Vickers Wellington Photo's

Vickers Wellington MkIA RAF Central Gunnery School White 5 N28887 England 1943

Photograph Source: Flugzeug Classic 2010-11

Artwork Vickers Wellington MkIb RAF 148Sqn ZNBS L4302 England winter 1938-39

Artwork technical drawing showing British WW2 medium bombers comparison

Artwork technical drawing Vickers Wellington MkIa

RNZAF New Zealand Vickers Wellington MkI bombers in England 1939

Vickers Wellington being loaded 01

Vickers Wellington GR.Mk.VIII RAF 172Sqn WNA on patrol over the Western Approaches 1942

Vickers Wellington GR.Mk.VIII RAF 221Sqn Greece Oct 1944

Vickers Wellington GR.Mk.XI RAF dispersal area JA144

Vickers Wellington KAZ 01-02

Vickers Wellington mine detector 01

Vickers Wellington Mk2 RAF EPR 01-03

Vickers Wellington MkIa N2980

Vickers Wellington MkIA RAF 75Sqn AAA SqLr CE Kay P9206 Fetwell Norfolk 01

Vickers Wellington MkIA RAF 218Sqn HAL R1448 Marham Norfolk 01

Vickers Wellington MkIa showing geodesic construction through the perspex windows

Vickers Wellington MkIC RAF 37Sqn LFP L7779 inflight over England June 1940 01

Vickers Wellington MkIII RCAF 425Sqn KWE X3763 Alouette 01

Vickers Wellington MkIII RCAF VRQ 01-02

Vickers Wellington MkX RCAF 428Sqn NAY HE239 showing battle damage April 1943

Vickers Wellington RAF crashed 01

Vickers Wellington RCAF QJW 01

Vickers Wellington Mk.III RAF 30OTU BTZ BK347 which later crashed near Ingleton North Yorkshire 21st April 1944

Vickers Wellington MkIc RAF 215Sqn LGG N2912 No11 OTU Bassingbourn Cambridgeshire England 1940 01

Vickers Wellington RAF 304Sqn Coastal Command Britain Nov 1942 01

Vickers Wellington RAF 6Sqn Engalnd 01

Members of the British 6th bomber squadron 75 Vickers Wellington bombers . The squadron crewed mainly by New Zealanders, however, crews often consisted of British and other countries of the British Commonwealth. The main tasks of the squadron were night raids on targets in occupied Europe. By the end of the war, almost one thousand members of 75 Squadron perished.

Wellington X RAF 150Sqn LN323 at taking off from Kairouan West Tunisia IWM CNA1269

Wellington Mark X, LN323, of No. 150 Squadron RAF, taking off from Kairouan West, Tunisia, to take part in the interdiction bombing of communications targets around Salerno. Italy, on the evening before the Allied landings there, (Operation AVALANCHE).

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 1269 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209266

Wellington X RAF 150Sqn crew pre-take off briefing at Kairouan West Tunisia IWM CNA1271

The crew of a Vickers Wellington Mark X of No. 150 Squadron RAF receive a final briefing from their flight commander before taking off from Kairouan, Tunisia, for a raid on targets in the Salerno area on the day before the Allied landings there, (Operation AVALANCHE). Pictured are, (left to right): Sergeant J Umbers of Coulsdon, Surrey, (wireless operator/air gunner); Sergeant J Baxter of Ayrshire, Scotland, (bombardier); Squadron Leader E Le P Langlois of Clarence Park, South Australia, (Commander, 'A' Flight); Flight Sergeant S S M Tunstall of Boonah, Queensland, Australia, (pilot); Sergeant F Doyle of Crosby, Liverpool, (navigator), and Sergeant M Hayes of Lismore, Eire, (rear gunner).

