Unit: 74 Squadriglia
Serial: 74-2 (MM7913)
Pilot - CO of 74 Sqn. Ten. Giorgio Solaroli. Tunisia, January 1943. Camouflage: uppersurfaces - Nocciola Chiaro 4 with stripes of Verde Oliva Scuro 2; undersides - Grigio Azzuro Chiaro. Typical painting scheme for Breda built aircraft.
Artist: © Krzysztof Wolowski Source: 'Macchi C.202 Folgore' by Przemislaw Skulsky. Published in Poland in 2005 by STRATUS Artur Juszczak, Po. Box 123, 27-600 Sandomierz 1, Poland for Mushroom Model Publications. (c) 2005 Mushroom Model Publications. ISBN 83-89450-06-2.

Macchi C.202 Folgore 3 ° Stormo 75° Squadriglia 3S75SA 75 Pilot Filippi Abu Haggag airfield, North Africa 1942
Unit: 75 Squadriglia, 23 Gruppo, 3 Stormo Caccia Terrestre
Serial: 75-10 (MM6380) Abu Haggag airfield, North Africa, July 1942.
Artist: © Roberto Gualdoni Source: "Aermacchi C.202" by Gianni Cattaneo and Giovanni Massimello. Ali d'Italia. Collana di monografie aeronautiche diretta da Giorgio Apostolo. (c) La Bancarella Aeronautica - Torino, 2006.


3 Stormo

23 Gruppo


75 Squadriglia

  23 Gruppo CT Squadriglie 70, 74, 75 Stormo 3

23 Gruppo CT Squadriglie 70, 74, 75 Stormo 3
Arrival Base Country Aircraft Zone Duties
9 Jun 1940 Cervere Italy CR 42 SQA1 GA. AE, DF
21 Jun 1940 Torino-Mirafiori Italy CR 42 SQA1 IT
22 Jun 1940 Villanova d’Albenga Italy CR42 SQA1 DF
25 Jun 1940 Torino-Mirafiori Italy CR 42 Ca 133 SQA1 TG
9 Jul 1940 Campiglia Italy CR 42 SQA1 IT
9 Jul 1940 Capodichino Italy CR 42 SQA3 IT
10 Jul 1940 Reggio Calabria Italy CR 42 SQA2 IT
11 Jul 1940 Comiso Sicily CR 42 SQA2 AE. DF
16 Dec 1940 Castelbenito Tripolitan CR 42 SQA5 IT
19 Dec 1940 Ain el Gazala Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 IT
20 Dec 1940 Derna Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 DF. AE
1 Jan 1941 Ain el Gazala Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 DF. AE
5 Jan 1941 Tmimi Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 AE
6 Jan 1941 Derna Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 AE
7 Jan 1941 Berka Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 AE. DF
9 Jan 1941 Benghasi K 2 Cirenaica CR 42 SQA5 DF
4 Feb 1941 Uadi Tarnet Tripolitan CR 42 SQA5 DF
6 Feb 1941 Sorman Tripolitan CR 42 SQA5 DF
1 Mar 1941 Comiso Sicily CR 42 Re 2000 ASIC DF. AE. AR
19 Apr 1941 Pantelleria Pantelleria CR 42 ASIC CE
21 Jun 1941 Boccadifalco Sicily CR 42 MC 200 Re 2000 ASIC DF. NF, TG
12 Dec 1941 Castelbenito Tripolitan CR42 MC 200 SQA5 DF
13 Dec 1941 Misurata Tripolitan CR 42 MC 200 SQA5 CE
24 Dec 1941 Trapani-Milo Sicily CR 42 MC 200 ASIC DF
27 Dec 1941 Torino-Mirafiori Italy MC 200 G 50 bis MC 202 SQA1 TG
Jul 1942 Ciampino Italy MC 202 SQA3 IT
Jul 1942 Capodichino Italy MC 202 SQA3 IT
Jul 1942 Gerbini Sicily MC 202 ASIC IT
Jul 1942 Gela Sicily MC 202 ASIC IT
Jul 1942 Pantelleria Pantelleria MC 202 ASIC IT
Jul 1942 Castelbenito Tripolitan MC 202 SQA5 IT
16 Jul 1942 Abu Haggag Egypt MC 202 SQA5 GA. DF, AE
22 Oct 1942 Abu Nimeir Egypt MC 202 SQA5 DF
1 Nov 1942 Abu Smeit Egypt MC 202 SQA5 DF
5 Nov 1942 Bir el Astas Egypt MC 202 SQA5 IT
6 Nov 1942 Bu Amud Cirenaica MC 202 SQA5 DF
10 Nov 1942 Benghasi Cirenaica MC 202 SQA5 IT
11 Nov 1942 En Nofilia Tripolitan MC 202 SQA5 GA
16 Nov 1942 Tauorga Tripolitan MC 202 SQA5 DF
17 Jan 1943 Castelbenito Tripolitan MC 202 SQA5 DF
19 Jan 1943 Medenine Tunisia MC 202 ATUN DF. AE. GA
7 Feb 1943 El Hamma Tunisia MC 202 ATUN DF
26 Mar 1943 Achichma Tunisia MC 202 SQA5 DF
30 Mar 1943 Castelvetrano Sicily MC 202 ASIC IT
Apr 1943 Torino-Caselle Italy MC 202 SQA1 DF
18 Jun 1943 Milano-Bresso Italy MC 202 SQA1 DF
28 Jun 1943 Ciampino Sud Italy MC 202 SQA3 DF
5 Jul 1943 Cerveteri Italy MC 202 MC.205V Me 109 G. F SQA3 DF. TG

