Date:- 8th June - 14th July 1941 Location:- Syria and Lebanon Result:- Allied victory with the Free French control of Syria and Lebanon, shortly followed by their independence
Belligerents: Allied: Axis: Australia Vichy France United Kingdom Syria India Lebanon British Palestine Germany  Assyrian Levies Transjordan Free French Forces Free Czechoslovakia Commanders and Leaders: Allied: Axis: Archibald Wavell  Henri Dentz Henry Maitland Wilson  John Lavarack Paul Legentilhomme Logistics and Forces used - Strength: Allied: Axis: Approximately 34,000 troops[fn1] 45,000 troops[fn3] 50+ Aircraft[fn2] 90 tanks[fn4] 1 Landing Ship 289 Aircraft[fn5] 1+ Cruisers 2 Destroyers[fn6] 6 Destroyers 3 Submarines Casualties and losses Allied: Axis: ~4,052 casualties[fn7] 6,352[fn8] - 8,912 casualties 27 aircraft 179 aircraft[fn9]
The Syria-Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the Allied invasion of Vichy French-controlled Syria and Lebanon in June-July 1941, during World War II. Time Magazine referred to the fighting as a 'mixed show' while it was taking place and the campaign remains little known, even in the countries that took part. There is evidence that Allied censors acted to suppress or reduce reportage of the fierce fighting. Senior Allied commanders and/or politicians believed that knowledge of fighting against French forces could have a negative effect on public opinion in Allied countries.
The Allied offensive was aimed at preventing Nazi Germany from using the Vichy French-controlled Mandate of Syria and Mandate of Lebanon as springboards for attacks on the Allied stronghold of Egypt, as the Allies fought a campaign against Axis forces further west in North Africa. Although the French had ceded autonomy to Syria in September 1936, they had retained treaty rights to maintain armed forces and two airfields in the territory. From 1 April, after a coup d'état, Iraq was controlled by pro-German rebel forces under Rashid Ali, causing eventually the outbreak of Anglo-Iraqi War and the subsequent British victory and control over neighboring Iraq.
In May 1941, Admiral François Darlan signed an agreement with the Germans known as the 'Paris Protocols'. Darlan signed on behalf of Vichy France and the agreement granted the Germans access to military facilities in Syria. Though the protocols were never ratified, Charles Huntziger, the Vichy Minister of War, sent orders to Henri Dentz, the High Commissioner for the Levant. In accordance with these orders, aircraft of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) were allowed to refuel in Syria.
Disguised as Iraqi aircraft, the German and Italian aircraft landed in Syria en route to the Kingdom of Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi War. The Germans also requested permission from the Vichy authorities to use Syrian railways to send armaments to Iraqi rebels in Mosul. There was a threat of Axis support for anti-British parties in Iraq, thus endangering strategic oil supplies and communications. General Archibald Wavell—Commander in Chief of Middle East Command—faced a threat posed by Vichy collaboration with Germany and Italy.
Early air clashes
On 14 May, a British Bristol Blenheim bomber flying a reconnaissance mission over Palmyra spotted a Junkers Ju 90 transport taking off, with more German and Italian aircraft seen later that day, resulting in a strafing mission being authorised later that evening. Attacks against German and Italian aircraft staging through Syria continued, with a total of six Axis aircraft being claimed destroyed by 8 June, while Vichy French forces claiming to have shot down a Blenheim on 28 May, with a further Blenheim being forced down on 2 June. A Vichy French Martin 167F bomber was shot down by the RAF over Palestine on 6 June.
Further information: Syria-Lebanon Campaign order of battle
the Vichy French and Allied forces confronting each other in Syria and Lebanon were fairly evenly matched.
