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13 Staffel IV. Gruppe Jagdgeschwader 52 (Slowakenstaffel) - 13./JG52(Slow)

Messerschmitt Bf 109G4R6 13.JG52(Slow) Yellow 9 Jan Reznak WNr 19347 Anapa USSR spring 1943

Source: Magazine HPM Dec 1993

 Messerschmitt Bf 109 G Gustav

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Jan Reznak

Asisbiz database list of 32 aerial victories for Jan Reznak

A "small band" of Slovak fighter pilots, fought on the face Is against the "Soviet hordes" at the side of the pilots of Luftwaffe. Equipped with Bf109 G, they were illustrated in particular in the Crimea in 1943. Fantastic Jan Reznak finished the war with 32 victories over this type of apparatuses; what does one of the largest nonGerman European ace of it.

J Reznak was born on April 14, 1919 in Jablonica. It began its career from aviator on June 21, 1938 on the aerodrome of Vajnory. It continued its training within the 32nd air regiment with Spi?ská Nová Ves then in Pie?ťany. Withclose the proclamation of independence on March 14, 1939, Slovakia decided to be combined in Germany. The 3rd regiment of the Czechoslovakian air force which was then based on the ground Slovaque (Piest' any) fell immediately under the jurisdiction from the Ministry for local Defense. The Slovak pilots will continue to fly on board obsolete apparatuses during several years. It will be still the case at the beginning of the invasion of Russia. Fortunately the German advisers of Luftwaffe in station as Slovakia will decide at the end of the year 41 to replace all the old cuckoos by of Messerschmitt. Thus 19 pilots and 88 mechanics directed by the Dumbala Captain were sent to Karup-Grove in Denmark for an initiation with the BF109. The small Slovaque troop is assigned with the 5.staffel/Jagdfliegerschule 3 to learn the handling from the planes Messerschmitt model D and E It is there that Jan Reznak will make the experiment of the German military discipline. There was a strict rule which prohibited to all the pupil-pilots to carry out acrobatics on board Bf109 during the period of training but this burned head of Reznak passed in addition to this order. May 8 42, it launched out in a series of stylistic device in the airs with its Bf109D (number 43). After having landed, it was immediately called at the headquarters, where it was notified to him that because of its insubordination it would be constrained D to write... 500 times "I am a pig of undisciplined pilot !"

July 1 marked the end of the training course and almost all the pilots were transferred within the 13th flotilla. The unit started to receive Bf109 and to the end of the year, 27 German fighters were delivered. However these machines were relics of the Battle of England. The men of major Gumbala took off of Piest' any to go on a basis located near the sea of Azov on October 27, 1942. The first Group was equipped with 7 Messerschmitt Bf109 " Emil ". Five other apparatuses of the same type were to rejoin the aerodrome soon, thus reinforcing the deterrent force of the flotilla. This one will forward successively by Krasnodar, Slavyanskaya, Kersh and Taman before being established in Anapa in the Crimea for 5 months. It will be folded up then towards Taman, Kersh then Bagerovo.

The 132nd flotilla did not operate directly for the Slovak Army but was immediately incorporated in Jagdgeshwader 52 (Under the command of the new chief of Luftflotte 4, the General Otto Desloch) as 132nd Staffel - 13.(Slowakei)/JG52. The old men " Emil " were replaced by Bf109 F (Fritz) and G (Gustave) as from January 5, 1943. The camouflage of the apparatuses of the unit hardly differed from their counterparts of Luftwaffe if they are not the Slovak colors (white-blue-red) on the muzzle of the planes. To also note that the victories were not painted over the empennage because the Slovaques pilots did not have personal planes, they used the best apparatuses available at the time of each mission.

January 17 Ctk Reznak took the air with 06h20 in Bf109-2 (n°12004) at the beginning of Krasnodar with Por. Krisko for a mission of escort of FW180.Derrière the face, they were attacked by 4 Polikarpov I-153. Režňák descended a biplane which left in gimlet and in spite of the arrival 3 other Russian hunters on the place the combat, it succeeds in regulating the account in another Ivan. At the time of the flight return, it located 4 Petlaykov EP-2 at the horizon and started to release gusts at long distances. The 4 bombers balanced their bombs at once then moved away full throttle. Reznak posed its Messerschmitt with 07h24 after a flight which will have lasted less than one hour! It set out again on mission with 13h31 with the order this time, of Bf109E-4 (nr°2787). Rtk. Cyprich which also controlled Bf109E-4, as well as PorGerthofer and Ctk. Benzina on Bf109F, supplemented the formation. Cyprich quickly had to make half turn because of trouble of engine while old " the Emil " of Reznak was made outdistance by the 2 other Bf109, much faster. Suddenly, 4 LaGG-3 attacked solitary Messerschmitt. Brilliant Slovaque will so skilfully man?uvra that it managed to be aligned behind one of its attackers but it supported in vain constantly on the relaxation of its machine-guns, those were stopped.

Impatient Russian to cut down Bf109, generates itself mutually, however they were to manage to touch on several occasions their prey. This one plunged in spiral to 2000 meters height. Režňák which had managed to carry out a resource with a few meters of the ground, will manage to sow its adversaries and to return at its base towards 14h08. The mechanics did not count less than 60 impacts of balls on the machine, as 3 enormous holes in left wing... A to note that the German cameras of propaganda filmed the bored plane of balls for the files. Reznak was not impressed too much him by this episode since it took again the air with 14h22, this time in Bf109F-4 (n°13334) for a free hunting in the Novorosiysk-Krymskaya sector in company of Gerthofer and Cyprich.

