Flag of Kuala Lumpur Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur International Airport

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (IATA: KUL, ICAO: WMKK) commonly known as KLIA is one of Asia's major aviation hubs, along with Tokyo's Narita International Airport, Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport, Hong Kong International Airport and Singapore Changi Airport. It is also Malaysia's main international airport. It is situated in the Sepang district, in the south of the state of Selangor, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. KLIA was built at a cost of some US$3.5 billion.

Kuala Lumpur International Airport is capable of handling 35 million passengers and 1.2 million tonnes of cargo a year in its current phase. As of 2007, it was ranked as the 13th busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, and is the 7th busiest international airport in Asia. The complex handled 26,938,970 passengers in 2007, a 13.0% increase over 2005. Also in 2007, Kuala Lumpur International Airport handled 677,446 metric tonnes of cargo, which was a 3.6% increase in volume from 2005. The increase in cargo volume made Kuala Lumpur International Airport one of the busiest airports by cargo traffic, ranking KLIA 30th among all other airports.

The airport is operated by Malaysia Airports (MAHB) Sepang Sdn Bhd and is the airline hub or home base for Malaysia Airlines, MASkargo, AirAsia and AirAsia X. KLIA is also the stopover point on the kangaroo route for Malaysia Airlines.

Kuala Lumpur International Airport serves the Klang Valley Metropolitan Region, Greater Klang Valley, Shah Alam, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and South Perak. With the large catchment area, the airport has become one of the key economic strengths for the nation, where it is well connected via expressways to all parts of Peninsular Malaysia, highly industrialized areas like Shah Alam, and the information and communications technology hub, the Multimedia Super Corridor. It is one of the important components in the economy of Malaysia, as the airport is the main import-export center for the country.

The IATA airport code, KUL was inherited from the previous international gateway for Malaysia, Subang International Airport, which currently handles only turboprop aircraft, general aviation and houses a military air base.

History and design
The planning of KLIA began in 1990 when the government decided that the existing Subang International Airport (now Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport) could not handle future demand. Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad was a prime driver behind the project, which was seen as an important component of the Multimedia Super Corridor.

The decision was controversial. The location, over 51 km from Kuala Lumpur, was viewed as inconvenient; the cost ballooned from original estimates; critics alleged that, contrary to the government's assertions, Subang could still be expanded. Indeed, work on Subang continued simultaneously with KLIA's construction. Subang's new Terminal 3 was opened in December 1993 and Terminal 2 was refurbished in 1995, only three years before KLIA's opening.

With the airport site spanning 100 km2, it is one of the largest airport sites in the world. It is built on a piece of agricultural land and required no demolition of private property. The master plan of Kuala Lumpur International Airport involves constructing five runways, and two terminals accompanied by two satellite terminals for each terminal over three phases. Phase One development includes constructing one main terminal accompanied by one satellite terminal that is enough to accommodate 25 million passengers and dual full service runways. Under the implementation of Phase One, sixty contact piers, twenty remote parking bays with eighty aircraft parking positions, four maintenance hangars and fire stations will be built. Implementation of phase two and three will be expansions of the airport to include increasing number of passengers. Ultimately, the airport will be able to handle 100 million passengers per annum once all three phases are implemented.

With the workforce of 25,000 workers working 24 hours a day, the airport was built within four and half years. The airport was officially inaugurated on June 27, 1998, a week ahead of Hong Kong International Airport, but flights were shifted from Subang only three days later on June 30 in time for the 1998 Commonwealth Games. The first domestic arrival was Malaysia Airlines flight MH1263 from Kuantan (Kuantan Airport) at 7:10 am and first international passenger jet arrival was Malaysia Airlines flight MH188 from Malé (Malé International Airport) at 7:30 am while the first domestic departure was Malaysia Airlines flight MH1432 to Langkawi (Langkawi International Airport) at 7:20 am and first international passenger jet departure was Malaysia Airlines flight MH84 to Beijing (Beijing Capital International Airport) at 9am.