Commander-in-Chief[fn10] Middle East Command: General Sir Archibald Wavell
General Officer Commanding Palestine and Trans-Jordan: General Sir H. Maitland Wilson
South Syria and Lebanon - Australian I Corps (command activated 18 June)
General Officer Commanding I Corps: Lieutenant-General John Lavarack
- Australian 7th Division - Major-General John Lavarack (until 18 June) then Major-General Arthur "Tubby" Allen
- Divisional Troops
- 6th Division Cavalry
- 9th Division Cavalry
- 2/3 Machine Gun battalion
- The Royal Scots Greys and The Staffordshire Yeomanry (composite mechanised regiment detached from British 1st Cavalry Division)
- One squadron, The Royals (detached from 1st Cavalry Division )
- C battalion Special Service Brigade (commandos based in Cyprus for seaborn landings)[fn11]
- Artillery (Brigadier F H Berryman)
- 2/4 Field Regiment
- 2/5 Field Regiment
- 2/6 Field Regiment
- 2/2 Anti-tank Regiment
- 57 Light Anti-aircraft Regiment
- 21st Australian Brigade (Brigadier J E S Stevens)
- 2/14 Infantry battalion
- 2/16 Infantry battalion
- 2/27 Infantry battalion
- 25th Australian Brigade (Brigadier A R Baxter-Cox until 22 June, Brigadier E.C.P. Plant thereafter))
- 2/25 Infantry battalion
- 2/31 Infantry battalion
- 2/33 Infantry battalion
- 17th Australian Brigade (from 28 June) (Brigadier S G Savige)
- 2/3 Infantry battalion
- 2/5 Infantry battalion
- 2/2 Pioneer battalion
- 'Gentforce' (command activated 12 June until 18 June) - Major-General P L Legentilhomme (wounded 12 June and succeeded by Brigadier W L Lloyd until 18 June)
- British 6th Infantry Division (activated 18 June) - Major-General J F Evetts
- British 16th Infantry Brigade (Brigadier C E N Lomax) from 20 June
- 2nd battalion King's Own Royal Regiment
- 2nd battalion Leicestershire Regiment
- 2nd battalion Queen's Royal Regiment
- British 23rd Infantry Brigade (Brigadier A Galloway) from 29 June
- 1st battalion Durham Light Infantry
- 11th Czechoslovakian Infantry Battalion
- 4th battalion Border Regiment
- 5th Indian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier W L Lloyd) (Lieut.-Col. L.B. Jones of 4/6th Rajputana Rifles while Lloyd commanded Gentforce)[fn12]
- 1st battalion Royal Fusiliers
- 3/1st Punjab Regiment
- 4/6th Rajputana Rifles
- 18th Field Company Bombay Sappers and Miners[fn13]
- 1st Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 1st Free French Light Division - Major-General P L Legentilhomme
- Brigade d'Orient
- 1 March Battalion
- 2 March Battalion
- 13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade
- One battery field artillery (4 75 mm guns)
- One company of tanks (9 tanks)
- One anti-tank company
- One battalion Marine Fusiliers[fn14]
- Circassian Cavalry (300 troops) (Colonel Collet)
Elements of Iraq force:
Advancing on the Euphrates
- 10th Indian Infantry Division - Major-General W J Slim
- 13th Duke of Connaught's Own Lancers
- 157th Field Regiment RA
- 21st Indian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier C.J. Weld)
- 2/10th Gurkha Rifles
- 2/4th Gurkha Rifles
- 4/13th Frontier Force Rifles
- 25th Indian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier R Mountain)
- 1/5th Mahratta Light Infantry
- 2/11th Sikh Regiment
- 3/9th Jat Regiment
- 2/8th Gurkha Rifles (detached from 20th Indian Infantry Brigade)
In northern Iraq and the "Duck's Bill" region of Syria
Under command of HQ British Troops Iraq: Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Quinan
- 20th Indian Infantry Brigade (detached from 10th Indian Infantry Division) (Brigadier D Powell)
- 2/7th Gurkha Rifles
- 3/11th Sikh Regiment
- 17th Indian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier Douglas Gracey)
- 1/12th Frontier Force Regiment
- 5/13th Frontier Force Rifles
In Central Syria
- Habforce commanded by Major-General J.G.W. Clark
- British 4th Cavalry Brigade of the British 1st Cavalry Division (Brigadier J.J. Kingstone until 24 June, Brigadier J G E Tiarks from 29 June[fn15])
- Household Cavalry Regiment
- North Somerset Yeomanry
- Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry
- 1st Battalion of the Essex Regiment
- Arab Legion Mechanised Regiment
- 237th Battery, Royal Artillery (60th Field Regiment)
- An Australian battery of 2 pounder anti-tank guns
- 169th Light Anti-aircraft Battery
Vichy French Forces
The Army of the Levant (Armée du Levant) identifies the armed forces of France and then Vichy France which occupied a portion of the "Levant" during the "interwar period" and early World War II. In 1920, the French were given a mandate over Syria and Lebanon by the League of Nations. During this period of time, Syria was known as the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon was known as the French Mandate of Lebanon.