At the start of the war. the Gruppo carried out strafing attacks on bases in southern France and escorted bombers. Bad weather hindered early operations, making Cervere particularly impractical. Combats were fought with French fighters. Notably on 15 June with GC III/6. who claimed four CR 42s and three BR20s for the loss of two D 520s. The Italian losses were actually five fighters and one bomber.

Border patrols were flown in the latter stages of the campaign. After the armistice, a detachment was sent to Bresso to form a Sezione Caccia Noturne, for the night defence of Milano.

Then the unit became Autonomo and moved to Sicily. They made their first raid on Malta on 12 July, claiming a Hurricane. They also escorted bombers, recce planes and rescue aircraft in Maltese skies. At this time claims were made by both sides that aircraft with ‘Red Cross' insignia were being shot at and/or used for non-rescue-evacuation purposes. Both probably without foundation. In November, the unit escorted 97 Gruppo's Ju 87s against shipping south of Malta.

The next month, they moved to the African front with their Fiats and attendant Capronis. They left behind a small Nucleo of pilots and aircraft, which evolved into 156 Gruppo on 20 January 1941. Some fighters used base Z 1. near Gazala. for strafing duties on 17 December. Three days later the Gruppo was at Derna. Their first big operation was on 25 December, escorting 15 Stormo over Solium port. On I March, two S 79s of the SAS transferred the personnel and crews from Sorman to Comiso. The CR 42s were left to 18 Gruppo and part of 151 Gruppo.

After a rest the men rejoined the unit on 1 April, and took over the equipment of 156 Gruppo, which disbanded on the 8th. That month, some of the Gruppo pilots were formed into a Sezione Sperimentale with six Re 2000 Serie I fighters. Although a better aircraft than the MC 200. it lost the major production contract and only a limited number were built for the Italian forces. (It did serve well with the Hungarian Air Force, however). The Sezione was attached to 23 Gruppo. becoming 377 sq CT on 1 August, then leaving to become Autonomo on 28 December.

Meanwhile, on 19 April. 75 sq and part of 74 sq moved to Pantelleria for convoy escorts between Naples and Tripoli. The unit was spread between Pantelleria (74 and 75 sq convoy escorts). Trapani-Milo (70 sq defence), and Palermo (Sez Sperim defence) for the next four months.

On 27 September a CR 42 was shot down by Italian naval antiaircraft fire while on convoy escort. This raised the usual interservice arguments which the leaders never seemed to solve. That same month the unit received some MC 200s. These were used on day and night training at Boccadifalco.

On 12 December the unit took 14 CR 42s and seven MC 200s to Libya, leaving the Re 2000s and a CR 42 at Milo with 377 sq. Twelve days later, after coastal defence work, they returned to Sicily. S 82s were used at this stage, for personnel transport.