The inauguration of the airport was marked with problems. Aerobridge and bay allocation systems broke down, queues formed throughout the airport, and baggage handling broke down, with lost bags and waits of over five hours. Most of these issues were sorted out eventually, but the baggage handling system continued to be plagued with problems, and it was finally put up for a new complete replacement tender in 2007.

The airport also had to contend with the East Asian financial crisis, SARS and Bird Flu Epidemic (Avian Flu) which decimated passenger traffic in Malaysia and the region. Passenger growth was negative during the financial crisis and airlines that had started flights to KLIA including All Nippon Airways, British Airways, Lufthansa and Northwest Airlines, terminated their services due to unprofitability. The first phase of the airport was designed with a capacity of 25 million passengers per year but on the first full year of operations in 1999, it saw only 13.2 million. However, traffic did eventually increase with 21.1 million passengers recorded in 2004 and 23.2 million in 2005 — although this, too, fell short of the original estimate of 25 million by the year 2003.

The name Kuala Lumpur International Airport was previously used as an alternative name for the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport (SZB) in Subang.

Expansion and developments
Under the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport Masterplan, a new runway and a new satellite building will be constructed to accommodate the increasing number of passengers. The airport Phase 2 development plan is to handle 40 million (▲5 Million) passengers per year by 2008 with the expansion of low cost carrier terminal. For phase 3, the airport will expand to handle 75 million (▲35 million) passengers per annum with the construction of a new satellite terminal and replacement of current low cost carrier terminal with a new low cost carrier terminal that will be capable of handling 30 million passengers alone. Under Phase 4, the airport will be capable to handle 130 million passengers per annum by 2020.

With the slight modification of the masterplan, the future Terminal 2's satellite terminal will be combined into one satellite terminal. The expansion of Terminal 2's satellite terminal will be exactly the same as Terminal 1's satellite terminal, where initially the satellite terminal will have four arms, and another four arms when the terminal reached its capacity. There is sufficient land and capacity to develop facilities to handle up to 130 million passengers a year, five runways by the year 2020 and two mega-terminals, each linked with satellite terminals. The airport's vicinity will include hiking trails for jet-lagged travelers, golf courses, convention center, a theme park, a shopping center, hotels, and a wetlands nature preserve. Sepang International Circuit, which hosts Formula 1, A1 Grand Prix, Super GT, IndyCar Series and MotoGP races, is also nearby. There has also been a proposal for a monorail link to the F1 circuit. The development plan is due to be ready by April 2008.

In November 2006, the Malaysian government announced that it had approved in principle the construction of a rail link between the main terminal building and the low-cost carrier terminal. Construction was scheduled to begin in 2007. There were however no details of which company would carry out the project, nor was there an indication that it would be directly connected to the existing airport high-speed train Express Rail Link.

Operational Statistics
With an increasing number of passengers using the Low Cost Carrier Terminal, Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB), the company managing KLIA has approved Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) expansion beginning early 2007 to accommodate more passengers as the current LCCT is nearly in full capacity. The expansion of LCCT also shows the support for launch of Malaysia's first long haul low cost carrier, AirAsia X by making the terminal able to accommodate wide-bodied aircraft that are used by AirAsia X. However, the Low Cost Carrier Terminal is a temporary solution for budget travellers, MAHB has submitted a proposal to the Transport Ministry to build a new, permanent LCC hub in between the main terminal building and satellite building A to replace the present Low Cost Carrier terminal.

The airport operator has announced that the construction works for the extension of LCCT will begin in March 2008 and expected to complete by December 2008. The capacity for the LCCT will increase from 10 million passengers a year to 15 million passengers a year. A proposal for a more permanent building to house a new LCCT has been submitted and expected to have a capacity for 30 million passengers a year. It is also expected that the new LCCT will be completed by 2011 to 2012. It is expected that the current LCCT will be converted in to a cargo hub once the new terminal is completed. The RM124 million LCCT expansion project tender was won by Fajarbaru Builder Group Bhd and construction work is expected to begin March 2008. The new international arrival hall was opened on December 15, 2008 with expectation that the rest of the wing will be fully operational by March 2009.