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 1271 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209266

Wellington X RAF 205Sqn during Operation AVALANCHE Tunisia IWM CNA1272

Armourers hurry a trolley load of 500-lb GP bombs to an awaiting Vickers Wellington Mark X of No. 205 Group RAF, which is being refuelled in preparation for a night raid on targets in the Salerno area, on the day before the Allied landings there, (Operation AVALANCHE). The aircraft's front turret has been shrouded to shield it from the North African heat.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 1272 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209267

Wellington X RAF 150Sqn LN323 at Kairouan Tunisia IWM CNA1282

Corporal M Piper of Stafford stands on an oil drum to service the front turret of a Vickers Wellington Mark X of No. 150 Squadron RAF, at Kairouan, Tunisia, prior to bombing operations in support of Operation AVALANCHE, the Allied landings at Salerno, Italy. Behind him, local porters can be seen carrying water and supplies across the airfield.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 1282 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209269

Vickers Wellington GRMkVIII RAF 221Sqn based at Kalamaki Greece Oct 1944 IWM CNA4680

Vickers Wellington Mark XIIIs of No. 221 Squadron RAF based at Kalamaki, Greece, parked on Sedes airfield after transporting men and supplies to the Allied forces operating in the Salonika area.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA4680 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209622

Vickers Wellington XIII RAF 221Sqn F MF263 based at Kalamaki Greece Oct 1944 IWM CNA4682

Vickers Wellington Mark XIII, MF263 'F', of No. 221 Squadron RAF based at Kalamaki, Greece, parked on Sedes airfield after transporting men and supplies to the Allied forces operating in the Salonika area.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA4682 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209624

Vickers Wellington X RAF 70Sqn A LN640 based at Tortorella Italy IWM CNA2830

Vickers Wellington Mark X, LN640 'A', of No. 70 Squadron RAF taxies to the main runway at at Tortorella, Italy, for a night bombing operation as a Boeing B-17 of the 99th Bomb Group, 15th USAAF, comes in to land.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA2830 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209376

Wellington Ic RAF 37Sqn LFK LFC LFE at Shallufa Egypt IWM CM501

Three Vickers Wellington Mark ICs of No. 37 Squadron RAF based at Shallufa, Egypt, in flight over the Western Desert.

Imperial War Museum IWM CM 501 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205208739

Wellington Ic RAF 37Sqn LFO T2508 at Koraiyim Egypt IWM CM407

The nose insignia on Vickers Wellington Mark IC, T2508 'LF-O', of No. 37 Squadron RAF at an Advanced Landing Ground in Egypt. Each emblem represents a member of the crew under the devices of the aircraft's captain, Flying Officer P C "Cheese" Lemon.

Imperial War Museum IWM CM 407 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205208736

Wellington Ic RAF 37Sqn LFO T2508 at Koraiyim Egypt IWM CM368

Vickers Wellington Mark ICs of No. 37 Squadron RAF, being prepared for a raid at an Advanced Landing Ground in the Western Desert, probably LG 09/Bir Koraiyim, during bombing operations against Italian ports and airfields in Libya. Groundcrew are about to refuel T2508 'LF-O', which has just had its port mainwheel replaced after bursting a tyre on landing.

Imperial War Museum IWM CM 368 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205208735

Wellington X RAF 150Sqn Amendola Italy IWM CNA2785

A Boeing B-17 crew of the 5th Bombardment Wing, 15th USAAF, after returning to Amendola, Italy, from a daylight bombing mission over Sofia, Bulgaria, have driven over to the dispersals of No. 150 Squadron RAF to wish a crew of a Vickers Wellington Mark X good luck before they take off for a night raid on the same target. The RAF crew are, (right to left): Sergeant M Jefferson of Manchester, (wireless operator); Sergeant G Heywood of Upton-by-Chester, (rear gunner); Flight Lieutenant V T "Bill" Skehill of Kooyong, Australia, (pilot), who is shaking hands with the American crew captain, 2nd Lieutenant Walters; Flying Officer P R Jameson of Brisbane, Australia, (navigator), and Flight Sergeant E W Turner of Northfleet, Kent, (bomb aimer).

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 2785 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209370

Wellingtons RAF 40Sqn at Foggia Main Italy IWM CNA2742

Line of Vickers Wellington Mark IIIs and Mark Xs, possibly No. 40 Squadron RAF at Foggia Main, Italy.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 2742 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209368

Wellington X RAF 40Sqn D at Foggia Main Italy IWM CNA2699

An aircrew of No. 40 Squadron RAF gather by their Vickers Wellington Mark X at Foggia Main, Italy, befor setting off on a night bombing mission.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 2699 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209366

Wellington III RAF 40Sqn GX DF542 at Foggia Main Italy IWM CNA2705

Vickers Wellington Mark IIIs and Mark Xs of No. 40 Squadron RAF being prepared for a night bombing mission at Foggia Main, Italy. In the foreground is Mark III, DF542 'G-X'.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 2705 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209365