February 3, 1943, the 2 more famous fighter pilots of the 13./JG52 - Jan Reznak and Isidor Kovaric - were selected to escort a Ju52 cargo liner which transported a German General since the Slavyanskaya base. The surface of the aerodrome had been seriously damaged by the attack of bombers and when Reznak tried to take off it lost 2 rims because of the ruts. It tried to return the landing gear but its speed was too slow so that the end of the wings touched the ground and Messerschmitt rebounds on the track before stopping. Reznak left unscathed the crash landing and right at the time when it went down from the apparatus, a wave of hunters made its appearance to attack the aerodrome.

During this time, Kovarik which had succeeded in taking off without clashes had located Ju 52. It approached what it thought of being its " parcel " to escort it. However, this " Aunt Ju " transported mails and not a General. The good plane and its passenger were to be attacked and killed by the Soviet hunters in another sector.

February 15, 1943, pitches it was again with go for Jan Režňák which wanted to know what its Messerschmitt had in the belly. Returning of a free hunting in the area of Novorosiysk, it approached the aerodrome with an aim of being posed when Stuka emerges opposite him. Jan managed to avoid the collision with the Junkers Ju 87 by pushing à.fond the throttle lever of its Bf109-4 (n°7088). This man?uvre abrupt cut its speed and the fighter left in gimlet, the pilot managed to rectify it in-extrémis but the landing was if violent that the fuselage tail section broke.

This time still, lucky Reznak was to be left there without a scratch. It will be victim of another particular incident on March 11. With 07h00, it took off of Kerch for a patrol in company of Isidor Kovaric. Above Abinskakya, they met about thirty Polikarpov I-153 and I-16. They tackled the Soviet formation immediately, in spite of their numerical inferiority, and Reznak managed to descend two I-153. The combat involved the consumption of many drops of fuel and the Slovaque number one was constrained to land with an empty tank on the abandoned track of Krymskaya. The old aerodrome was rammed by artillery and at the time or its machine stopped, Reznak noticed that some German soldiers still fought to prevent that this end of ground does not fall to the hands from the enemy. The Germans helped it to remake the full one with its Bf10çG-2 (n°14830). At the desired time or it to give its machine on the way, it noted that there was no crank of starting available. The soldiers excavated the ground and a smart militiaman used the crank of a Russian truck. In spite of some difficulties, the easy way functioned perfectly. Reznak made heat the engine during a few minutes, then it greeted the men of infantry before pushing ahead the throttle lever for takeoff. It of the slalomer between the craters and succeeded in raising its machine right before an enormous hole. The Jan brave man will succeed has to return at the base of Kerch IV and after having the full one remakes, the untiring pilot took again the air for a new free hunting in the Petrovskaya-Krymskaya-Temryuk. triangle.

Isidor Kovarik had a nasty surprise before a few days. March 14, it and Reznak mitraillèrent a Russian column and it had emptied all its chargers at the time of this attack on the ground. A few minutes later, the 2 companions were to fall nose to nose with a flotilla of DB-3, bombers Soviet. Reznak which had kept ammunition holds some (it hated the ground attack missions) destroyed an enemy machine as of the first master key. In spite of qu ' it did not have any more ball, Kovarik plunged on the enemy with an aim of dispersing the bombers but especially to prevent them from turning over fire against Reznak. Its Bf109-G2 (N°10473) being touched by a defensive shooting the Slovaque pilot was constrained to disengage highly and to be posed in a field located near the marshes of Krasnoarmeskaya. Jan Reznak returned a few hours later with a two-seater (Praga E-241). It was posed, recovered his friend and the duet could return healthy and except at the base.

Known Reznak him also a mishap of this kind on March 25. This day, it continued Petlaykov EP-2, the plane was in its collimator and it was on the point of supporting on the relaxations, when the machine gunner postpones touched it of a precise gust. Its Messerschmitt Bf 109G-2, (Nr.10473) started to lose power. The ace tried to jump but to its greater amazement, it did not manage to open the canopy. Jan will however manage to pose its machine in catastrophe in a cotton field, with approximately 10 kilometers of the peninsula of Taman. During the crash landing, it knocked the head against the sight and lost consciousness. When it awoke, it saw soldiers approaching the plane which had hooded, it pushed a ouf relief when it recognized the Rumanian uniforms. This time it is Kovarik which played the part of the rescuer, it went to recover Reznak always on board Praga E-241.

To quickly recognize the identity of the planes in the sky was an elementary rule of survival at the time of the air operations. Reznak carried out a mission of protection of Junkers 87, Stukas, with a height of approximately 4000 meters when it noticed 4 Soviet hunters which flew in their direction but much low. It passed directly to the offensive in its Bf 109G-4 (Nr.19347), and chooses the leader of the formation for target. At the time when it adjusted its adversary, it recognized in the sight the cross black (balenkreuze)sur the machine, it deviated immediately of its trajectory and went then to the height of Messerschmitt of head, it heard in its ear-phones a violent one "Verfluchter Schweisse ", the Slovaque pilot returned towards the escort and took again his mission. After having lands, it expected severely to be réprimandé not to have recognized very continuation of the German hunters. With its great astonishment, that which had failed to be the victim of its attack found it personally.