The airport operator has announced that the construction of a permanent LCCT will commence sometime in 2008 although the site has yet to be finalized. It is expected that the permanent LCCT will have a design capacity of 30 to 35 million passengers per annum.

KLIA East @ Labu was a proposed future airport. The airport will be located at Labu, which is 10 kilometres away from Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). It is proposed to replace the low cost carrier terminal (LCCT) in KLIA for AirAsia flights only. The construction of the new airport, on a 2,800 hectares area at the state’s central corridor in Labu, would be financed by the private sector. The two parties who have agreed to it are AirAsia Group and Sime Darby who owns the land). It had been planned to start construction on January 2009 and will open 2011. Meanwhile, Malaysian Airports Holdings Berhad (MAHB), the operators of KLIA, plans to continue ahead with the construction of a new LCC Terminal at KLIA to increase terminal capacity for low cost airlines. After consultation with the government, the government instructed the airport operator to build the terminal at KLIA instead in close consultation with AirAsia.

To accommodate the overwhelming increase in passenger traffic at LCCT, limited service hotel chain Tune Hotels.com announced that it is on track to open a 222-room hotel at the terminal in by the first quarter of 2009.

According to news reports, the MYR 2 billion terminal will be funded by the government as a part of the second economic stimulus package. The new terminal will be located 1.5 km from the current main terminal, will have 70 aircraft parking bays and possibly a third runaway which is located 1.5 km from the second runaway. The new terminal is expected to be 150,000 square meter in size and able to accommodate 30 million passenger with provision to expand to 45 million passenger a year. There is also a possibility to include a rail extension for the Express Rail Link. The construction is expected to begin in mid-2009 and finish in Q3 2011.

The operator of Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad, had spent about RM135 million (approx US$39 million) to upgrade facilities at the KL International Airport (KLIA) in Sepang to accommodate the Airbus A380. Upgrading works started on April 3, 2006, and was completed by May 28, 2007. Works include the provision of shoulders on both sides of the two existing runways of 15 meters as well as the taxiways, building additional aerobridges at the three departure halls, namely C17, C27 and C37, and enhancing the mezzanine lounges for upper deck passengers of the aircraft at the departure halls.

KLIA features a number of modern design features that assist in efficient operation of the airport.

Operational Statistics

Year Passenger Airfreight Aircraft
1998 6,524,405 156,641 64,123
1999 13,172,635 417,068 116,589
2000 14,732,876 510,594 109,925
2001 14,538,831 440,864 113,590
2002 16,398,230 527,124 127,952
2003 17,454,564 586,195 139,590
2004 21,058,572 651,747 164,483
2005 23,213,926 653,654 182,537
2006 24,570,385 677,446 183,869
2007 26,938,970 649,197 193,982

Terminals
The Passenger Terminal Complex (PTC) was built with an emphasis on allowing natural light into the building. Thus, there is a huge expanse of glass throughout the building, and the spectacular roof has cut-outs for natural light to filter in. The PTC comprises three buildings - the Main Terminal Building, the Satellite Building and the Contact Pier. Besides the 80-room hotel at the Satellite Building, there is a 450-room 5-star Pan Pacific KLIA hotel a 10 minute (indoor) walk away. Shopping spots are available in an area encompassing 85,000 square metres. Currently, the retail space at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport stands at 63,644 square metres (685,060 sq ft). The airport operator plans to increase the retail space to 103,251 square metres (1,111,380 sq ft), an 62.2% increase in retail space. Malaysia Airports's retail arm Eraman will boost retail shops to 277 from 242 and add more food and beverage outlets to 99 from 88 presently.