- South Lebanon Sector[fn16]
- Saïda Sub-Sector
- III/22nd Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- I/Colonial Artillery Regiment of the Levant
- I/8th Algerian Spahi Regiment
- II/22nd Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- I/29th Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- I/6th African Chasseur Regiment
- IV/6th Foreign Legion Regiment
- I/24th Mixed Colonial Infantry Regiment
- Foreign Legion Levant Artillery Battalion
- Merdjayoun Sub-Sector
- II/29th Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- I/22nd Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- 1st Lebanese Chasseur Battalion
- II/Colonial Artillery Regiment of the Levant
- South Syria Sector[fn17]
- Direct sector control
- 1st Metropolitan Artillery Regiment of the Levant
- III/17th Senegalese Tirailleur Regiment
- Hauran Sub-Sector
- II/17th Senegalese Tirailleur Regiment
- L'Hermon Sub-Sector
- I/17th Senegalese Tirailleur Regiment
- Sector Reserve
- V/1st Moroccan Tirailleur Regiment
- III/29th Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- I/16th Tunisian Tirailleur Regiment
- III/16th Tunisian Tirailleur Regiment
- II/24th Mixed Colonial Infantry Regiment
- III/24th Mixed Colonial Infantry Regiment
- Levant Cavalry
- 1st Moroccan Spahi Regiment
- 2 March (provisional) Spahi Regiment
- 6th African Chasseur Regiment
- 7th African Chasseur Regiment
- Special Cavalry (Three companies of Méhariste, two companies of Druze, eight various companies stationed in Syria, and twenty companies of Circassians)
- Forces in central Lebanon, mid- to late-June 1941[fn18]
- Task Force Albord
- I/22nd Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- II/29th Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- 1st Lebanese Chasseur Battalion
- III/6th Foreign Legion Regiment
- II/16th Tunisian Tirailleur Regiment
- Task Force Barré
- I/6th Foreign Legion Regiment
- II/17th Senegalese Tirailleur Regiment
- III/17th Senegalese Tirailleur Regiment
- Alep Special Artillery Battalion
- Spahi Cavalry Battalion
- Lehr-Olive Detachments
- I/6th African Chasseur Regiment
- II/24th Colonial Infantry Mixed Regiment
- Task Force Rougie
- II/16th Tunisian Tirailleur Regiment, later replaced by the II/22nd Algerian Tirailleur Regiment
- II/6th Foreign Legion Regiment
Vichy French forces
The High Commissioner of the Levant was General Henri Dentz. Dentz was also Commander in Chief of the Army of the Levant (Armée du Levant). This formation was divided into the regular metropolitan colonial troops and the 'special troops' (troupes speciales, who were indigenous Syrian and Lebanese soldiers).
Dentz had seven infantry battalions of regular French troops at his disposal. These battalions included the 6th Infantry Regiment of the French Foreign Legion and the 24th Colonial Infantry Regiment. Dentz also had eleven infantry battalions of 'special troops', including at least 5,000 cavalry—horse and motorized forces. In addition, Dentz had two artillery groups and supporting units.
The Vichy French Air Force (Armée de l'Air de Vichy) in the Levant was relatively strong at the outbreak of hostilities. Starting with over 90 aircraft, three additional groups were sent from France and from North Africa. This increased the strength of the air force in Lebanon and Syria to 289 aircraft.
Two destroyers and three submarines of the French Navy (Marine Nationale) were available to support the Vichy forces in the Levant.