Wellingtons RAF 40Sqn at Foggia Main Italy IWM CNA2704

Vickers Wellington Mark IIIs and Mark Xs of No. 40 Squadron RAF being prepared for a night bombing mission at Foggia Main, Italy.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 2704 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209364

Wellington III RAF 150Sqn JNA possibly HF482 based at Blida Algeria IWM CNA226

The nose of Vickers Wellington B Mark III, (possibly HF482) 'JN-A' "A for Apple", of No. 150 Squadron RAF at Blida, Algeria, showing a bomb tally indicating 16 completed missions, and nose artwork depicting Captain Reilly-ffoul, a villainous character in the "Just Jake" cartoon strip by Bernard Graddon, which appeared in the Daily Mirror throughout the war.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 226 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209187

Wellington III RAF 150Sqn based at Blida Algeria IWM CNA225

Vickers Wellington B Mark IIIs of No. 150 Squadron RAF under maintenance prior to receiving their bomb loads at Blida, Algeria.

Imperial War Museum IWM CNA 225 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205209186

Vickers Wellington Ic RAF P9249 factory fresh in flight March 1940 IWM HU104762

Vickers Wellington Ic RAF P9249 factory fresh in flight March 1940 IWM HU104763

Vickers Wellington Mk IC P9249 in flight, March 1940.

Imperial War Museum IWM HU 104762 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205229917

Imperial War Museum IWM HU 104763 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205229919

Vickers Wellington I RAF L4251 factory fresh in flight March 1940 IWM HU104761

Vickers Wellington Mk IC L4251 in flight, March 1940.

Imperial War Museum IWM HU 104761 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205229912

Vickers Wellington II RAF 104Sqn EPK W5444 at Driffield autumn 1941 IWM HU75017

Vickers Wellington II W5444/EP-K of No 104 Squadron awaits delivery of its bomb load of 250 and 500 pounders at Driffield, autumn 1941.

Imperial War Museum IWM HU 75017 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205075637

Vickers Wellington RAF crew after the first raid on Berlin 25-26 Aug 1940 IWM HU104670

Wellington bomber pilot photographed in his aircraft at a press event after the first raid on Berlin, which took place on the night of 25/26 August 1940.

Imperial War Museum IWM HU 104670 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205229864

Vickers Wellington RAF crews after the first raid on Berlin 25-26 Aug 1940 IWM HU104669

Wellington bomber crews photographed at a press event after the first raid on Berlin, which took place on the night of 25/26 August 1940.

Imperial War Museum IWM HU 104669 https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205229863

Vickers Wellington

  • Role : bomber, anti-submarine aircraft
  • Manufacturer : Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Ltd.
  • Designer : R.K. Pierson
  • First flight : 15 June 1936
  • Introduction : October 1938
  • Retired : March 1953
  • Primary users : Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Fleet Air Arm, Polish Air Forces
  • Produced : 1936–1945
  • Number built : 11,464
  • Variants : Vickers Warwick and Vickers VC.1 Viking

Vickers Wellington

The Vickers Wellington was a British twin-engine, long range medium bomber designed in the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Weybridge, Surrey, by Vickers-Armstrongs' Chief Designer, R. K. Pierson. It was widely used as a night bomber in the early years of the Second World War, before being displaced as a bomber by the larger four-engine "heavies" such as the Avro Lancaster. The Wellington continued to serve throughout the war in other duties, particularly as an anti-submarine aircraft. It was the only British bomber to be produced for the entire duration of the war. The Wellington was popularly known as the Wimpy by service personnel, after J. Wellington Wimpy from the Popeye cartoons and a Wellington "B for Bertie" had a starring role in the 1942 Oscar-nominated Powell and Pressburger film One of Our Aircraft Is Missing. The Wellington was one of two bombers named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, the other being the Vickers Wellesley.

Design and development

Photo: Wellington B Mark IA. The geodesic construction is evident through the perspex windows along the aircraft's side.

Photo:Wellington Mark I aircraft, with the original Vickers turrets, of the RNZAF — anticipating war, the New Zealand government loaned these aircraft and their aircrews to the RAF in August 1939.

Photo: The Merlin-engined Wellington Mark II. This aircraft belongs to No. 104 Sqn.. Notice the criss-cross geodesic construction through the perspex fuselage panels.