Main terminal building and contact pier
The Main terminal building or Terminal 1 is located in between the two runways. The building consist of 39 square roof units, which enables future expansion of the building. There are a total of 216 check-in counters, located in 6 different islands, identified by the letters A – M (excluding I). Multi check-in services are available, designed for the use of all passengers arriving, departing or in transit. On 2 February, 2007, Malaysia Airports introduces 12 integrated self check-in kiosks (CUSS) for passengers. The first airline to use that system is KLM. A further 24 kiosks will be added later by the airport operator.

The contact pier is the rectangular shaped terminal that is connected to the Main Terminal Building which serves as the domestic terminal of KLIA. It is currently the preferred terminal for Malaysia Airlines' domestic flights, however, it no longer caters the low-cost carriers' departing and arriving passengers. At the north side of the pier, it can only accommodate narrow-bodied aircraft. In contrast, the south side of the contact pier can accommodate B737 and B747 or similar sized aircraft.

The Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad derives 65% of its total annual revenue from non-aeronautical sources, with 35% from commercial space rental and a percentage of sale receipts. There were plans to increase and maximize the Main Terminal Building's and Contact Pier's retail area however, the plan was postponed due to Visit Malaysia Year 2007.

The gates in Main Terminal Building's contact pier has alphabet prefix of A, B, G and H.

Satellite terminal A
The 143,404 square metres (1,543,590 sq ft) satellite building accommodates international flights departing and arriving at KLIA. Passengers have to travel to the satellite building via the Aerotrain. There is a wide array of duty-free shops and prestige brand boutiques in the satellite building. This includes international brands such as Burberry, Harrods, Mont Blanc, Salvatore Ferragamo and recently, Mango has opened its first boutique at an airport in the Asian region. Among all international labels available within the terminal, some boutiques such as Harrods are only available in the airport. Liquor and perfumes are particularly popular, accounting for over half of total retail sales, followed by watches and tobacco products. A number of restaurants and international airlines' lounges are available as well as an Airside Transit Hotel.

Within the terminal, wireless internet (Wifi) is provided free of charge. The terminal also has prayer rooms, showers and massage service. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas and movie lounge, broadcasting movie and sport channels such as Star Movies. The terminal also features a natural rainforest in the middle of the terminal, exhibiting the Malaysian forests.

Under Malaysia Airports Berhad retail optimisation plan, the retail space in satellite terminal A will be further optimized to increase its revenue derived from commercial space rental and a percentage of sale receipts to 50% by year 2010 which currently stands at 35%. Some notable improvements that will be seen after the refurbishments will be the Jungle Boardwalk which will be the first of its kind in the world and larger mezzanine floor to accommodate F&B outlets and viewing galleries.

The gates in Satellite Terminal A have the prefix C. The Satellite A terminal has 27 boarding gates altogether.

Low cost carrier terminal
The first purpose built Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) was specifically built at KL International Airport to cater to the growing passengers of the low cost airlines, especially the passengers of Malaysia's 'no-frills' airline, AirAsia. Construction of the LCC Terminal was on a fast-track basis beginning June 2005 at an approximate cost of RM 108 million.

The 35,290 square-meter terminal is designed and built to suit the low cost carrier (LCC) business model that requires only basic terminal amenities. In order to offer lower landing fees, handling fees and airport taxes, it cuts back on amenities such as aerobridges, elaborate physical structures and decorations in the passenger terminal building. There is no transfer facility at the LCCT. Passengers who need to make transfers need to clear immigration, collect their luggage, clear customs, make their way to the main terminal and re-checkin with the respective airline.

The LCCT is located on the opposite side of the apron from the Main Terminal Building, near the air cargo area. By road, the LCCT is about 20 km from the Main Terminal Building.

However, the current Low Cost Carrier Terminal is a temporary solution for the increasing demand of no-frills airline passengers. Therefore, Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad has incorporated the plans to build a new permanent LCC terminal which can accommodate 30 million passengers per annum. In the mean time, the airport operator decided to expand the current terminal to cope up with the increasing demand. The new arrival hall was first open on December 15, 2008. This airport was the first airport to have separation between normal carriers and low cost carrier.

