Pyin Oo Lwin
ピンウールイン（メイミョー） Pyin Oo Lwin
Pyin Oo Lwin was formerly known as May Myo. It is a resort town in Mandalay Division in Myanmar, located some 67 kilometers east of Mandalay, and at an altitude of 1070 meters (3510 feet). It was initially a Shan village situated between Naungcho and Mandalay on the Lashio-Mandalay road.
During the British colonial occupation, the British, in 1896, developed it as a hill station because of its cool alpine climate, especially during the hot season. The colonial government of Myanmar would move to May Myo during the hot season to escape from the high heat and humidity of Yangon. The name May Myo means May Town in Burmese, and comes from the town's first administrator, Colonel May. As a legacy of the colonial period, the town has approximately 10,000 Indian and 5,000 Nepali inhabitants, who served in the British Indian Army and settled in May Myo after the British left, and granting independence to Burma. May Myo was also an important educational centre during colonial times, with the Government English High Schools, such as St. Mary's, St. Michael's, St. Albert's, and Colgate, all based in the town. It is also home to the Myanmar Defence Services Academy (DSA).
Peik Chin Myaung - This is a large Buddhist shrine cave about 27km from the town. About 600 meter path leads through the cave. Inside the cave are several Buddha images donated by locals.
Pyin U Lwin or Pyin Oo Lwin, formerly Maymyo (22° 2'4.38'N 96°27'31.49'E), is a scenic hill town in Mandalay Division in Myanmar, located some 67 kilometers (42 miles) east of Mandalay, and at an altitude of 1070 meters (3510 ft).
It is today home to the Defence Services Academy (DSA) and the Defence Services Institute of Technology (DSIT). There is a large military presence in the town.
Sweater knitting, flower and vegetable gardens, strawberry and pineapple orchards, coffee plantations and cow rearing are the main local businesses. There has been an influx of Chinese immigrants (especially from Yunnan) in recent years. The city is a resort town for visitors from Myanmar's major cities during the summertime and a popular stop for foreign tourists during the winter season.
Established in 1915, the National Botanical Gardens and the adjacent Pyin Oo Lwin Nursery are famous attractions of Pyin U Lwin. The beautifully created national garden and the new National Landmarks Gardens are unique. A 4-acre (16,000 m2) orchid garden is planned for 2007.
Today, Pyin Oo Lwin is particularly noted for four centres of national economic importance. It is the centre of sericulture (silkworm rearing). The Sericulture Research Centre, near the National Kandawgyi Botanical Gardens, conducts three distinct roles: the intensive planting and harvesting of mulberry trees (leaves for the silk worms, bark for hand made paper), the rearing of the actual silkworms, and the reeling of the silk from the cocoons. It has a large research centre for indigenous medicinal plants. And it has one of the country's few pharmaceutical production facilities.
In addition, Pyin Oo Lwin is the centre of the country's principal flower and vegetable production. The most important flowers grown intensively are chrysanthemum, aster and gladiolus, which are exported to every corner of Myanmar throughout the year. Lastly, Pyin Oo Lwin is the centre of Myanmar's rapidly growing coffee industry. A number of factories in the town process coffee beans for country-wide distribution, with a growing amount now prepared for export.
Mandalay Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. It is located in the center of the country, bordering Sagaing Division and Magway Division to the west, Shan State to the east, and Bago Division and Kayin State to the south. The regional capital is Mandalay. In the south of the division lies the national capital of Naypyidaw. The division consists of seven districts, which are subdivided into 30 townships and 2,320 wards and village-tracts.
Mandalay Division is important in Burma's economy, accounting for 15% of the national economy.
After the fall of Pagan to the Mongols in 1287, parts of central Myanmar came to be controlled by a series of rulers: the Mongols (1287-c.1303), Myinsaing (1298-1312), Pinya (1312-1364), and Sagaing (1315-1364). In 1364, Ava kingdom led by Burmanized Shan kings reunified all of central Myanmar. Central Myanmar was under Ava's control until 1527, and under the Shans of Monhyin (1527-1555). Burmese literature and culture came into its own during this era.
Central Myanmar was part of the Taungoo kingdom from 1555 to 1752. Parts of the region fell briefly to the Mons of Pegu (Bago) (1752-1753). Konbaung Dynasty ruled the region until December 1885 when it lost all of Upper Myanmar in the Third Anglo-Burmese War. The British rule in Upper Myanmar lasted until May 1942 when the Japanese forces captured Mandalay during World War II. The British returned after the war and granted independence the country in January 1948. Upon independence, Mandalay Division ceded Myitkyina and Bhamo districts to the newly formed Kachin State.
Burmese is the primary language of the division. However, Mandarin Chinese is increasingly spoken in Mandalay and the northern gem mining town of Mogok.
Still the division has some of the best institutions of higher education in Myanmar. As medical, engineering and computer studies are the most sought after in Myanmar, the University of Medicine, Mandalay, the University of Dental Medicine, Mandalay, Mandalay Technological University, and the University of Computer Studies, Mandalay are among the most selective universities in Myanmar. Other highly selective schools are Myanmar Aerospace Engineering University and military academies in Pyinoolwin: Defence Services Academy and Defence Services Technological Academy.
In 2005, Mandalay Division's public health care system had slightly over 1000 doctors and about 2000 nurses working in 44 hospitals and 44 health clinics. Over 30 of the so-called hospitals had less than 100 beds. Almost all of large public hospitals and private hospitals as well as doctors are in Mandalay. (These dismal numbers are believed to have improved by the advent of Naypyidaw as the nation's capital in 2006 although the level of improvement remains unreported.) The well-to-do bypass the public health system and go to private clinics in Mandalay or Yangon in order to 'get quick medical attention and high-quality service'. The wealthy routinely go abroad (usually Bangkok or Singapore) for treatment.
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