Photo: Wellington Mark X HE239 of No.428 Sqn. RCAF, illustrating the geodesic construction and the level of punishment it could absorb while maintaining integrity and airworthiness.

The Wellington used a geodesic construction method, which had been devised by Barnes Wallis inspired by his work on airships, and had previously been used to build the single-engine Wellesley light bomber. The fuselage was built up from 1650 elements, consisting of aluminium alloy (duralumin) W-beams that were formed into a large framework. Wooden battens were screwed onto the aluminium, and these were covered with Irish linen, which, once treated with many layers of dope, formed the outer skin of the aircraft. The metal lattice gave the structure tremendous strength, because any one of the stringers could support some of the weight from even the opposite side of the aircraft. Blowing out one side's beams would still leave the aircraft as a whole intact; as a result, Wellingtons with huge areas of framework missing continued to return home when other types would not have survived; the dramatic effect was enhanced by the doped fabric skin burning off, leaving the naked frames exposed (see photo).

In one case as a result of a fire in the wing caused by battle damage a Wellington co-pilot was forced to climb out of the aircraft while in flight kicking holes in the doped fabric for foot and hand holds and physically smother the burning upper wing covering. The aircraft returned home safely and the airman concerned, Sergeant James Allen Ward was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions.[1]

The geodesic structure also gave a very strong but light structure for its large size, which gave the Wellington a load and range to power ratio advantage over similar aircraft, without sacrificing robustness or protective devices such as armour plate or self-sealing fuel tanks.

However, the construction system also had a distinct disadvantage in that it took considerably longer to build a Wellington than other designs using monocoque construction techniques. Also, it was difficult to cut holes into the fuselage to provide additional access or equipment fixtures. The Leigh light, for instance, was deployed through the mounting for the absent FN9 ventral turret. Nevertheless, in the late 1930s Vickers succeeded in building Wellingtons at a rate of one a day at Weybridge and 50 a month at the Chester factory (located at Broughton in North Wales). Peak wartime production in 1942 saw monthly rates of 70 achieved at Weybridge, 130 at Broughton and 102 at Blackpool.

The Wellington went through a total of 16 variants during its production life plus a further two training conversions after the war. The prototype serial K4049 designed to satisfy Ministry Specification B.9/32, first flew as a Type 271 (and initially named Crecy) from Brooklands on 15 June 1936 with chief test pilot Joseph Summers as pilot. After many changes to the design, it was accepted on 15 August 1936 for production with the name Wellington. The first model was the Wellington Mark I, powered by a pair of 1,050 hp (780 kW) Bristol Pegasus engines, of which 180 were built, 150 for the Royal Air Force and 30 for the Royal New Zealand Air Force (which were transferred to the RAF on the outbreak of war and used by 75 Squadron). The Mark I first entered service with No. 9 Squadron RAF in October 1938. Improvements to the turrets resulted in 183 Mark IA Wellingtons, which equipped the RAF Bomber Command heavy bomber squadrons at the outbreak of war. The Wellington was initially outnumbered by its twin-engine contemporaries, the Handley Page Hampden and the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, but ultimately outlasted them in productive service. The number of Wellingtons built totalled 11,461 of all versions, the last of which was rolled out on 13 October 1945.

Construction record

As a propaganda and morale boosting exercise, in October 1943 workers at the Vickers Broughton factory gave up their weekend to build Wellington number LN514 against the clock. The bomber was assembled in new world record time of 23 hours 50 minutes, and took off after 24 hours 48 minutes, beating the previous record of 48 hours set by an American factory in California. The effort was filmed for the Ministry of Information, forming the basis of a newsreel Worker's Week-End, broadcast in Britain and America.[2][3]

Operational history

The first RAF bombing attack of the war was made by Wellingtons of No. 9 and No. 149 Squadrons, along with Bristol Blenheims, on German shipping at Brunsbüttel on 4 September 1939. During this raid, the two Wellingtons became the first aircraft shot down on the Western Front. Numbers 9, 37 and 149 Squadrons saw action on 18 December 1939 on a mission against German shipping on the Schillig Roads and Wilhelmshaven. Luftwaffe fighters destroyed 12 of the bombers and badly damaged three others; thus highlighting the aircraft's vulnerability to attacking fighters, having neither self-sealing fuel tanks nor sufficient defensive armament. In particular, while the aircraft's nose and tail turrets protected against attacks from the front and rear, the Wellington had no defences against attacks from the beam and above, as it had not been believed that such attacks were possible owing to the high speed of aircraft involved.[4]

As a consequence, Wellingtons were switched to night operations and participated in the first night raid on Berlin on 25 August 1940. In the first 1,000-aircraft raid on Cologne, on 30 May 1942, 599 out of 1,046 aircraft were Wellingtons (101 of them were flown by Polish aircrew).