While German interest in the French mandates of Syria and Lebanon turned out to be limited, Adolf Hitler permitted reinforcement of the French troops by allowing French aircraft en route from Algeria to Syria to safely fly over Axis-controlled territory and refuel in German-controlled Eleusina air base in Greece. The activity of German aircraft based in Greece and the Dodecanese Islands was interpreted by the Allies as being in support of Vichy troops. Although Dentz briefly considered accepting German support, he turned down the offer on 13 June.
Allied forces and planning
Initially, Allied forces to the south of Syria in the British Mandate of Palestine consisted of two main formations under the command of British General Sir Maitland Wilson:
Australian 7th Division (minus the 18th Brigade, which was in North Africa at the Siege of Tobruk)
Gentforce: two Free French brigades of the 1st Free French Division (including two battalions of the 13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade attached to the 1st Free French Brigade)
and the 5th Indian Infantry Brigade (of the 4th Indian Infantry Division) with artillery, engineers and other support services attached to form the '5th Indian Brigade Group'.
Iraq Command—Allied forces in Iraq that were commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Quinan—was used in this campaign to attack northern and central Syria from the east. The Iraq Command formations used in Syria consisted of the following units:
The 10th Indian Infantry Division and elements of the 17th Indian Infantry Brigade (from the 8th Indian Infantry Division)
Habforce: the British 4th Cavalry Brigade and the Arab Legion, under John Glubb ('Glubb Pasha')
Commando and raiding operations were undertaken by the British Army's No. 11 (Scottish) Commando and Palmach, a unit recruited from Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine. Palmach also provided interpreters and guides to other Allied units.
Close air support was provided by squadrons from the Royal Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force and ground forces on the coast were supported by shelling from Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy units. Concerning fighters, Wavell provided Wilson with 70 aircraft. By comparison, the Vichy French had at least 100 fighters. The forces were more evenly matched than numbers alone would indicate, with British Hawker Hurricanes and brand-new, U.S.-built Curtiss Tomahawks, matching up well against French Dewoitine D.520s and Potez 63s.
The Mediterranean Sea was a traditional focus of British maritime power. The Mediterranean Fleet was Britain's instrument of this maritime power.
Allied forces in reserve included the British 6th Infantry Division (including the Czechoslovak 11th Infantry Battalion—East attached to the 23rd Brigade) and the Australian 17th Brigade. In mid-June, the British 6th Infantry Division with two infantry brigades under command came into the line as reinforcements, mainly on the Damascus front and the southern force was placed under the command of Australian I Corps HQ on 18 June.
The Allied plan of attack devised by Wilson called for four lines of advance: on Damascus from Palestine, on Beirut from Palestine, on northern Syria from Iraq and on Palmyra (in central Syria) and Tripoli from Iraq.
The 5th Indian Brigade Group—commanded by Brigadier Wilfrid Lewis Lloyd—were ordered to cross the Syrian border from Palestine and take Quneitra and Deraa. It was anticipated that this would open the way for the 1st Free French Division forces to advance to Damascus. Four days after the commencement of the operation, this force was brought under unified command and was named Gentforce after its French commander, Major-General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme.
The Australian 7th Division—commanded by Major-General John Lavarack (succeeded by Major-General Arthur 'Tubby' Allen on 18 June when Lavarack took over Australian I Corps)— had the responsibility of advancing from Palestine along the coastal road from Haifa towards Beirut. The Australian 21st Brigade was to take Beirut.
The Australian 25th Brigade was to attack the big Vichy French airbase at Rayak. The operation was also to include a supporting commando landing from Cyprus at the south of the Litani River.
Once the two southern prongs were well engaged, it was planned that a third force, comprising formations drawn from Iraq Command, would attack Syria from Iraq. The bulk of 10th Indian Infantry Division—commanded by Major-General William 'Bill' Slim—was to advance northwest up the Euphrates River from Haditha in Iraq (upstream from Baghdad) toward Deir ez Zor and thence to Raqqa and Aleppo to threaten the communication and supply lines of the Vichy forces defending Beirut against the Australians advancing from the south, in particular the railway line running northwards through Aleppo to Turkey (at the time, Turkey was thought by some to be sympathetic to the Vichy government and to Germany).