The gates in LCCT have alphabet prefix of P and T.

Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal
Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal, or KL CAT located at KL Sentral is a virtual extension of Kuala Lumpur International Airport where city check-in services are provided. Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal is recognized by International Air Transport Association which carries IATA designation XKL. Currently there are only 4 airlines providing city check-in services, they are Cathay Pacific, Emirates Airline, Malaysia Airlines and Royal Brunei Airlines. However, the situation is due to be changed as 10 SITA's AirportConnect CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) were installed on 10 check-in desks in KL CAT that enables all airlines to offer city check-in service for their passengers. Apart from providing check-in services, the virtual terminal operator, Express Rail Link Sdn Bhd which operates KLIA Express is planning to roll out baggage check-out service in January 2008 whereby passengers only collect their baggage and declare taxable items in Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal.

Awards and recognitions
Since its inauguration in year 1998, it has won numerous awards from international organizations around the world such as Skytrax and International Air Transport Association.

KLIA's commitment to promote environment responsibility for all local and foreign travellers was recognized by Green Globe, which is the first and only airport in the world to receive Green Globe certificate in year 2004 onwards.

Since its inauguration on June 27, 1998, the airport has won awards. With its continuous effort to provide excellent services to passengers, the airport has emerged as one of the top five airports in the world.

In 2007, KLIA was rated the best airport in the world for 15-25 million passengers with Third Best Airport in Asia Pacific and Worldwide for the year of 2006. The award was organised by Airports Council International Airport Service Quality (ACI-ASQ). While in the 2007 Skytrax Airport of the Year awards, it finished fifth behind Hong Kong International Airport, Incheon International Airport, Singapore Changi Airport and Munich Airport. In the 2008 Skytrax Airport of the Year Awards, it moved up a place to fourth in the World's Best Airport for the year 2008.

In 2008, KLIA was honored again with the best airport in the world for 15-25 million passengers category n the Airport Council International's (ACI) Airport Services Quality Awards 2007. KLIA also improved its ranking this year for Best Airport Worldwide and Best Airport Asia Pacific by coming in second behind Seoul's Incheon International Airport, beating Singapore Changi Airport and Hong Kong International Airport which are leaders in service excellence.

Apart from these, Kuala Lumpur International Airport is the first airport in the world to be accredited with Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Assured certificate from Airports Council International (ACI)

Ground transportation

Inter-terminal transportation

Terminals of Kuala Lumpur International Airport are well connected with KLIA Automated People Mover (Aerotrain), a three-car driverless train that runs on elevated rail and under the taxiways, and also bus system.
Aerotrain station in Satellite Building

Main Terminal Building – LCCT
The LCCT is connected with the Main Terminal Building with a NadiKLIA bus for RM1.50. The Malaysian government announced in November 2006 that it had approved in principle the construction of a rail link between the Main Terminal Building and LCCT. However, the construction is pending until the new LCCT hub complex is fully constructed by 2010.
Main Terminal Building – Satellite Terminal A
The Main Terminal Building and Satellite Building are connected by Aerotrain at three to five minute intervals. The journey between terminals takes under two minutes, and each 250-person capacity train is able to transport 3,000 passengers per hour per direction with the maximum speed being 56 km/h (35mp/h). This is a complimentary service for all passengers traveling to/from Satellite Terminal

On November 25, 2008, the train manufacturer and airport operator announce a deal to purchase 3 new vehicles plus a spur line to a new Operations, Maintenance and Storage Facility worth 45 million euros. The new system is expected to be fully functional by 2011.