It acted neither more nor less than of Kommodore of the JG52, Dietrich Hrabak, which had recorded its 802nd victory one week earlier. Better this one congratulated the Slovaque young person for his courage and it did not address any reproach to him. Reznak will say later than it would not have exchanged 10 victories against the conversation than it had had this day with Hrabak. It had more chance as regards identification of plane on May 3, 1943. Six Messerschmitt Slovak and 30 German escorted a broad training of Stukas when another unknown group of hunters joined them above Krymskaya. The newcomers transfered suddenly and the leader passed to the attack. Reznak reacts to the quarter of turn, it fell on the Russians and opened fire. The crossing carried out, of a blow of swing bar, it put in their wake. Jan lit LaGG-3 of a long gust. At the time when the plane exploded in the sky, it launched a cry of alarm via the radio of edge ! The Slovak and German planes of escort operated immediately to counter the attack of the Soviets and those were constrained to beat a retreat promptly.

The day more ostentation of the 13./JG52 was without question on May 28, 1943 when the flotilla put out of combat 10 had. The day before, Jan Reznak had obtained a quite curious victory, it drove out Mig-3 with its Bf109G-4 (NR 19296) above Troyskaya. The clouds was extremely low in this mountainous area, Russian plunged in cotton to try to escape to its prosecutor. blast of an explosion saved the life of Jan because the Mig one had just struck full whip the ground what gave time to our Slovak to rectify its machine which had also launched out in piqué. Mig Russian was his 292nd victory and it had not needed to draw only one gust to obtain it. Jan Reznak wished to obtain at least a victory over P-39 Airacobra and it was quite ready to carry out its wish on June 2 43. At the time of a mission of escort of 80 Junkers Ju 87, his unit met and engaged a formation of these apparatuses delivered by the Americans. One of between-them had managed to be placed behind the tail of Rtk. Cyprich but Reznak quickly aligned its Bf109 G-4 (Nr.19774) behind P-39. It still supported on the relaxation and still but nothing occurs its weapons had been stopped ! The Russian pilot included/understood immediately what had just occurred and retards throttle so that Messerschmitt passes under its nose. Jan slipped however on the wing, before reversing its machine on other side then to plunge towards the ground for definitively sowing its adversary. Bf109 did not have a rival in piqué !

The 13./JG52 had mainly fought against the planes of the 42nd and 52nd Soviet Air Forces. These 2 units were gradually equipped with materials and armaments of qualities, so that the Slovaques pilots had to engage quantities of different apparatuses : I-153, I-16, DB-3, It-2, Yak-I, Mig-3, LaGG-3, Spitfires, P-39 Aircobra, EP-2 and A-20 Boston. However the Slovak aces will be unanimous for saying that Messerschmitt Bf109F and G were largely higher than all the types of planes used by the Russians. The results recorded by the flotilla on the Face of the East tend to confirm this assertion since on roughly 2000 exits, the Slovak ones of the 13./JG52 obtained 216 victories for the loss of only 7 pilots. In March 43, the most prolific month, the aces of this Staffel are credited with 44 victories, 38 in April and May 37. The largest Slovak ace is obviously Jan Reznak with 32 confirmed victories (+2 not confirmed). It accepted many Slovaques distinctions and Croats but also the Iron 1 Crossera and 22nd class, the German Gold Cross and the " Gold Frontlugspange ". It was followed by Rtk. Isidor Kovarik with 28 victories and 1 not confirmed which also accepted the Iron Cross, 1era and 22nd Class, the German Gold Cross and the " Gold Frontlugspange ". The 32nd was Npor. Jan Gerthofer (27 confirmed victories and 5 not confirmed).

After the war, Jan Reznak saw its licence confiscated by the Czechoslovakian authorities " to have carried the weapons against the fatherland of socialism ". It however continued to work in the sector of aeronautics. After the fall of Communism in 1989 and the independence of the Slovakia who followed, the ace was finally rehabilitated.

Date Name Unit A/c Type Height Time Comments
Sunday, January 17, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-153 1200m 06:35 85 284 (W Smolenskaya)
Thursday, January 28, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-16 Rata 1400m 11:10 85 181 (SW Achtyrskaya)
Thursday, February 11, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-153 1300m 07:42 85 143 (S Krymskaya)
Wednesday, March 10, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-16 Rata 700m 09:52 85 193
Thursday, March 11, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-153 1200m 07:10 85 181
Thursday, March 11, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-16 Rata Low Level 07:54 85 312
Saturday, March 13, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 MiG-3 700m 07:25 86 374
Sunday, March 14, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 DB-3 10m 14:57 86 544
Saturday, March 27, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 1800m 09:35 76 663
Monday, March 29, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-153 300m 09:42 76 664
Monday, March 29, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 DB-3 100m 09:37 86 763
Wednesday, March 31, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 Low Level 06:46 86 343
Saturday, April 10, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG 1400m 06:36 85 194
Thursday, April 15, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3   11:53 85 327 (N Gelendzik)
Tuesday, April 20, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 2500m 05:59 86 723
Tuesday, April 20, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 2000m 06:30 85 111
Wednesday, April 21, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 1500m 13:55 85784
Sunday, April 25, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 1700m 16:22 85 342
Tuesday, April 27, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 2000m 17:46 85 134
Tuesday, April 27, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 2000m 17:48 85 142
Tuesday, April 27, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-16 Rata 50m 18:15 85 142 (SW Abinskaya)
Friday, April 30, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 300m 12:17 75 392
Monday, May 03, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 I-16 Rata 500m 15:06 75 294
Monday, May 03, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 1000m 15:12 85 171
Monday, May 03, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 3200m 12:55 95 143
Tuesday, May 04, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 MiG-3 3000m 06:50 85 341
Monday, May 10, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 MiG-3 1500m 08:53 85 164
Wednesday, May 26, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 2000m 12:45 75 261
Wednesday, May 26, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 P-2 2000m 18:10 86 772
Saturday, May 29, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 MiG-3 1000m 08:47 86 751
Sunday, June 20, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 Yak-1 3000m 16:47 85 184
Wednesday, June 30, 1943 Jan Reznak 13.(Slow)/JG52 LaGG-3 2000m 08:03 86 541 (N Slavyanskaya)

