Typhoon Durian or Typhoon Reming after affects

Typhoon (JMA) Category 4 super typhoon (SSHS)
DurationNovember 26 – December 5
Intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min), 915 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather developed southeast of Chuuk on November 24. Wind shear near the disturbance soon decreased, allowing the depression to organize a little. It was designated a tropical depression by Japan Meteorological Agency on November 25, and later that day the Joint Typhoon Warning Center started issuing warnings on the system as it moved west-northwest towards Yap. The depression strengthened because it was in an area of high sea-surface temperatures, and there were distinct cloud features of anticyclonic outflow, according to the JMA. It was upgraded to a tropical storm on the afternoon of November 26 and named Durian. The name Durian refers to a fruit, "Durio zibethinus", and was submitted to the naming list by Thailand.

Moving west to west-northwestward, Durian intensified slowly. It became a severe tropical storm on November 27, and the next day it was named Reming by PAGASA when it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Later on November 28, both the JMA and JTWC upgraded it to a typhoon as it continued to track towards the Philippines. A quick bout of intensification occurred on November 29, causing the JMA to upgrade the storm to 100 knots in wind intensity, and the JTWC to give it a Dvorak classification of 6.5 (127 kt) in a satellite fix. In 6 hours, Durian intensified from 90 kt 1-minute sustained winds to 125 kt winds. The JTWC then forecast a direct hit over Metro Manila later that day when it upgraded the storm to a super typhoon. PAGASA raised Public Storm Warning Signal 4, its highest warning level, over Catanduanes, Albay, Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur. It was the third time in 2006, and the third time in a row, that PAGASA raised Signal #4. Durian began to weaken slightly as it approached land, undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, but quickly regained peak strength.

PAGASA claimed that the storm made landfall on the morning of November 30 over southern Catanduanes, although the JMA and JTWC did not recognize this landfall. Durian then made another landfall after crossing the Lagonoy Gulf in northeastern Albay. After weakening due to interaction with land, Durian was downgraded back to a typhoon by the JTWC. The storm continued to move west, making landfalls on the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon, on Marinduque and finally on Oriental Mindoro before exiting to the South China Sea.

Encountering dry air entrainment and vertical wind shear, Durian weakened slightly at first, but slowly began to reorganise and restrengthen as it neared Vietnam. Durian began to turn slightly southwest towards Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh City on December 3. Eventually, Durian began to weaken again, and by December 4, the JMA downgraded it to a severe tropical storm. The storm maintained intensity as it skirted the Vietnamese coast moving southwest. After a brief second stint at typhoon strength, Durian finally made landfall in Ben Tre Province on December 5. The system rapidly weakened over land, and the JMA downgraded it to a tropical storm. The JMA and JTWC issued their final advisories later that day as Durian emerged into the Gulf of Thailand as a weak tropical depression. The remnants of Durian then crossed the coast of southern Thailand as it moved into the Bay of Bengal.

The storm killed at least 720 in the Philippines. The most damage occurred in Albay Province where the storm created mudslides of volcanic ash and boulders off Mayon Volcano. The Padang barangay of Legazpi City was severely affected with a large portion of the town covered in mud up to houses' roofs. At least 81 people have died and 16 people are missing in Vietnam from the storm.


Typhoon Durian (international designation: 0621, JTWC designation: 24W, designated Typhoon Reming by PAGASA and sometimes called Super Typhoon Durian) was an intense storm that wreaked havoc in the Philippines, causing massive loss of life when mudslides from the Mayon Volcano buried many villages. According to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Durian was the 24th tropical depression, 23rd tropical storm, 14th typhoon and 7th super typhoon of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season. It was also the 21st named storm and 14th typhoon of the season recognised by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre for tropical cyclones in this region, the Japan Meteorological Agency. The name Durian was submitted to the naming list by Thailand, which refers to a fruit, Durio zibethinus.[3]

Durian first made landfall in the Philippines packing strong winds and heavy rains that caused mudslides near Mayon Volcano. After causing massive damage in the Philippines, it exited into the South China Sea and weakened slightly, before managing to reorganise and restrengthen into a typhoon shortly before its second landfall, this time in Vietnam near Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, causing further damage of more than US$400 million. In all, Durian killed almost 2,000 people, and left hundreds more missing. Damages from the typhoon were estimated at over $13 billion (2006 USD).[4]

Meteorological history

An area of disturbed weather developed southeast of Chuuk (formerly Truk) on November 24. Wind shear near the disturbance soon decreased, allowing the depression to organize a little. It was designated a tropical depression by Japan Meteorological Agency on November 25, and later that day the Joint Typhoon Warning Center started issuing warnings on the system as it moved west-northwest towards Yap.[5] The depression strengthened because it was in an area of high sea-surface temperatures, and there were distinct cloud features of anticyclonic outflow, according to the JMA.[6] It was upgraded to a tropical storm on the afternoon of November 26 and named Durian.[7]

Moving west to west-northwestward, Durian intensified slowly. It became a severe tropical storm on November 27,[7] and the next day it was named Reming by PAGASA when it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Later on November 28, both the JMA and JTWC upgraded it to a typhoon as it continued to track towards the Philippines.[7] Rapid intensification occurred on November 29, causing the JMA to upgrade the storm to 100 knots in wind intensity,[7] and the JTWC to give it a Dvorak classification of 6.5 (127 kt) in a satellite fix. In 6 hours, Durian intensified from 90 kt 1-minute sustained winds to 125 kt. Durian began to weaken slightly as it approached land, undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, but quickly regained peak strength.