Meanwhile, a group comprising two infantry battalions from the 10th Indian Division's 20th Indian Infantry Brigade and two from 8th Indian Infantry Division, 17th Indian Infantry Brigade, would operate independently to capture all the territory in north-east Syria. 20th Indian Infantry Brigade were to make a feint from Mosul and the 17th Indian Infantry Brigade would advance into the Bec du Canard (or Duck's Bill) region through which a railway from Aleppo ran eastward to Mosul and then to Baghdad.
Finally, Wilson's plan called for Habforce—consisting of the 4th Cavalry Brigade, the 1st Battalion of the Essex Regiment, the Arab Legion Mechanized Regiment and a battery each of field, anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery—to gather in western Iraq between Rutbah and the Transjordan border.
At the same time as the thrust up the Euphrates, this force would advance in a northwesterly direction to take Palmyra in Syria. Habforce was to secure the oil pipeline from Haditha to Tripoli. Habforce was in Iraq, attached to Iraq Command, because it had previously struck across the desert from the Transjordan border as part of the relief of RAF Habbaniya during the Anglo-Iraqi War.
Main axes of invasion from Iraq
Hostilities commenced on 8 June 1941. The major battles of the campaign were:
Battle of the Litani River (9 June): part of the advance on Beirut from Palestine
Battle of Jezzine (13 June): part of the advance on Beirut from Palestine
Battle of Kissoué (15-17 June): part of the advance on Damascus from Palestine
Battle of Damascus (18-21 June): part of the advance on Damascus from Palestine
Battle of Merdjayoun (19-24 June): part of the advance on Beirut and Damascus from Palestine
Battle of Palmyra (1 July): part of the advance on Palmyra and Tripoli from Iraq
Battle of Deir ez Zor (3 July): part of the advance on central and northern Syria from Iraq
Battle of Damour (5-9 July): part of the advance on Beirut from Palestine
Battle of Beirut (12 July): part of the advance on Beirut from Palestine
War in the air
The initial advantage that the Vichy French Air Force (Armée de l'Air de Vichy) enjoyed did not last long. The Vichy French lost most of their aircraft during the campaign. The majority of the lost aircraft were destroyed on the ground where the flat terrain, absence of infrastructure and absence of modern anti-aircraft (AA) artillery made them vulnerable to air attacks. On 26 June, a strafing run by Tomahawks of No. 3 Squadron Royal Australian Air Force (3 Sqn), on Homs airfield, destroyed five Dewoitine D.520s of Fighter Squadron II/3 (Groupe de Chasse II/3) and damaged six more.
On 10 July, five D.520s attacked Bristol Blenheim bombers from No. 45 Squadron RAF, which were being escorted by seven Tomahawks from 3 Sqn. The French pilots claimed three Blenheims but at least four D.520s were destroyed by the Australians. The following day, a Dewoitine pilot shot down a Tomahawk from 3 Sqn, the only one lost during the campaign.
By the end of the campaign, the Vichy forces had lost 179 aircraft from about 289 committed to the Levant, with remaining aircraft with the range to do so evacuating to Rhodes.
War at sea
The war at sea was not a major part of Operation Exporter but it did play a part. During the Battle of the Litani River, rough seas kept commandos from landing along the coast on the first day of battle. On 9 June 1941, two French destroyers fired on the advancing Australians at the Litani River before being driven off by shore-based artillery fire. The French destroyers—Valmy and Guepard—then exchanged fire with the British destroyer HMS Janus. The New Zealand light cruiser HMNZS Leander came to the aid of Janus along with six additional British destroyers and the French retired.
On 15 June, with or without French approval, the Luftwaffe attempted to come to the aid of the hard-pressed French naval forces. Junkers Ju 88s of II./LG 1 (2nd Group, Lehrgeschwader 1), attacked British warships forces off the Syrian coast. Hits were scored on the destroyers HMS Ilex and Isis. That evening, French aircraft of the 4th Naval Air Group bombed British naval units off of the Syrian coast.
HMS Illex and Iris were towed to Haifa for repairs. Iris returned to service soon thereafter. Illex underwent a series of temporary repairs at Haifa but further temporary repairs had to be made at Suez, Aden, Mombassa and Durban in order for Illex to reach the United States for a refit and full repair.