With Bomber Command, Wellingtons flew 47,409 operations, dropped 41,823 tons (37,941 tonnes) of bombs and lost 1,332 aircraft in action.

Coastal Command Wellingtons carried out anti-submarine duties and sank their first enemy vessel on 6 July 1942. DWI versions (see below) fitted with a 48 ft (14.63 m) diameter metal hoop were used for exploding enemy mines by generating a powerful magnetic field as it passed over them. In 1944, Wellingtons of Coastal Command were deployed to Greece, and performed various support duties during the RAF involvement in the Greek Civil War. A few Wellingtons were operated by the Hellenic Air Force.

While the Wellington was superseded in the European Theatre, it remained in operational service for much of the war in the Middle East, and in 1942, Wellingtons based in India became the RAF's first long-range bomber operating in the Far East. It was particularly effective with the South African Air Force in North Africa. This versatile aircraft also served in anti-submarine duties with 26 Squadron SAAF based in Takoradi, Gold Coast (now known as Ghana).

In late 1944, a radar-equipped Wellington was modified for use by the RAF's Fighter Interception Unit as what would now be described as an Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft.[5] It operated at an altitude of some 4,000 ft (1,219 m) over the North Sea to control de Havilland Mosquito fighters intercepting Heinkel He 111 bombers flying from Dutch airbases and carrying out airborne launches of the V-1 flying bomb.

The Wellington is listed in the appendix to the novel KG 200 as one flown by the German secret operations unit KG 200, which also tested, evaluated and sometimes clandestinely operated captured enemy aircraft during the Second World War.[6]

Variants

Bomber variants

Diagram: Scale comparison diagram of the trio of British twin-engined medium bombers at the outbreak of the Second World War: Wellington (blue), Handley Page Hampden (pink) and Armstrong Whitworth Whitley (yellow).

Type 271
The first Wellington bomber prototype.

Type 285 Wellington Mark I
One pre-production prototype. Powered by two Bristol Pegasus X radial piston engines.

Type 290 Wellington Mark I
The first production version. Powered by two 1,000 hp (750 kW) Bristol Pegasus XVIII radial piston engines. Fitted with Vickers gun turrets, 183 built at Weybridge and Chester.

Type 408 Wellington Mark IA
Production version built to B Mark II specifications with provision for either Pegasus or Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, although only the two 1,000 hp (750 kW) Pegasus XVIII engines were used in practice.[7] Main landing gear moved forward 3 in (8 cm). Fitted with Nash & Thomson gun turrets. 187 built at Weybridge and Chester.

Type 416 Wellington Mark IC
The first main production variant was the Mark IC which added waist guns to the Mark IA. A total of 2,685 were produced. The Mark IC had a crew of six; a pilot, radio operator, navigator/bomb aimer, observer/nose gunner, tail gunner and waist gunner. A total of 2,685 were built at Weybridge, Chester and Blackpool.

Type 406 Wellington Mark II
The B Mark II was identical to the Mark IC with the exception of the powerplant; using the 1,145 hp (855 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin X engine instead. A total of 400 were produced at Weybridge.

Type 417 Wellington B Mark III
The next significant variant was the B Mark III which featured the 1,375 hp (1,205 kW) Bristol Hercules III or XI engine and a four-gun tail turret, instead of two-gun. A total of 1,519 Mark IIIs were built and became mainstays of Bomber Command through 1941. A total of 1,517 were built at Chester and Blackpool.

Type 424 Wellington B Mark IV
The 220 B Mark IV Wellingtons used the 1,200 hp (900 kW) Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp engine and were flown by two Polish squadrons. A total of 220 were built at Chester.