PAGASA claimed that the storm made landfall on the morning of November 30 over southern Catanduanes, although the JMA and JTWC did not recognise this landfall. Durian then made another landfall after crossing the Lagonoy Gulf in northeastern Camarines Sur. After weakening due to interaction with land, Durian was downgraded back to a typhoon by the JTWC. The storm continued to move west, making landfalls on the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon, on Marinduque and finally on Oriental Mindoro before exiting to the South China Sea.

Encountering dry air entrainment and vertical wind shear, Durian weakened slightly at first, but slowly began to reorganise and restrengthen as it neared Vietnam. Durian began to turn slightly southwest towards Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh City on December 3. Eventually, Durian began to weaken again, and by December 4, the JMA downgraded it to a severe tropical storm.[7] The storm maintained intensity as it skirted the Vietnamese coast moving southwest. After a brief second stint at typhoon strength, Durian finally made landfall in Ben Tre Province on December 5. The system rapidly weakened over land, and the JMA downgraded it to a tropical storm.[7] The JMA and JTWC issued their final advisories later that day as Durian emerged into the Gulf of Thailand as a weak tropical depression. The remnants of Durian then crossed the coast of southern Thailand as it moved into the Bay of Bengal.[7]

Preparations

Yap State

Philippines

Officials ordered the evacuation of citizens along coastal areas. In nearby Naga City, about 1,500 citizens left for emergency shelters. 1,000 were evacuated elsewhere in the region,[8] including 120 in the capital city of Manila and more than 800 in Legazpi City. In and around Manila, officials closed schools and canceled at least 11 flights at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, including 9 domestic flights. The Coast Guard grounded all vessels on open waters, stranding around 4,000 ferry passengers in Quezon province. 25 provinces in the archipelago were placed on storm alert.[9]

Vietnam

Prior to the arrival of the typhoon in Vietnam, officials ordered residents in high-risk areas to evacuate; more than 14,000 in Phu Yen Province left their homes for high schools and government buildings set up as shelters.[10]

Impact

Philippines

Satellite-derived rainfall totals due to Durian for the period 24 November to 1 December 2006 for the Central Philippines. Rainfall totals exceeding 200 mm (~8 inches) are shown in red and extend from the western Philippine Sea across southern sections of Luzon, Catanduanes Island, and northern Samar.

Upon making landfall, the powerful winds of the hurricane blew away houses, uprooted trees,[8] and left tens of thousands of residents without power. Widespread flooding was reported in Legazpi City.[9]

The typhoon produced heavy rainfall across its path, with localized totals reaching over 18 inches in Albay province. Earlier eruptions of Mayon Volcano combined with the rainfall to result in widespread mudslides across the province.[11]

The next day, reports of deaths or injuries had not reached the media centres.[8] Two weeks later, the death toll had risen to at least 720.[12]

Final death toll is not known, because large areas buried by major lahars around Mayon cannot be excavated.

Vietnam

Strong winds capsized several boats offshore Vietnam, killing two with one missing.[10] In Binh Thuan Province alone, 820 boats sank,[13] and throughout the country 896 fishing boats sank.[14]

Heavy rainfall from the typhoon destroyed 22 schools and 1,120 houses in Binh Thuan Province. Strong winds from Durian blew off the roofs of about 500 houses in Ba Ria–Vung Tau province.[13] Throughout the nation, the passage of the typhoon destroyed 34,000 homes, with an additional 166,000 damaged. Typhoon Durian killed 98 in the country and injured 1,770 others. [1]

Aftermath

Typhoon Durian Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) image. It shows the well-defined eye of the storm and the clouds surrounding it.

Philippines

On December 3, due to the significant impact of Durian on the Philippines, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared a state of calamity in the Philippines, ordering the immediate release of 1 billion Philippine pesos ($20.7 million, 2006 USD) for relief in areas affected by Durian, Typhoon Xangsane, and Typhoon Cimaron.[15] This relief fund was increased to 3.6 billion pesos ($74.8 million, 2006 USD) on December 6, including an additional 150 million pesos ($3.1 million) for power grid repair.[16]