Reuniting in Italy, they received five G 50 bis for training. Some pilots went to Bresso, using MC 200s to defend Milano from February to May 1942. The rest of the unit underwent intensive training. On 15 May they rejoined a reformed 3 Stormo under Squadra 1, along with 18 Gruppo. By this time they had 12 G 50 bis and one MC 200. The pilots were also called on to ferry these types to Libya in this period. On 22 May. the first MC 202 was received, being passed from 20 Gruppo to 70 sq. The Gruppo was intended to join operations over Malta, but the African front was in more urgent need of fighters. So. on 8 July, leaving the G 50 bis at Mirafiori. 75 sq moved south, picking up new MC 202s at Ciampino and Capodichino along the way. On the 11th and 14th. 74 and 70 sq followed a similar route, rejoining 75 sq at Abu Haggag by 16 July.

They claimed a P-40 on their first sorties, the next day. The new fighters were set to escorting CR 42s of 50 Stormo. and MC 200s °f 18 Gruppo. on fighter-bomber raids. Operating under 4 Stormo until 25 July, they returned to 3 Stormo control. For the next two months there were many dogfights with P-40s. Spitfires. Martlets and Hurricanes. The CO of Squadra 5 sent them congratulations on 31 July for five claims without loss. The MC 202s had problems with the sandy conditions. 10 being forced down at Derna on 31 August, during a sandstorm. The aircraft had been rushed to the frontline before sandfilters could be installed. This had to be remedied under operational conditions, despite the heavy involvement in the Alamein battles.

During the second battle (30 August to 5 September) the unit kept 60% serviceability, claiming 18 aircraft for the loss of three in 175 sorties. One of the pilots went to the assistance of a German pilot who was cornered in a dogfight. The German was none other than Hans Joachim Marseille, the top-scoring ace of the Desert War (157 claims)! In gratitude, his unit. I/JG 27. sent the Gruppo a crate of champagne.

Heavy rain now made the bases less efficient and night bombing raids caused casualties. Many aircraft were destroyed and damaged by bombing on 21 October, so the unit moved the next day. Serviceability was now down to 40%. with a daily average of 12 to 15 aircraft available.

On 5 November the unit, one of the last to pull out of the forward area, withdrew to Bir el Astas. 40 km from Marsa Matruh. The ground staff went straight to Bu Amud. joined by the aircraft and pilots the next day. The unit helped delay the Allied advance across Libya, by constantly strafing the forward troops. On 3 December 70 sq was detached to Castelbenito for the defence of Tripoli. The rest of the Gruppo joined them on 17 January. 4 Stormo left for Italy, passing its remaining MC 202s to 23 and 18 Gruppi. On 19 January, 74 and 75 sq moved into Tunisia. 70 sq. and 83 sq of 18 Gruppo. followed the next day. being the last Italian air units in Libya.

During the Tunisian phase. P-38s were met for the first time. They initially proved easier to shoot down than other fighter types. 70 sq was known to use a FN 305 liaison aircraft at this time and 75 sq was detached to Sfax during January and February . By the end of March the personnel flew to Sicily in S 82s, leaving their aircraft to 54 Stormo.

Re-equipping in Italy, they sent sections to Bresso and Lonate Pozzolo for local defence. Then the unit reunited at Ciampino from 28 June for the defence of Rome. Some Me 109 Gs and a Me 109 F arrived early in July and joined in bomber interceptions. By the start of August half a dozen MC.205V Serie III were also received. All three types were now used on bomber intercepts, mainly against the B 17s and B 24s.

The unit was meant to move to Sardinia on 21 August, but the chaotic situation prevented this. On 7 September, the unit had eight MC 202s and two MC.205Vs operational.

 Flight Simulators

   IL-2 Sturmovik 'Cliff's of Dover' Blitz

   IL-2 Sturmovik Battle of Stalingrad

   DCS World - has no 3D model


Regia Aeronautica Aces (World War II)
Ace No of Kills
Teresio Vittorio Martinoli22 kills
Franco Lucchini22 kills (1 in Spain)
Leonardo Ferrulli21 kills (1 in Spain)
Franco Bordoni-Bisleri19 kills
Luigi Gorrini19 kills
Mario Visintini17 kills
Ugo Drago17 kills
Mario Bellagambi14 kills
Luigi Baron14 kills
Luigi Gianella12 kills
Attilio Sanson12 kills
Willy Malagola11 Kills
Carlo Magnaghi11 kills
Angelo Mastroagostino11 kills
Giorgio Solaroli di Briona11 kills
Mario Veronesi11 kills
Fernando Malvezzi10 kills
Giulio Reiner10 kills
Giuseppe Robetto10 kills
Carlo Maurizio Ruspoli di Poggio Suasa10 kills
Massimo Salvatore10 kills
Claudio Solaro10 kills
Ennio Tarantola10 kills
Giulio Torresi10 kills
Adriano Visconti10 kills