On 16 June, British torpedo aircraft sank the French destroyer Chevalier Paul. The destroyer was on its way from Toulon to Syria carrying ammunition from Metropolitan France. On the following day, British bombers attacked another French destroyer in the port of Beirut which was also carrying ammunition.
On the night of 22/23 June, Guepard fought with two British cruisers and six destroyers off of the coast of Syria. The French destroyer was able to retire under cover of darkness.
On 25 June, the British submarine HMS Parthian torpedoed and sank the French submarine Souffleur off the Syrian coast; shortly afterward, the French tanker Adour was attacked by British torpedo aircraft. Adour was carrying the entire fuel supply for the French forces in the Middle East and was badly damaged.
During the ceasefire which started on 12 July, Dentz ordered ships and aircraft under his command to go to neutral Turkey where they were interned.
On 10 July, as the Australian 21st Brigade was on the verge of entering Beirut, Dentz sought an armistice. At one minute past midnight on July 12, a ceasefire came into effect. To all intents and purposes, this ended the campaign and an armistice known as Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre (also known as the 'Convention of Acre') was signed on July 14 at the 'Sidney Smith Barracks' on the outskirts of the city of Acre.
The Vichy French forces lost approximately 6,000 men. Of these, roughly 1,000 had been killed. This left 37,736 Vichy French prisoners of war. When given the choice of being repatriated to Metropolitan France or joining the Free French, only 5,668 men chose to join the forces of General Charles De Gaulle. The total number of persons repatriated to Metropolitan France, civilian and military was 37,563. Eight convoys composed of three hospital ships and one 'gleaner' ship sailed for France between 7 August and 27 September 1941 and were cleared without any unfortunate incident.
Prisoners taken by the Vichy French forces were returned as well. It was determined that several British prisoners of war had been sent out of Syria even after the armistice was initialled. The delay in obtaining the return of these prisoners led to the detention in Palestine of Dentz and 29 of his most senior officers. They were released in due course as the British prisoners were returned to Syria.
In late July 1941, De Gaulle flew from Brazzaville to personally congratulate the victors.
Free French General Georges Catroux was placed in control of Syria and Lebanon. On 26 November, shortly after taking up this post, Catroux recognised the independence of Syria and Lebanon in the name of the Free French movement.
On 8 November 1943, after elections, Lebanon became an independent state. On 27 February 1945, it declared war on Germany and the Empire of Japan.
Syria became independent on 1 January 1944. On 26 February 1945, Syria declared war on Germany and Japan.
Victoria Cross recipients
Sir Arthur Roden Cutler, later an Australian diplomat and Governor of New South Wales. A Lieutenant at the time, Cutler was awarded the British Commonwealth's highest award for gallantry, the Victoria Cross (VC), for his actions at the Battle of Merdjayoun. Cutler lost a leg as a consequence of the fighting. Jim Gordon, Australian Private soldier, awarded the VC for his actions at the Battle of Jezzine.
Frank Berryman, later a prominent Australian General.
Moshe Dayan, later Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and future Israeli Defense Minister and Foreign Minister, who lost an eye while serving as an interpreter with an Australian unit. Dayan received the Military Cross for his actions in the campaign.
Roald Dahl, a fighter pilot at the time who had previously fought in the Greek campaign, later a prominent British author.
Bobby Gibbes, member of No. 3 Squadron RAAF, who claimed the first of 10 victories during the campaign and went on to become the squadron's longest-serving wartime commander.
Sir John Hackett, an Australian-born junior officer in the British Army at the time; prominent after the war as both a British General and author. Hackett was wounded during the campaign.
Pierre Le Gloan, French air ace, who served on the Vichy side during the campaign. He shot down seven Allied aircraft.
Paddy Mayne, British Special Air Service (SAS) officer.
Yitzhak Rabin, later an Israeli General, Chief of the General Staff of the IDF, and twice prime minister of Israel.
Stanley Savige, commander of the Australian 17th Brigade, later a prominent Australian General.
Lt Col (then Capt) John Masters DSO, Adjutant 2/4th Prince of Wales's Own Gurkha Rifles, later prominent author who wrote of his involvement in the campaign in 'The Road Past Mandalay'.
