Osprey (English) -
  • Revi Magazines (Czech) -
  • Luftwaffe profiles
  • Wikipedia Org - of Greece

This webpage was updated 3rd October 2022