Slovenské eso č. 1: Ján Režňák

Malá skupina slovenských stíhacích pilotov bojujúca na východnom fronte proti sovietskym hordám bok po boku s pilotmi Luftwaffe, vyzbrojení s Bf-109G sa výborne osvedčili, zvlášť v bojoch na Kubáni v r. 1943 - asi tak by mohlo znieť ohodnotenie slovenských pilotov na východnom fronte v dobových slovenských alebo nemeckých periodikách. Nuž, propaganda je propaganda. Ale ako samotní Nemci skonštatovali "ako stíhací piloti sa Slováci v boji proti boľševikom osvedčili. Prvý medzi nimi bol Ján Režňák, najväčšie eso Slovenských vzdušných zbraní (SVZ).

Ján Režňák sa narodil 14. apríla 1919 v Jablonici. Po skončení školy sa vyučil elektrikárom a od apríla do augusta 1938 sa zúčastňoval leteckého kurzu v Slovenskom aeroklube vo Vajnoroch. Po ukončení kurzu vstúpil Ján Režňák do československej armády, kde v rámci československého letectva pokračoval v pilotnom výcviku v Leteckej škole II v Spišskej Novej Vsi, kde dostal základný vojenský výcvik. Nasledoval poddôstojnícky kurz a pilotné kurzy. Výcvik Režňák ukončil v čase, keď sa na mape Európy objavil nový, Slovenský štát. Povýšený do hodnosti slobodníka bol pridelený v decembri 1939 k 13.letke v Piešťanoch, kde lietal na Aviach B-534.

Ján Režňák

Prvý bojový turnus na východnom fronte uskutočnil medzi júnom a augustom 1941, keď odlietal 13 bojových misií nad Ukrajinou. A aká bola nálada medzi slovenskými letcami odchádzajúcimi do ZSSR? Samotné naše najväčšie eso nebolo nadšené nasadením. Dôvod? Tých bolo hneď niekoľko. Podľa jeho názoru SVZ neboli na frontové nasadenie pripravené a samotný Režňák mal aj osobný dôvod - chcel sa ženiť. Svojmu veliteľovi, aby oddialil odchod povedal, že sa cíti zle a tak musel nakoniec cestovať vlakom. Prvé dojmy z Ruska boli pre slovenských pilotov šokujúce. Po prvé preto, v akých podmienkach sovietsky ľudia žili, ako vyzerali mestá po dvadsiatich rokoch vlády boľševikov a hlavne preto, že ľudia na Ukrajine ich nevítali ako okupantov, ale skôr ako bratov, niekedy až osloboditeľov.

Vzdušné boje s - v tom čase oslabeným - sovietskym letectvom neboli pre slovenských pilotov časté. Počas prvého bojového letu bol Režňák ostreľovaný zo zeme, avšak jeho stroj nebol zasiahnutý. Budúce najväčšie eso SVZ sa tak v tej dobe dostalo k vzdušnému boju iba raz, pri svojom druhom bojovom lete. Jeho protivníkom bol namiesto ruského stroja Fiat CR.42 maďarského kráľovského letectva, v tom čase už spojenca v bojoch proti Sovietom. Ako k tomu došlo ? 29. júla 1941 sa nad letiskom Tulczyn objavil Fiat CR.42 od 1/3 a tri slovenské B-534 pohotovostného roja boli odštartované nemeckým veliteľom základne k stíhaniu narušiteľa. Režňák bol jediný, ktorý bol schopný so svojou Aviou dohoniť narušiteľa a na otvoril paľbu na dlhú vzdialenosť. V tej chvíli sa už obidve lietadlá blížili k Maďarovej základni a protilietadlová paľba prinútila Režňáka vzdať sa prenasledovania. Maďarský letec sa na mladého slovenského letca sťažoval, ale nemecký veliteľ potvrdil, že Maďar vletel do nepovoleného priestoru a Režňák si iba plnil svoju povinnosť. Režňák si z tohto svojho prvého "boja" vzal ponaučenie. Neskôr už začínal streľbu z menšej vzdialenosti.

V januári 1942 boli slovenskí letci vyslaní na precvičenie na Messerschmitt Bf 109 v Grove v Dánsku. Kým prišli do Dánska, ako spomína Režňák, slovenskí letci najviac používali individuálnu a skupinovú taktiku podobnú tej z prvej svetovej vojny. V Dánsku sa naučili používať taktiku "dvoch a štyroch" umožňujúcu pružnú spoluprácu dvoch párov stíhačov, používanú Nemcami. Na východný front sa slovenskí stíhači vrátili 27. októbra 1942 pod velením stot. Ondreja Ďumbalu. Skóre otvorili 28. novembra por. Vladimír Kriško a čat. Jančovič, keď sa pustili do boja s 9 polikarpovmi I-153 a 3 z nich zostrelili. 5. januára 1943 sa presunuli z Majkopu do Krasnodaru a ešte toho dňa dostali štyri Bf 109 F ako náhradu za zastarané Bf 109 E. Neskôr sa presunuli do Slavjanskej a do Kerču a potom 18. marca znova do Anappi, kde boli vybavení Bf 109 G-2 a G-4.