Geoffrey Keyes, celebrated British commando officer involved with the crossing of the Litani River. In November 1941 in operations against German General Erwin Rommel in North Africa Keyes was awarded the VC posthumously.
Raphaël Onana, a Camerounian staff sergeant.
Syria-Lebanon Campaign series of Photographs
Australian 7th Division troops among the ruins of the old Crusader castle at Sidon Lebanon July 1941 01
Australian 7th Division lead by Major General A. S. 'Tubby' Allen September 2, 1941
Photo: Hammana, Lebanon. September 2, 1941. Major General A. S. "Tubby" Allen (centre), commander of the Australian 7th Division, with Lt Colonel Murray Moten (centre right), commander of the 2/27th Infantry Battalion and his men. (Photographer: Frank Hurley)
The fall of Damascus to the Allies late June 1941
Photo: The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying the Free French commanders, General Georges Catroux and Major-General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme, enters the city. They are escorted by Vichy French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess). Australian War Memorial
Australian troops with Morane-Saulnier MS.406C1 fighters of Groupe de Chasse I/7, Syria, in July 1941
Photo: Australian troops with Morane-Saulnier MS.406C1 fighters of Groupe de Chasse I/7, Syria, in July 1941
Dewoitine D520 Vichy French Air Force GCII.3 Lt Lete W1 Syria Lebanon campaign 11th July 1941 0A
Dewoitine D520 Vichy French Air Force GCIII.6 White 12 and 6 Syria Lebanon campaign 11th July 1941 01
LeO 451 Vichy French Air Force during the WWII Syria Lebanon Campaign 8 June 14 July 1941 01
Artwork Hawker Hurricane MkI Trop RAF 3Sqn OS B FLt J Perrin P3967 Libya 5th May 1941 0A
Curtiss Tomahawk 81a RAAF 3Sqn Alan Rawlinson AK446 Palestine 1941 0A
Photo and Profile Source: Revi 84 2011
Vichy French R35 with the 63e BCC captured by Australian 7th Division near Tyre Lebanon IWM
Photo: A captured French R35 is repaired by Australian troops of the 7th Division Recovery Section near Tyre following the summer fighting in the Levant. This tank originally served with the 63e BCC prior to the tanks being assigned to the 6e RCA after the armistice. (Australian War Memorial)
Photo Source: IWM FRENCH TANKS OF WORLD WAR II (2) NEW VANGUARD 213 Osprey Publishing www.ospreypublishing.com
Notes on the Syria-Lebanon Campaign
- 18,000 Australians, 9,000 British, 2,000 Indian and 5,000 Free French.
- Air support was provided by the Royal Navy's No.815 Naval Air Squadron (Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers) based in Cyprus, No. 84 Squadron RAF, based in Iraq Bristol Blenheim bombers  Fighter support was provided by No. 3 Squadron RAAF, operating Curtiss Tomahawks.
- 35,000 regular soldiers (including 8,000 French infantry) and 10,000 Levantine infantry.
- The British believed that there was at least 90 tanks supporting the Vichy forces in Syria.
- The Vichy air force in Syria consisted of around 30 bombers and 60 fighters. The air force was nearly doubled in size as the campaign progressed due to reinforcements being flown in from French North Africa (see text).
- The Guépard and the Valmy
- 1,552 Australian casualties (416 killed and 1,136 wounded). ~1,300 Free French casualties. 1,200 British and Indian casualties. A further 3,150 Australians fell sick during the campaign, this figure has been excluded from the battle casualties.
- 521 killed, 1,037 missing, 1,790 wounded and 3,004 captured.
- Most destroyed on the ground.
- Playfair Vol. 1, p. 63
- Playfair (1956), pp. 204 & 206
- Playfair (1956), p. 212
- Playfair (1956), p. 207
- Playfair (1956), p. 220
- Long (1953), p. 441
- Gaujac, pp. 20-21.
- Gaujac, pp. 24-25.
- Gaujac, p. 31.