 Italy Map


    Macchi C.202 Folgore Bibliography:

  • Angelucci, Enzo and Paolo Matricardi. World Aircraft: World War II, Volume I (Sampson Low Guides). Maidenhead, UK: Sampson Low, 1978. ISBN 978-0-528-88170-1.
  • Bergström, Christer. Stalingrad—The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943. Hinckley, UK: Midland, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4.
  • Beurling, George and Leslie Roberts. Malta Spitfire: The Story of a Fighter pilot. New York/Toronto: Farrar & Rinehart Inc., 1943. NO ISBN.
  • Borgiotti, Alberto and Cesare Gori. Le Macchine e la Storia, Profili 1: Macchi MC 202 Folgore (in Italian). Modena, Italy: STEM-Mucchi, 1970. No ISBN.
  • Caruana, Richard J. Victory in the Air. Malta: Modelaid International Publications, 1996. ISBN 1-871767-12-1.
  • Cattaneo, Gianni. "The Macchi C.202." Aircraft in Profile no.28. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications, 1971.
  • Ciampaglia, Giuseppe. "La Produzione Aeronautica nella II GM." (in Italian)." RID, May 1994.
  • De Marchi, Italo and Pietro Tonizzo. Macchi MC. 200 / FIAT CR. 32 (in Italian). Modena, Italy: Edizioni Stem Mucchi 1994. NO ISBN.
  • Duma, Antonio. Quelli del Cavallino Rampante – Storia del 4° Stormo Caccia Francesco Baracca (in Italian). Roma: Aeronautica Militare – Ufficio Storico, 2007. NO ISBN.
  • Dunning, Chris. Solo coraggio! La storia completa della Regia Aeronautica dal 1940 al 1943 (in Italian). Parma, Italy: Delta Editrice, 2000. No ISBN.
  • Ethell, Jeffrey L. Aircraft of World War II. Glasgow: HarperCollins/Jane’s, 1995. ISBN 0-00-470849-0.
  • Ethell, Jeffrey L. and Joe Christy. P-40 Hawks at War. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan Ltd, 1979. ISBN 0-7110-0983-X.
  • Gentilli, Roberto and Luigi Gorena. Macchi C.202 In Action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-89747-100-8.
  • Ghergo, Federico. "La Caccia Italiana 1940–43" (in Italian). Storia Militare, February 2006.
  • Glancey, Jonathan. Spitfire: The Illustrated Biography. London: Atlantic Books, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84354-528-6.
  • Green, William. "The Macchi-Castoldi Series". Famous Fighters of the Second World War, vol.2. London: Macdonald, 1962. No ISBN.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
  • Jackson, Robert. The Forgotten Aces. London: Sphere Books Ltd, 1989. ISBN 0-7474-0310-4.
  • Malizia, Nicola. Aermacchi Bagliori di Guerra – Flashes of War (Macchi MC.200- MC.202 – MC.205/V) (in Italian). Rome: Ibn Editore, 2002. ISBN 88-7565-030-6.
  • Malizia, Nicola. "L'armamento Dei Velivoli Della Regia Aereonautica" (in Italian). Storia Militare, Sebtembre 1997.
  • Marcon, Tullio. "Hawker in Mediterraneo (in Italian)." Storia Militare N.80.
  • Massiniello, Giorgio. "Lo Sviluppo del (Macchi) Veltro (in Italian)." Storia Militare, N.150.
  • Massiniello, Giorgio. "Via da Korba, con ogni mezzo" (in Italian). Storia Militare 1996 (31). Parma, Italy: Ermanno Albertelli Ed.
  • Mattioli, Mario. "L'esordio del Macchi C 202" (in Italian). Storia Militare, 1996. Parma, Italy: Ermanno Albertelli Ed.
  • Matricardi, Paolo. Aerei Militari: Caccia e Ricognitori (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Mondadori Electa Editore, 2006.
  • Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7537-1460-4.
  • Neulen, Hans Werner. In the Skies of Europe. Ramsbury, Marlborough, UK: The Crowood Press, 2000. ISBN 1-86126-799-1.