Ján Režňák sa zúčastňoval takmer nepretržitých bojových akcií s 13. letkou v rámci JG 52 (13. slow/JG 52). Prvý zostrel si pripísal na účet 17. januára 1943. Na tento prvý zostrel spomína takto:

"Okolo šiestej ráno por. Kriško a ja, sme sprevádzali FW 189 na prieskumnej akcii. Zbadali sme prilietať štyroch Indiánov (nemecké kódové označenie nepriateľa), ruské I-153. Jeden hľadal pozíciu pre útok na FW 189. Ja som zasa šiel po ostatných a zostrelil som jedného. Bolo to naozaj ľahké víťazstvo. Keď ostatní traja nepriateľskí stíhači uvideli čo sa stalo ich kamarátovi, otočili sa na útek. Nasledoval som ich, ale potom som zbadal ďalších 6 prilietajúcich I-16 a I-153. Moja taktika bola vybrať si jedného z nich a sústrediť sa naňho. Ale oni sa vrhli k zemi, pod ochranu ich flaku (PL delostrelectva) a ja som ich nechal tak. Ukázalo sa, že mali doprevádzať 4 bombardéry, tak som sa rozhodol na ne zaútočiť. Keď ma uvideli, pritisli sa k sebe. Šiel som tak blízko za nimi, že som cítil turbulencie v blízkom lete. Strieľali po mne tak som sa držal bokom. Stratil som Krišku, ale po boji som s ním nadviazal rádiový kontakt a povedal mi, že všetko je v poriadku. 17. január bol čiernym dňom pre 13. letku. Medzi mojim ranným a poobedňajším letom boli por. Ján Gerthofer a čat. Jozef Vincúr stíhať I-153 v malej výške, keď bol Vincúr zabitý flakom. Nikdy sme nezistili, či to bol ruský, alebo nemecký flak."

Neskôr v ten istý deň sa sám dostal do problémov nad Krasnodarom, keď bolo jeho lietadlo ťažko poškodené pri boji s prevahou lavočiek LaGG-3. Napriek tomu, že jeho lietadlo bolo zasiahnuté 64 guľometnými strelami a 3 granátmi z kanónov lavočiek, podarilo sa mu bez zranenia pristáť so svojím Bf 109E-4 Wk-Nr 2787 na základni. A takto na tento vzdušný boj spomína samotný Režňák:

"Z Krasnodaru sme odštartovali čat. František Cyprich a ja, pričom, sme leteli na Bf 109 E, kým Gerthofer a čat. František Brezina mali nové Bf 109 F. Krátko po štarte Cyprich oznámil problémy s motorom a vrátil sa. Gerthofer a Brezina boli ďaleko a vysoko predo mnou, takže som bol sám, keď som uvidel štyri bodky od Čierneho mora - Indiánov. Jeden zo štyroch LaGG-3 šiel po mne, ale pilot vyzeral byť neskúsený, pretože bol veľmi ďaleko keď začal na mňa strieľať. Strieľal som tiež, ale zbrane sa mi zasekli. Bol som tak zaneprázdnený pokusmi odblokovať ich, že som skoro do Rusa narazil. Ten sa potom pobral domov. Na to som zistil, že jedna jeho podvozková noha nie je zatiahnutá. Keď som otočil hlavu, vidím ako sa dvaja Rusi za mňa zavesili, ale neboli v dobrej pozícii a stále si navzájom zavadzali pri streľbe. Keď som sa znova otočil, moje lietadlo spadlo do vývrtky. Mal som tri veľké diery v krídle, ktoré to spôsobili. Kontrolu nad lietadlom sa mi podarilo získať až nad zemou, príliš nízko na vyskočenie, keď som ešte zbadal ďalšie diery v krídle. Letel som nízko, ponad domy. Čakal som, že skončím na zemi každú sekundu, ale podarilo sa mi to dotiahnuť až späť na letisko. Keď som pristál, našiel som tri diery od kanóna a 64 dier po guľometoch. Aj vrtuľa bola prestrelená. To bol môj posledný let v Emilovi. O hodinu neskôr sme znova všetci štyria leteli vo Fritzoch."

Ján Režnák sa bude môcť aj v budúcnosti tešiť z podobného šťastia pri bojových akciách, ktorých sa zúčastní.

Dňa 3. februára 1943 bol Režňák spolu s Kovaríkom určený k eskorte Ju 52/3, určeného k letu nemeckého generála zo Slavyanskaya. Letisková plocha bola rozmočená a keď sa Režnák pokúšal odštartovať, došlo k poškodeniu pneumatiky na podvozku jeho Messera. Režnák sa pokúsil zatiahnuť podvozok, ale kvôli nízkej rýchlosti sa koniec krídla jeho lietadla zachytil o zem a jeho Bf 109F-4 Wk.Nr 13367 sa prevrátil a zastal. Režnák bol nezranený, ale vo chvíli, keď liezol z lietadla, sovietske LaGGy a MiGy zaútočili na letisko. Režnák hľadal kryt za svojím poškodeným lietadlom a hoci dávka zasiahla stroj, on vyšiel z tohto nedobrovoľného dobrodružstva nezranený.