The international response came shortly after the calamity status was declared. On December 3, Canada released $1 million ($860,000 USD) for local relief through its embassy in Manila and through the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.[15][17] UNICEF donated 4,000 packages containing food, mattresses, and blankets, and UNOCHA donated $1– 2 million (USD) for relief supplies.[17] Spain donated $250,000 (USD) and sent medical teams, medicines, food, and supplies to affected areas.[18] The United States donated $250,000 plus supplies through the USAID program, and the Filipino community on Saipan contributed cash, food, and supplies.[17] Australia released $1 million ($792,000 USD) through its AusAID program.[17] Indonesia sent two C-130 Hercules aircraft to Legazpi City, carrying a total of 25 tons of food, medicine, and clothing valued at 1.17 billion Indonesian rupiah ($129,000 USD).[18] Japan pledged tents, blankets, generators, and water management equipment through the Japan International Cooperation Agency.[18] Malaysia donated 20 tons of food and medicines, and Singapore sent two batches of supplies valued at $50,000 (USD) through Singapore Airlines.[17] The Republic of Korea pledged $100,000 (USD) cash, while the People's Republic of China pledged $200,000 (USD).[18] Israel donated $7,500 (USD), mostly in medicines and medical supplies.[18]

Vietnam

In Vietnam, which had recently been affected by Typhoon Xangsane, the national government released 150 billion Vietnamese đồng ($9 million, 2006 USD) in food and supplies to families in affected areas.[19] The United States donated $100,000 (USD), and its Oxfam organisation donated $200,000 (USD) to the most affected provinces.[19] The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement launched an emergency appeal for $2.47 million (USD) to support the efforts of the Vietnam Red Cross, which distributed over 2,000 packets of supplies and over 2 tonnes of rice, medicine, and clothes.[20]

Retirement

Due to the significant amounts of damage and fatalities Durian caused, it was decided at the 39th annual meeting of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee in Manila in December 2006 that the name Durian, along with four others, would be retired from the name list.[21] In December 2007, the committee selected the name Mangkhut to replace Durian on the Western Pacific basin name lists beginning in 2008.[22] Its PAGASA name, Reming, was also retired by PAGASA. In 2010 the name selected by PAGASA to replace Reming was Ruby.


Citations:

  1. Analysis: Indonesia: Earthquake - May 2006, Disaster data: A balanced perspective - Mar 2007, Analysis: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Disaster data: A balanced perspective - Mar 2007
  2. Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Viet Nam: Typhoons Revised Appeal No. MDRVN001 Operation Update No. 3, Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Xangsane - Sep 2006, Viet Nam: Typhoons Revised Appeal No. MDRVN001 Operation
  3. "List of names for tropical cyclones adopted by the Typhoon Committee for the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea". RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center. http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/rsmc-hp-pub-eg/tyname.html#Column%20I. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
  4. http://cidi.org/disaster/06b/ixl172.html
  5. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Unisys Product Archive, 1800 UTC November 25, 2006". Unisys. http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/archive/06112518. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
  6. Japan Meteorological Agency. "Unisys Product Archive, 0000 UTC November 26, 2006". Unisys. http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/archive/06112600. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
  7. "2006 Pacific Typhoon Season Best Track". Japan Meteorological Agency. http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/rsmc-hp-pub-eg/Besttracks/bst2006.txt. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
  8. Associated Press (2006-12-01). "Powerful Typhoon Durian lashes eastern Philippines". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/weather/hurricane/2006-11-29-typhoon-philippines_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  9. Associated Press (2006-11-29). "Powerful Typhoon Durian blows away houses, knocks off power as it slams into Philippines". http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/11/30/asia/AS_WEA_Asia_Storm.php. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  10. CBC (2006-12-04). "Vietnam braces for weakened Typhoon Durian". CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2006/12/04/typhoon-durian-061204.html. Retrieved 2007-02-24.
  11. Steve Lang (2006). "Typhoon Durian Triggers Massive Mudslides in the Philippines". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/archives/2006/h2006_durian.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  12. Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: NDCC media update - Typhoon "Reming" (Durian) 13 Dec 2006
  13. Reuters (2006-12-05). "Typhoon Durian tears into southern Vietnam, killing 26". http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/12/05/news/storm.php. Retrieved 2007-02-24.
  14. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2006). "Viet Nam: Typhoon Durian OCHA Situation Report No. 1". http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/EGUA-6W8NJC?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-02-24.
  15. a b Contributions: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: PGMA declares state of national calamity in aftermath of typhoon 'Reming', Press Releases: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: PGMA declares state of national cala
  16. Manila Bulletin Online
  17. Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: Typhoon OCHA Situation Report No. 4
  18. Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Philippines: NDCC media update - Typhoon "Reming" (Durian) 06 Dec 2006, 6pm
  19. Situation Reports: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Viet Nam: Typhoon Durian OCHA Situation Report No. 2
  20. Press Releases: Southeast Asia: Typhoon Durian - Dec 2006, Vietnam: Emergency funds sought following Durian
  21. (Chinese) ESCAP/WMO台风委员会第三十九次届会在菲律宾召开
  22. "Typhoon Committee adopt new typhoon name". China Meteorological Agency. 2007. http://www.webcitation.org/5TvESdRQg. Retrieved 2007-12-11.

Web References:

wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Pacific_typhoon_season#Typhoon_Durian_.28Reming.29


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