Type 442 Wellington B Mark VI
Pressurised with a long wingspan and 1,600 hp (1,190 kW) Merlin R6SM (60-series, two-stage) engines, 63 were produced and were operated by 109 Squadron and as Gee radio navigation trainers. A total of 63 were built at Weybridge. This is the aircraft that spurred Rolls-Royce into developing the two-stage supercharged Merlin 60-series engine.

Type 440 Wellington B Mark X
The most widely produced variant of which 3,804 were built. It was similar to the Mark III except for the 1,675 hp (1,250 kW) Hercules VI or XVI powerplant and a fuselage structure of light alloy, instead of steel. The Mark X was the basis for a number of Coastal Command versions. A total of 3,803 were built at Chester and Blackpool.

Coastal Command variants

Type 429 Wellington GR Mark VIII
Mark IC conversion for Coastal Command service. Roles included reconnaissance, anti-submarine and anti-shipping attack. A Coastal Command Wimpy was the first aircraft to be fitted with the anti-submarine Leigh light. A total of 307 were built built at Weybridge, 58 fitted with the Leigh Light.

Type 458 Wellington GR Mark XI
Maritime version of B Mark X with an ordinary nose turret and mast radar ASV Mark II instead of chin radome, no waist guns, 180 built at Weybridge and Blackpool.

Type 455 Wellington GR Mark XII
Maritime version of B Mark X armed with torpedoes and with a chin radome housing the ASV Mark III radar, single nose machine gun, 58 built at Weybridge and Chester.

Type 466 Wellington GR Mark XIII
Maritime version of B Mark X with an ordinary nose turret and mast radar ASV Mark II instead of chin radome, no waist guns, 844 built Weybridge and Blackpool.

Type 467 Wellington GR Mark XIV
Maritime version of B Mark X with a chin radome housing the ASV Mark III radar and added RP-3 explosive rocket rails to the wings, 841 built at Weybridge, Chester and Blackpool.

Transport variants

Wellington C Mark XV
Service conversions of the Wellington Mark IA into unarmed transport aircraft; able to carry up to 18 troops.

Wellington C Mark XVI
Service conversions of the Wellington Mark IC into unarmed transport aircraft; able to carry up to 18 troops.

Trainer variants

Type 487 Wellington T Mark XVII
Service conversions of the Wellington bomber into training aircraft with Air Intercept radar; powered by two Bristol Hercules XVII radial piston engines.

Type 490 Wellington T Mark XVIII
Production version. Powered by two Bristol Hercules XVI radial piston engines. A total of 80 were built at Blackpool, plus some conversions.

Wellington T Mark XIX
Service conversions of the Wellington Mark X used for navigation training; remained in use as a trainer until 1953.

Type 619 Wellington T Mark X
Postwar conversions of the Wellington Bomber into training aircraft by Boulton Paul in Wolverhampton.[8] For navigation training the front turret was removed and replaced by a fairing and the interior re-equipped.[8] Some were sold to France and Greece.

Experimental and conversion variants

Type 298 Wellington Mark II prototype
one aircraft L4250; powered by two 1,145 hp (854 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin inline piston engines.

Type 299 Wellington Mark III prototype
two only.

Type 410 Wellington Mark IV prototype
Serial R1220; powered by two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp radial piston engines.

Type 416 Wellington (II)
The original Wellington II prototype was converted with the installation of a 40 mm (1.57 in) Vickers S gun in the dorsal position.

Type 418 Wellington DWI Mark I
Conversion of four Wellington Mark IAs to minesweeping aircraft. Fitted with Ford V-8 petrol engine and Maudsley electrical generator to induce magnetic field in a 48 ft (14.63 m) diameter loop mounted under fuselage. They had a solid nose with a bracket supporting the loop, which was also supported under the rear fuselage and the wings, outboard of the engines. DWI stood for "Directional Wireless Installation" – a cover story for the true purpose of the loop.

Type 419 Wellington DWI Mark II
DWI Mark I aircraft upgraded by installation of De Havilland Gipsy engine for increased generation power. At least 11 further aircraft converted to this standard.[9]

Type 407 and Type 421 Wellington Mark V
Second and first prototypes respectively: three were built, designed for pressurised, high-altitude operations using turbocharged Hercules VIII engines.

Wellington Mark VI
One Wellington Mark V with Merlin 60-series engines, high-altitude prototype only.

Type 449 Wellington Mark VIG
Production version of Type 431. Two aircraft were only built.