Režnák znova pokúšal šťastie 15. februára 1943, keď sa vracal na letisko Slavyanskaya z voľného lovu v lietadle Bf 109 F-4 Wk Nr 7088, keď mu pri pristávacom manévri skrížil cestu nemecký Junkers Ju 87D. Režnák včas zareagoval a podarilo sa mu doslova preskočiť ponad junkersa. Po následnom tvrdom dopade na zem sa trup jeho stíhačky rozlomil priamo za pilotnou kabínou, ale budúce slovenské eso opäť vyviazlo bez zranenia. O tri dni neskôr Režnák pilotoval dvojplošník Arado Ar 66, ktorému zlyhal nad Azovským morom motor. Podarilo sa mu však kĺzavým letom priblížiť k ľadovej kryhe, na ktorej pristál. Lietadlo sa však zakrátko potopilo a Režnák so svojím pasažierom boli v poslednej chvíli zachránení nemeckými vojakmi.

Zubatú sa mu pošťastilo oklamať opäť 25. marca, keď strelec sovietskeho bombardéra Pe-2 poškodil motor na jeho Bf 109G-2 Wk Nr. 13743. Režnákovy sa podarilo vybrať následný pád svojho stroja a núdzovo pristáť na brucho v bavlníkovom poli asi 10 km juhovýchodne od Tamane. Lietadlo bolo odpísané. Režnák doplatil na túto príhodu hrčou na čele.

Najkurióznejším víťazstvom Jána Režňáka podľa jeho spomienok bola udalosť, keď prenasledoval nepriateľa, ktorý vletel do mrakov. Režňák ho nasledoval. Po chvíli letu v mrakoch pred sebou zbadal silnú explóziu. Pritiahol knipel tak silno ako mohol a vyrovnal stroj tesne nad zemou. Mraky boli tak nízko, že nešťastný sovietsky pilot narazil do zeme. Režňák nevystrelil jediný výstrel, ale víťazstvo mu bolo potvrdené.

Ján Režňák pri preberaní Nemeckého kríža v zlate, fotografia z Filmového týždenníka.

27. októbra 1943 dosiahla 13. Letka svoj posledný 217. zostrel na východnom fronte. Potom bola poslaná späť na Slovensko. Počas svojej druhej operačnej túry na východnej fronte odlietal Ján Režňák 194 bojových misií, zúčastnil sa 36 vzdušných bojov a dosiahol 32 potvrdených zostrelov. Ďalšie tri zostrely neboli potvrdené. Tieto jeho výkony ho zaradili na prvé miesto v pomyslenom rebríčku stíhacích es Slovenských vzdušných zbraní. Za svoje výkony bol Ján Režnák vyznamenaný slovenskou striebornou medailou vojenského Víťazného kríža, strieborným vojenským Záslužným krížom, zlatou, striebornou a bronzovou medailou Za hrdinstvo, nemeckým Železným krížom I a II stupňa, Ehrenpokal, Nemeckým zlatým krížom a chorvátskou striebornou medailou Koruny kráľa Zvonimíra. Taktiež bol povýšený na zástavníka.

Po návrate na Slovensko slúžil Ján Režnák u pohotovostnej letky. Napriek tomu, že odlietal ďalších 22 letov protivzdušnej obrany, ďalšieho víťazstva už nedosiahol. Na Slovensku mal aj ďalšiu nehodu, tentoraz s lietadlom Fi 156C-3 Storch Wk Nr 371. 6. apríla počas pristávania na letisku v Piešťanoch sa na lietadle zasekli pedále kormidiel načo sa lietadlo prevrátilo a došlo k poškodeniu vrtule a krídla. Režnák opäť unikol nezranený. Na jar 1944 dostala 13. Letka 14 (resp. 15) strojov Bf 109 G-6 a bola začlenená do zostavy Jagddivision 8 umiestnenej vo Viedni, aby pomáhala brániť Ríšu. Ján Režňák sa zúčastnil siedmich letov, ale nemal príležitosť pustiť sa do boja s Američanmi. V tom čase minister obrany, gen. Ferdinand Čatloš a veliteľ štábu armády plk. Ján Golian pripravovali tajný plán povstania proti Nemcom. Preto malo veliteľstvo inštrukciu, neútočiť na Američanov ak na slovenských pilotov nebudú strieľať oni. Režňák raz letel súbežne s americkým bombardérom a bol tak blízko, že - ako spomína - videl zlatý zub v úsmeve bočného strelca, ktorý naň mával. Vzťahy s Nemcami boli v tom čase už napäté.