Rail

Infrastructure

Kuala Lumpur International Airport can be reached by the KLIA Express and the KLIA Transit train services. KLIA Express provides a non-stop express train service to the KL City Air Terminal (KL CAT) which has an IATA designation XKL, part of the Kuala Lumpur Sentral transportation hub in Kuala Lumpur. The non-stop trip between Kuala Lumpur and KLIA is 57 kilometers and takes exactly 28 minutes. Passengers departing from KL CAT can check in their luggage for flights on Emirates Airline, Cathay Pacific, Royal Brunei Airlines and Malaysia Airlines. Whereas KLIA Transit is a high-speed commuter train service linking Kuala Lumpur Sentral, and the Kuala Lumpur International Airport ERL station. It shares the same tracks as the KLIA Express but with stops at three intermediate stations. Check-in facilities are not available at KLIA Transit stations. Passengers to/from Low Cost Carrier Terminal can reach KLIA ERL station by boarding the Feeder Bus provided.

Taxis and limousine
Airport taxis or airport limousines are provided by Airport Limo. The taxis and limousines are readily available at the Taxi and Limousine counters. They run from airport itself to destinations in Klang Valley and Greater Klang Valley. The fares are to be paid at the counter and are charged according to the destinations' zone. A surcharge is applied for services between 12 a.m. to 5 a.m.

Bus

Airlines and destinations

Passenger and cargo terminals
As there are international flights operating out from the airport, therefore terminals of the airport are equipped with immigration processing facilities and security scanning for all passengers including domestic passengers. The Satellite terminal handles most of the international flights, while the main terminal building's contact pier handles domestic traffic, regional international flights and international flights routed to other hubs within Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operate from both terminals, where main terminal building's contact pier is their preferred terminal for domestic flights. Conversely, low cost carries such as AirAsia Group of Airlines, Tiger Airways and Cebu Pacific operates domestic and international flights out of the low cost carrier terminal.

The initial passenger growth was below average due to Asian Financial Crisis and the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) epidemic in 2003 and the airport failed to reach its target capacity of 25 million passengers per annum (before the inclusion of low cost carrier terminal) by 2004. However, the recovery of Malaysia's economy boosted Kuala Lumpur International Airport's passenger movements, and the airport saw significant growth in traffic, hitting the 25 million passenger mark in 2007. In January 2008, the airport saw a growth of 8.3% in aircraft movements and 7.7% in passenger traffic to 2.17 million in January 2008 from 2.02 million in the same period last year.

As of January 2008, 57 airlines serve KLIA:

Airlines Destinations Terminal
AirAsia Alor Star, Bali, Bandar Seri Begawan, Banda Aceh, Bandung, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Batam, Bintulu, Chiang Mai, Clark, Dhaka (begins March, 2009), Guangzhou, Guilin, Haikou, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Johor Bahru, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Krabi, Kuala Terengganu, Kuching, Labuan, Langkawi, Macau, Makassar, Manado, Medan, Miri, Padang, Palembang, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Sandakan, Shenzhen, Sibu, Siem Reap, Singapore, Solo, Surabaya, Tawau, Tiruchirapalli, Yogyakarta, Vientiane LCCT
AirAsia X Gold Coast, Hangzhou, London-Stansted, Melbourne, Perth, Tianjin [begins 2 April] LCCT
Indonesia AirAsia Bali, Bandung, Jakarta, Medan, Padang, Surabaya, Pekanbaru LCCT
Thai AirAsia Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi LCCT
Air China Beijing-Capital Satellite
Air-India Express Chennai, Hyderabad, Tiruchirapalli Satellite
Air Mauritius Mauritius, Singapore Satellite
Air Niugini Port Moresby Satellite
Best Air Dhaka Satellite
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka Satellite
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong Satellite
Cebu Pacific Manila LCCT
China Airlines Taipei-Taoyuan Satellite
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Shanghai-Pudong Satellite
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong Satellite
EgyptAir Cairo, Mumbai Satellite
Emirates Dubai Satellite
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi Satellite
EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan Satellite
Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta, Surabaya Satellite
GMG Airlines Dhaka Satellite
Gulf Air Bahrain Satellite
Hainan Airlines Haikou Satellite
Hong Kong Express Airways Hong Kong Satellite
Indian Airlines Chennai Satellite
Iran Air Tehran-Imam Khomeini Satellite
Japan Airlines Osaka-Kansai, Singapore, Tokyo-Narita Satellite
Jet Airways Chennai Satellite
Jetstar Asia Airways Singapore Satellite
KLM Amsterdam, Jakarta Satellite
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon Satellite
Kuwait Airways Kuwait City, Jakarta Satellite
Lion Air Jakarta, Surabaya Main
Lufthansa Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Frankfurt Satellite
Mahan Air Tehran-Imam Khoemeini (charter) Satellite
Malaysia Airlines (section) Alor Star, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Bintulu, Cebu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (MH 750 only), Jakarta, Johor Bahru, Kaohsiung [MH86 only], Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuala Terengganu, Kuching, Labuan, Langkawi, Macau (MH363 only), Manila (MH702 only), Medan, Miri, Penang, Phuket, Sandakan, Sibu, Singapore, Surabaya, Taipei-Taoyuan (MH68 only), Tawau, Tokyo-Narita (MH80 only), Yangon, Yogyakarta Main
Malaysia Airlines (section) Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bahrain (seasonal), Bangalore, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi (MH 782) Beijing-Capital, Beirut, Brisbane, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cape Town, Chennai, Christmas Island, Colombo, Delhi, Denpasar/Bali, Dhaka, Dubai, Frankfurt, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jakarta (MH 711), Jeddah, Johannesburg, Kaohsiung, Karachi, Kunming, Kuwait [seasonal], Lahore, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Macau (ends 22 March 2009), Male, Manila, Melbourne, Mumbai, Newark, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Perth, Phnom Penh, Rome-Fiumicino, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Siem Reap, Stockholm-Arlanda, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan (MH 94 only), Tokyo-Narita, Xiamen Satellite
Merpati Nusantara Airlines Bandung, Surabaya, Mataram Satellite
Myanmar Airways International Yangon Satellite
Nepal Airlines Kathmandu Satellite
Oman Air Muscat  
Pakistan International Airlines Karachi, Peshawar Satellite
Qatar Airways Denpasar/Bali, Doha Satellite
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan Satellite
Saudi Arabian Airlines Jakarta, Jeddah, Madinah, Riyadh, Dammam Satellite
Shenzhen Airlines Nanning, Shenzhen Satellite
SilkAir Singapore Satellite
Singapore Airlines Singapore Satellite
SriLankan Airlines Colombo, Singapore Satellite
Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Satellite
Tiger Airways Singapore LCCT
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent Satellite
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City Satellite
Xiamen Airlines Fuzhou, Xiamen Satellite
Yemenia Dubai, Jakarta, Sanaa Satellite

Note:^ Though some Cathay Pacific's flight to/from Hong Kong involve a stop in Kuala Lumpur, passengers cannot purchase tickets to fly Cathay Pacific between Penang and Kuala Lumpur.

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Cargolux Baku, Chennai, Luxembourg, Singapore Cargo
China Airlines Cargo Penang, Taipei-Taoyuan Cargo
China Eastern Cargo Shanghai-Pudong Cargo
Coyne Airways   Cargo
DHL   Cargo
Eva Air Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan Cargo
FedEx Express Anchorage, Cebu, Los Angeles, Penang, Singapore, Subic Bay, Tokyo-Narita Cargo
Gading Sari   Cargo
Japan Airlines Cargo Singapore, Tokyo-Narita, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Manila Cargo
Jet Airways Cargo Chennai Cargo
KLM Cargo Amsterdam, Jakarta, Penang, Singapore Cargo
Korean Air Cargo Seoul-Incheon Cargo
Lufthansa Cargo Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chennai, Frankfurt Cargo
MASkargo Amsterdam, Basel, Dubai, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Milan-Malpensa, Shanghai-Pudong, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tashkent,[44] Tokyo-Narita Cargo
Nippon Cargo Airlines Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita Cargo
Republic Express Unknown Cargo
Singapore Airlines Cargo Singapore Cargo
TNT Airways   Cargo
Transmile Air Services Anchorage, Bangalore, Chennai, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Luik, Malmo, Manila, Medan, Mumbai, Nagoya, Nanjing, Osaka-Kansai, Penang, Riverside, Shanghai, Shenzen, Singapore, Tokyo-Narita, Taipei-Taoyuan Cargo
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Jakarta-Halim Cargo
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Cologne/Bonn, Dubai, Penang, Singapore Cargo