Citations on the Syria-Lebanon Campaign
- Major Allan A. Katzberg (US Marine Corps), 1988, Foundations Of Excellence: Moshe Dayan And Israel's Military Tradition (1880 To 1950)
- Brief involvement of Luftwaffe, June 15, 1941
- Playfair, Chapter X
- a b c Playfair, p. 206
- a b c d e f g Long, p. 526
- a b Long, pp. 333-334
- Long, p. 334
- Playfair, p. 200
- Long, p. 363
- Playfair, p. 222
- a b Mollo, p.146
- Playfair, p. 203
- Time Magazine, Mixed Show
- Brune, p.48
- Keegan p. 676
- Shores and Ehrengardt Air Pictorial July 1970, p.242.
- Shores and Ehrengardt Air Pictorial July 1970, pp. 242-244.
- a b c d Mollo, p.144
- Shores & Ehrengardt p. 30
- de Wailly, Henri, Syrie 1941, la guerre occultée, p. 246
- Long (1953), p. 338
- Long (1953), p. 413
- Playfair, p. 217
- Mackenzie, p. 121
- Shores & Ehrengardt p. 94
- a b c Herington 1954, p. 94
- Brown 1983, p. 17.
- Shores and Ehrengardt Air Pictorial August 1970, pp. 283-284.
- a b c Piekałkiewicz, p. 144
- Piekałkiewicz, p. 146
- Piekałkiewicz, p. 147
- Time Magazine, Acre Pact
- Auchinleck, p. 4216
- Auchinleck, p. 4217
- Time Magazine, Reconquering an Empire
- Time Magazine, Free Again
Reference Journals on the Syria-Lebanon Campaign: +
- Auchinleck, Claude (1946). Despatch on Operations in the Middle East From 5th July, 1941 to 31st October 1941. London: War Office. in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37695. pp. 4215-4230. 20 August 1946
- Brune, Peter (2003). A bastard of a Place: The Australians in Papua. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
- Keegan, John (2005). In Dear, I.C.B.; Foot, M.R.D. Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 1064 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-280670-3.
- Long, Gavin (1953). "Chapters 16 to 26". Volume II - Greece, Crete and Syria (1st edition, 1953). Official Histories - Second World War. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- Mackenzie, Compton (1951). Eastern Epic. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 623 pages.
- Mollo, Andrew (1981). The Armed Forces of World War II. Crown. ISBN 0-517-54478-4.
- Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; with Flynn R.N., Captain F.C.; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshal S.E. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1956]. In Butler, J.R.M. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-066-1.
- Piekałkiewicz, Janusz (1987). Sea War: 1939-1945. London - New York: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-1665-7.
- Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (July 1970). "Syrian Campaign, 1941: Part 1: Forestalling the Germans; air battles over S. Lebanon". Air Pictorial 32 (7): pp. 242-247.
- Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (August 1970). "Syrian Campaign, 1941: Part 2: Breaking the Back of Vichy air strength; conclusion". Air Pictorial 32 (8): pp. 280-284.
- Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (1987). L' aviation de Vichy au combat 2 La campagne de Syrie, 8 juin - 14 juillet 1941 (in French). Paris: Lavauzelle. ISBN 978-2-7025-0171-9.
- Wavell, Archibald (1946). Despatch on Operations in Iraq, East Syria and Iran from 10th April, 1941 to 12th January, 1942. London: War Office. in The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37685. pp. 4093-4102. 13 August 1946. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
Reference Journals on the Syria-Lebanon Campaign: +
- Bou-Nacklie, N. E. (1994). "The 1941 Invasion of Syria and Lebanon: The Role of the Local Paramilitary". Middle Eastern Studies. 30 (3): 512–529. doi:10.1080/00263209408701009. ISSN 1743-7881.
- Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (July 1970). Part I. "Syrian Campaign, 1941: Forestalling the Germans: Air Battles Over S. Lebanon". Air Pictorial. 32 (7): 242–247. OCLC 29897622.
- Shores, Christopher F.; Ehrengardt, Christian-Jacques (August 1970). Part II. "Syrian Campaign, 1941: Breaking the Back of Vichy Air Strength Conclusion". Air Pictorial. 32 (8): 280–284. OCLC 29897622.
Web References on the Syria-Lebanon Campaign: +
- Wikipedia.org - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syria%E2%80%93Lebanon_campaign
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