Wellington Mark VII
Single aircraft, built as a testbed for the 40 mm Vickers S gun turret.

Type 435 Wellington Mark IC
conversion of one Wellington to test Turbinlite.

Type 437 Wellington Mark IX
one Mark IC conversion for troop transport.

Type 439 Wellington Mark II
one Wellington Mark II was converted with the installation of a 40 mm Vickers S gun in the nose.

Type 443 Wellington Mark V
one Wellington was used to test the Bristol Hercules VIII engine.

Type 445 Wellington (I)
one Wellington was used to test the Whittle W2B/23 turbojet engine, the engine was fitted in the tail of the aircraft.

Type 454 and Type 459 Wellington Mark IX
prototypes with ASV Mark II, ASV Mark III radars, and powered by two Bristol Hercules VI and XVI radial piston engines.

Type 470 and Type 486 Wellington
This designation covers two Wellington Mark II aircraft fitted with the Whittle W2B and W2/700 respectively.

Type 478 Wellington Mark X
one Wellington was used to test the Bristol Hercules 100 engine.

Type 602 Wellington Mark X
one Wellington was fitted with two Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines.

Wellington Mark III
one Wellington was used for glider tug, for glider clearance for Hadrian, Hotspur and Horsa gliders.

Operators

List of Vickers Wellington operators: Australia Canada Czechoslovakia Free France Germany Greece New Zealand Poland Portugal South Africa United Kingdom

Survivors

Photo: Wellington IA N2980 on display at Brooklands

There are two complete surviving Vickers Wellingtons with both preserved in the United Kingdom.[8] Some other substantial parts also survive.[8]

Wellington IA serial number N2980 is on display at Brooklands Museum at Brooklands, Surrey. Built at Brooklands and first flown in November 1939, this aircraft took part in the RAF's daylight bombing raids on Germany early in the Second World War but later lost power during a training flight on 31 December 1940 and ditched in Loch Ness. All the occupants survived except the rear gunner, who was killed when his parachute failed to open. The aircraft was recovered from the bottom of Loch Ness in September 1985 and restored in the late 1980s and 1990s. A new Wellington exhibition around N2980 was officially opened by Robin Holmes (who led the recovery team), Penelope Keith (as trustee of Brooklands Museum), Norman Parker (who worked for Vickers) and Ken Wallis (who flew Wellingtons operationally) on 15 June 2011, the 75th anniversary of the first flight of the type's effective prototype in 1936.

Wellington T.10 serial number MF628 is held by the Royal Air Force Museum.[10] It was delivered to RAF No.18 MU (Maintenance Unit) for storage at RAF Tinwald Downs, Dumfries, as a Wellington B.X, on 11 May 1944.[8] In March 1948 the front gun turret was removed in its conversion to a T.10 for its role as a post-war aircrew trainer; the RAF Museum later refitted the front gun turret in keeping with its original build as a B.X (wartime mark numbers used Roman numerals, Arabic numerals were adopted postwar).[8][10]

In Autumn 2010, this aircraft was taken to the RAF Museum's site at Cosford for restoration over the next four or five years.

Specifications (Wellington Mark IC)

Diagram: Orthographic projection of the Wellington Mark Ia, with profile views of Mark I (Vickers turrets), Mark II (Merlin engines), Mark III (Hercules engines, 4-gun tail turret), GR Mark VIII (maritime Mark Ic, metric radar) and GR Mark XIV (maritime Mark X, centimetric radar)

Data from Vickers Aircraft since 1908 [11]

General characteristics

Crew: six
Length: 64 ft 7 in (19.69 m)
Wingspan: 86 ft 2 in (26.27 m)
Height: 17 ft 5 in (5.31 m)
Wing area: 840 ft² (78.1 m²)
Empty weight: 18,556 lb (8,435 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 28,500 lb (12,955 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Bristol Pegasus Mark XVIII radial engines, 1,050 hp (783 kW) each
Performance:
Maximum speed: 235 mph (378 km/h) at 15,500 ft (4,730 m)
Range: 2,550 mi (2,217 nmi, 4,106 km)
Service ceiling: 18,000 ft (5,490 m)
Rate of climb: 1,120 ft/min (5.7 m/s)
Wing loading: 34 lb/ft² (168 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.08 hp/lb (0.13 kW/kg)
Armament:
Guns: 6-8× .303 Browning machine guns:
2× in nose turret
2× in tail turret[12]
2× in waist positions [13]
Bombs: 4,500 lb (2,041 kg) bombsDesign and development