Napríklad 13. apríla 1944 čtk. Rudolf Božík a František Hanovec boli na lete s Bf 109 E, keď ich napadol Bf 110G-2 od 4. Staffel, Zerstőrergeschwader 1, ktorý si ich pomýlil s Američanmi. Božík sa otočil a poslal Nemca dole. Havaroval do Dunaja. Veliteľstvo oficiálne uznalo Božíkovi zostrel B-24. Nemci nevedeli o prípravách na povstanie, ale plk. Dietrich Mense a Ignacius Weh z nemeckej leteckej misie (Deutsche Luftwaffenmission in der Slowakei) boli veľmi kritickí, hovorili o zbabelosti slovenských pilotov a požadovali útočenie na Američanov. Nepísané prímerie s Američanmi bolo porušené 16. júna 1944, keď 376. Bombardovacia skupina napadla rafinériu Apolo a prístav v Bratislave, aj keď viac než hodinu predtým zakrúžili nad Bratislavou, aby dali ľuďom čas ukryť sa. Režňák mal šťastie a nezúčastnil sa ani posledného boja Pohotovostnej letky s bombardérmi 15. USAF 26. júna 1944, keďže nebol medzi ôsmimi pilotmi, ktorí držali pohotovosť. Keď vyhlásili poplach, Zeleňák sa niekde zdržal a tak skočil do Bf 109 G-6 W. Nr. 161717 (biela 6) miesto neho. Keď prišiel Zeleňák chvíľu sa hádali, ale nakoniec letel Zeleňák. Tento let pre neho ani iných slovenských letcov nedopadol šťastne. Čtk. Gustáv Lang bol zranený paľbou z P-51, por. Puškár bol zabitý, Štauder a čtk. Štefan Ocvirk núdzovo pristáli, čtk. Štefan Jambor stihol vyskočiť, ale jeho padák praskol a on zahynul, Božík pristál, Zeleňák stihol núdzovo pristáť, kým stratil vedomie. Len Geletko sa vrátil s nepoškodeným lietadlom. Slovenskí stíhači dokázali Nemcom, že nie sú zbabelí, ale zároveň prestala 13. Letka existovať a takto boli zmarené aj plány na jej efektívne využitie v povstaní.

SNP sa Režnák nezúčastnil, keď zostal v Nemcami okupovanom západnom Slovensku až do konca vojny. Na túto časť vojny spomína takto:

"Bol som v meste, keď prišiel za mnou vojak a povedal mi, že ideme bojovať proti partizánom. Povedal som, že ja som pilot, že nevezmem pušku do ruky, aby som šiel bojovať do lesov proti partizánom. Časť mladších pilotov a personálu potom nastúpila do áut a odišla. Iní piloti, vrátane mňa ostali na letisku. Na druhý deň ráno som sa dozvedel, že to bola len zámienka, že sa vlastne pridali k povstalcom. V ten deň ma kpt. Haluzický telefónom volal, aby som preletel Bf 109 na Tri Duby, kde boli ostatní piloti podporujúci povstanie. Ale žiadne z lietadiel zanechaných v Piešťanoch nemohlo letieť, boli bez benzínu. Potom prišli Nemci a vykopli nás z letiska. Prikázali nám ostať v Piešťanoch. Nesmeli sme mesto opustiť a každé ráno sme sa museli Nemcom hlásiť."

Po skončení vojny sa pripojil k novozaloženému československému letectvu, kde slúžil v leteckej škole v Prostejove až do roku 1948, keď bol prepustený z armády kvôli jeho nepriateľským postojom k ľudovej demokracii. Vďaka príhovoru Gerthofera sa stal inštruktorom v leteckom klube, ale v r. 1951 mu bola ŠtB zabavená jeho letecká licencia. Dokončil si strednú školu a skúšal sa dostať na vysokú, ale nebolo mu to povolené. Režnák potom pracoval ako konštruktér a technický inšpektor v Považskej Bystrici a neskôr v Piešťanoch, kde mal podaných aj veľa zlepšovacích návrhov. Do dôchodku odišiel v r. 1979 a žije v Piešťanoch.

Web Reference:


 Baranovichi, Brestskaya Voblasts’, Belarus Map

 Dorpat, Tartu linn, Estonia Map

 Kuban now Russia, Krasnodar Krai, Anapa Map

 Aspern, Wien, Austria Map

 Gramatikovo, Bulgaria Map

 Huși, Vaslui, Romania Map

 Siverskaya Biblioteka, Russia, Leningradskaya oblast, Siversky Map

 Russia, Adygea, Maykop Map

 Vesprém, Hungary Map

 Pipera, Bucharest, Romania Map

 Deutsch-Brod or Nemecky Brod now called Havlíčkův Brod Airport, Horní Papšíkov, Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic

 Kharkov-Rogan, Kharkiv, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine Map

 Neubiberg Air Base, Unterhaching, Germany Map


Spanish Civil War

    Web Reference:

  1. [1] Kliment Charles K., Nakládal Bretislav. Germany's first Ally - Slovak army 1939-1945. Atglen PA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1997. ISBN 0-7643-0589-1.
  2. [2] Axworthy, Mark W.A. Axis Slovakia, Hitler's Slavic Wedge 1938 – 1945. New York: Axis Europa Books, 2002. ISBN 1-891227-41-6.
  3. [3] Rajninec, Juraj. Slovenske letectvo 1, Magnet Press Slovakia, 1999, ISBN:80-968073-2-3
  4. [4] Šumichrast Peter, Klabník Viliam. Slovenske letectvo 2, Magnet Press Slovakia, 2000, ISBN:80-968073-6-6
  5. [5] Stanislav Ján, Klabník Viliam. Slovenske letectvo 3, Magnet Press Slovakia, 2003, ISBN:80-89169-00-7
  6. [6] Rajlich Jiri, Bosniakov Stephan, Mandjukov Petko. Slovakian and Bulgarian Aces of Worl War 2. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-84176-652-6.
  7. [7] Neulen Hans Werner. In the skies of Europe (Air forces allied to Luftwaffe 1939 - 1945)
  8. [8] Internet

    Súvisiace články:

  • Slovenské eso č. 3: Ján Gerthofer (05.11.2007)
  • Ján Režňák zomrel... (05.11.2007)
  • Výzva o pomoc / Requisition for help (29.08.2007)
  • Sq/Ldr Oto Smik, DFC (11.07.2007)
  • Slovenské eso č. 2: Izidor Kovarik (11.07.2007)
  • Filmový týždenník: Vyznamenanie slovenských letcov (13.05.2007)
  • Prvý zostrel (01.11.2006)
  • Autor: Peter Kacúr | Vydané 13. 05. 2007 | 10612 x prečítané | Komentárov: 1 | Pošli priateľom | Tlač

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  • Taylor, John W.R. "Messerschmitt Bf 109." Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  • U.S. Army Air Force. German Aircraft and Armament: Informational Intelligence, Summary No. 44-32, October 1944 (Informational Intelligence Summary). New York: Brassey's Inc., 2000 (first edition 1944). ISBN 1-57488-291-0.
  • Valtonen, Hannu. Messerschmitt Bf 109 ja saksan sotatalous (Messerschmitt Bf 109 and the German war economy). Helsinki, Finland: Keski-Suomen Ilmailumuseo (Central Finnish Aviation Museum), 1999. ISBN 978-951-95688-7-4.
  • Vogt, Harald. Messerschmitt Bf 109 G/K Rüstsatze. Flugzeug Profile 21. Illertissen, Flugzeug Publikations GmbH.
  • Wagner, Ray and Heinz Nowarra. German Combat Planes: A Comprehensive Survey and History of the Development of German Military Aircraft from 1914 to 1945. New York: Doubleday, 1971.
  • Weal, John. Bf 109 Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford: Osprey, 2001. ISBN 978-1-84176-084-1.
  • Weal, John. BF 109D/E Aces 1939–41. Oxford: Osprey, 1996. ISBN 978-1-85532-487-9.
  • Weal, John. Bf 109F/G/K Aces of the Western Front. Oxford: Osprey, 2000. ISBN 978-1-85532-905-8.
  • Winchester, Jim. "Messerschmitt Bf 109." Aircraft of World War II: The Aviation Factfile. Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.

    Messerschmitt Bf 109 operational history Bibliography: +

  • Beale, Nick, Ferdinando D'Amico and Gabriele Valentini. Air War Italy: Axis Air Forces from Liberation of Rome to the Surrender. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife, 1996. ISBN 1-85310-252-0.
  • Bergström, Christer. Barbarossa – The Air Battle: July–December 1941. London: Chevron/Ian Allan, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
  • Bergström, Christer and Martin Pegg. Jagdwaffe:The War in Russia, January–October 1942. Luftwaffe Colours, Volume 3 Section 4. London: Classic Colours Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-903223-23-7.
  • Feist, Uwe. The Fighting Me 109. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1993. ISBN 1-85409-209-X.
  • Green, William. Messerschmitt Bf 109: The Augsburg Eagle; A Documentary History. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishing Group Ltd., 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0005-4.
  • Hooton, Edward R. Blitzkrieg in the West, 1939 -1940 (Luftwaffe at War: 2). Hersham, Surrey, UK: Midland Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-272-6.
  • Jackson, Robert. Aircraft of World War II: Development – Weaponry – Specifications. Enderby, Leicester, UK, Amber Books, 2003. ISBN 1-85605-751-8.
  • Mankau, Heinz and Peter Petrick. Messerschmitt Bf 110, Me 210, Me 410. Raumfahrt, Germany: Aviatic Verlag, 2001. ISBN 3-925505-62-8.
  • Mason, Francis K. Messerschmitt Bf 109B, C, D, E in Luftwaffe & Foreign service. London, UK: Osprey Publishing Limited, 1973. ISBN 0-85045-152-3.
  • Massimello, Giovanni and Giorgio Apostolo. Italian Aces of World War Two. Oxford/New York, Osprey Publishing, 2000. ISBN 978-1-84176-078-0.
  • Morgan, Eric B. and Edward Shacklady. Spitfire: The History. Stamford, UK: Key Books Ltd, 2000. ISBN 0-946219-48-6.
  • Neulen, Hans Werner. In the skies of Europe – Air Forces allied to the Luftwaffe 1939–1945. Ramsbury, Marlborough, THE CROWOOD PRESS, 2000. ISBN 1-86126-799-1
  • Price, Alfred. Spitfire Mark I/II Aces 1939–41 (Aircraft of the Aces 12). London: Osprey Books, 1996, ISBN 1-85532-627-2.
  • Punka, György. "A Messzer": Bf 109s in the Royal Hungarian "Honvéd" Air Force. Budapest, Hungary: OMIKK, 1995. ISBN 963-593-208-1.
  • Savic, D. and B. Ciglic. Croatian Aces of World War II (Osprey Aircraft of the Aces 49). Oxford, UK: Oxford, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-435-3.
  • Stenman, Kari and Kalevi Keskinen. Finnish Aces of World War 2 (Osprey Aircraft of the Aces 23). London: Osprey Publishing Limited, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-783-X.

    Some of the most widely used Book References:

  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase One: July-August 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 1) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Eddie J Creek (Author)
  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Two: August-September 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 2) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Three: September-October 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 3) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
  • Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Four: November 1940-June 1941 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 4) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)

    Magazines: +

  • Airfix Magazines (English) -
  • Avions (French) -
  • FlyPast (English) -
  • Flugzeug Publikations GmbH (German) -
  • Flugzeug Classic (German) -
  • Klassiker (German) -
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) -
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) -
  • Osprey (English) -
  • Revi Magazines (Czech) -

    Web References: +

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This webpage was updated 13th January 2023