  • Nijboer, Donald: "Spitfire V vs C.202 Folgore – Malta 1942 (Osprey Duel ; 60)". Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2014. ISBN 978-1-78200-356-4
  • Nolan, Brian. Hero: The Buzz Beurling Story. London: Penguin Books, 1981. ISBN 0-14-006-266-1.
  • Palermo, Michele (2014). Eagles over Gazala: Air Battles in North Africa, May–June 1942. Roma: IBN Editore. ISBN 88-7565-168-X.
  • Pesce, Giuseppe and Giovanni Massimello. Adriano Visconti Asso di Guerra (in Italian). Parma, Italy: Albertelli Edizioni speciali s.r.l., 1997.
  • Rogers, Anthony: Battle over Malta: Aircraft Losses & Crash Sites 1940–42 London: Sutton Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7509-2392-X.
  • Savic, Dragan and Boris Ciglic. Croatian Aces of World War II (Osprey Aircraft of the Aces-49). Oxford, UK: Oxford, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-435-3.
  • Sgarlato, Nico. "Macchi Folgore" (in Italian). Aerei Nella Storia 1998 (8): 8–20. Parma, Italy: West-Ward sas.
  • Sgarlato, Nico. "Macchi Folgore" (in Italian). Publisher unknown, 2008.
  • Sgarlato Nico. "Reggiane fighters (Delta Editions)" (in Italian). Monography N.17, July 2005.
  • Shores, Christopher, Brian Cull and Nicola Malizia. Malta: The Hurricane Years (1940–1941). London: Grub Street, 1987. ISBN 0-948817-06-2.
  • Shores, Christopher, Brian Cull and Nicola Malizia. Malta: The Spitfire Year (1942). London: Grub Street, 1991. ISBN 0-948817-16-X.
  • Skulski, Przemysław. Macchi C.202 Folgore(in English). Petersfield, Hampshire: Mushroom Model Publications, 2012. ISBN 978-83-614-21-66-5.
  • Skulski, Przemysław. Macchi C.202 Folgore, seria "Pod Lupa" 7(in Polish). Wrocław, Poland: Ace Publications, 1997. ISBN 83-86153-55-5.
  • Skulski, Przemysław. Macchi C.202 Folgore(in Polish). Sandomierz, Poland/Redbourn, UK: Stratus/Mushroom Model Publications, 2005. ISBN 83-89450-06-2.
  • Skulski, Przemysław. Macchi C.202 FOLGORE. MMPBOOKS, 2012. ISBN 978-83-61421-66-5.
  • Snedden, Robert. World War II Combat Aircraft. Bristol, UK: Parragon, 1997. ISBN 0-7525-1684-1.
  • Spick, Mike. Allied Fighter Aces of World War II. London: Greenhill Books, 1997. ISBN 1-85367-282-3.
  • Williams, Anthony G. and Dr. Emmanuel Gustin. Flying Guns: World War II – Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and Istallations 1933–1945. Ramsbury, Marlborough, UK: The Crowood Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-84037-227-4.
  • Winchester, Jim. "Macchi M.C.202 and M.C.205V." Aircraft of World War II: The Aviation Factfile. Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.

    Magazine References: +

  • Airfix Magazines (English) - http://www.airfix.com/
  • Avions (French) - http://www.aerostories.org/~aerobiblio/rubrique10.html
  • FlyPast (English) - http://www.flypast.com/
  • Flugzeug Publikations GmbH (German) - http://vdmedien.com/flugzeug-publikations-gmbh-hersteller_verlag-vdm-heinz-nickel-33.html
  • Flugzeug Classic (German) - http://www.flugzeugclassic.de/
  • Klassiker (German) - http://shop.flugrevue.de/abo/klassiker-der-luftfahrt
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://boutique.editions-lariviere.fr/site/abonnement-le-fana-de-l-aviation-626-4-6.html
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://www.pdfmagazines.org/tags/Le+Fana+De+L+Aviation/
  • Osprey (English) - http://www.ospreypublishing.com/
  • Revi Magazines (Czech) - http://www.revi.cz/

    Web References: +

  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macchi_C.202_Folgore


This webpage was updated 21st December 2021