IL-2 Sturmovik Cliffs of Dover - COD/CLOD skins
 
  CLOD game skin by KF Wellington MkIc RAF generic Coastal Command
  CLOD game skin by KF Wellington MkIc RAF generic Coastal Command V0A

  KF Official 1C Company forum http://forum.1cpublishing.eu/

    Citations:

  1. Richards 1995, p. 115.
  2. Building a bomber plane in just a day. BBC News Magazine, 13 September 2010.
  3. Workers weekend. The National Archives. Retrieved: 23 September 2011.
  4. Richards 1953, p. 46.
  5. Jackson 2007, p. 217.
  6. Gilman and Clive 1978, p. 314.
  7. Andrews 1970, pp. 44–56.
  8. Simpson, Andrew. Vickers Wellington X MF628/9210M: Museum Accession Number 69/A/17. Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved: 13 January 2008.
  9. Pewter Aircraft Wellington DWI page. Pewter Aircraft. Retrieved: 14 January 2008.
  10. Vickers Wellington X. Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved: 13 January 2008.
  11. Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 340.
  12. 4× from Mark III onwards
  13. deleted from Mark III onwards

    Bibliography:

  • Andrews, C.F. The Vickers Wellington I & II (Aircraft in Profile 125). Leatherhead, Surrey: Profile Publications Ltd., 1970, First edition 1967. No ISBN.
  • Andrews, C.F and E.B. Morgan. Vickers Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-815-1.
  • Bowman, Martin. Wellington, The Geodetic Giant. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1989. ISBN 1-85310-076-5.
  • Bowyer, Chaz. Wellington at War. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Ltd., 1982. ISBN 0-7110-1220-2.
  • Bowyer, Chaz. Wellington Bomber. London: William Kimber & Co Ltd., 1986. ISBN 0-7183-0619-8.
  • Cooksley, Peter G. Wellington, Mainstay of Bomber Command. Wellingborough, Northhamptonshire: Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-85059-851-6.
  • Crosby, Francis. The World Encyclopedia of Bombers. London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2007. ISBN 1-84477-511-9.
  • Delve, Ken. Vickers Armstrong Wellington. Ramsbury, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-86126-109-8.
  • Flintham, V. Air Wars and Aircraft: A Detailed Record of Air Combat, 1945 to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 1990. ISBN 0-8160-2356-5.
  • Gilman J.D. and J. Clive. KG 200. London: Pan Books Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
  • Hall, Alan W. Vickers Wellington, Warpaint Series No. 10. Husborne Crawley, Berfordshire: Hall Park Books Ltd., 1997. No ISBN.
  • Jackson, Robert. Britain's Greatest Aircraft. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 2007. ISBN 978-1-84415-383-1.
  • Lihou, Maurice. Out of the Italian Night: Wellington Bomber Operations 1944-45. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-84037-405-5.
  • Lumsden, Alec. Wellington Special. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan Ltd., 1974. ISBN 0-7110-0527-3.
  • Mackay, Ron. Wellington in Action, Aircraft Number 76. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1986. ISBN 0-89747-183-0.
  • Murray, Dr. Iain Bouncing-Bomb Man: The Science of Sir Barnes Wallis. Haynes. ISBN 978-1-84425-588-7.
  • Ovčáčík, Michal and Karel Susa. Vickers-Armstrongs Wellington Medium Bomber variants. Prague, Czech Republic: 4+ Publications, 2003. ISBN 80-902559-7-3.
  • Richards, Denis. The Hardest Victory: RAF Bomber Command in the Second World War. London: Coronet Books, 1995. ISBN 0-340-61720-9.
  • Richards, Denis. Royal Air Force 1939–1945: Volume I The Fight at Odds. London: HMSO, 1953.
  • Tarring, Trevor and Mark Joseland. Archie Frazer-Nash .. Engineer. London: The Frazer Nash Archives, 2011. ISBN 978-0-9570351-0-2.

    Web References: +

  • History of RAF Organisation: http://www.rafweb.org
  • IWM London Lambeth Road London SE1 6HZ Webstite http://www.iwm.org.uk
  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/

 

This webpage was updated 8th November 2021

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