Prospective airlines and routes
* Air Blue (Launching Pakistan-Kuala Lumpur in mid 2009)
* Bangkok Airways (Planned for KUL-Samui route)
* British Airways (Plans to reinstate flights from LHR-KUL)
* Jet Airways (Plan to start Kuala Lumpur-Mumbai by second quarter of 2008)
* Jetstar (Plans to introduce MEL-KUL, DRW-KUL and BNE-KUL)
* Jin Air (Planned for ICN-KUL in 2009)
* Mandala Airlines (Plan to fly into KLIA and Singapore as part of its' expansion plan)
* Pacific Airlines
* Royal Jordanian (Plans to expand south-east Asian routes with Hong Kong added in 2008, with another two planned)
* Royal Khmer Airlines (Plans to restart KUL-PNH after it has stopped all its operations)
* Sriwijaya Air (Planning to start Medan-Kuala Lumpur-Middle East routes)

Note: Airline names that are shown in italics shows that the airline is currently serving Kuala Lumpur International Airport.

Accidents and incidents

* In 2001, a Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 aircraft suffered nose damage as it entered a monsoon drainage ditch while it was being taxied from the hangar to the gate before a return flight to Saudi Arabia. None of the six crew members on board at the time were injured.

* July 14,2007 - An aerobridge suddenly shifted downwards, damaging the door of a Malaysia Airlines Airbus A330 bound for Beijing. The aerobridge was not occupied at the time, and no passengers or crew were injured.

* October 15, 2007 - A Palestinian national managed to hide in the landing nose gear of flight SQ119, flight from KLIA to Changi Airport, Singapore. He was discovered in Singapore as he fell 2.4 meters from nose wheel after the plane landed. Despite the cold thin air during flight, the man survived the trip but was apprehended in Singapore. KLIA authorities has yet to find the cause of the security breach.

* April 9, 2008 - Armed robbers shot six people in a three minute heist and walked away with RM 3.5 million in cash. The incident happened at 7.30 pm at Door 8 while two moneychangers and two security guards were walking towards the gate and were ambushed by six men from a BMW vehicle. Victims were seriously injured but in stable condition.

* January 9, 2009 - A small fire broke out in the LCC terminal which cause the terminal to be shut down for two hours and delaying 20 flights. The fire was caused by a welding spark in the construction area of the LCC Terminal.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuala_Lumpur_International_Airport

Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur often abbreviated as K.L., is the largest city of Malaysia. The city proper, making up an area of 244 km2 (94 sq mi), has an estimated population of 1.6 million in 2006. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million. It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in the country, in terms of population as well as economy.

Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia.Kuala Lumpur is also the 11th largest city in the world. The city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they have since moved to Putrajaya starting in 1999. Some sections of the judiciary remain in the capital. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is also situated in Kuala Lumpur. The city is also the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a primate city. Kuala Lumpur is rated as a gamma world city, and is the only global city in Malaysia.

Kuala Lumpur is defined within the borders of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and is one of three Malaysian Federal Territories. It is an enclave within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Residents of the city are known as KLites.

Beginning in the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the Formula One World Championship. In addition, Kuala Lumpur is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers.

History
Kuala Lumpur has its origins in the 1850s, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah, hired some Chinese labourers to open new and larger tin mines. They landed at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang (Klang River) to open mines at Ampang. Sungai Gombak was previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means muddy river. The Original name for this city was 'Pengkalan Lumpur', which means bundle of mud. As time passes by the name changed to Kuala Lumpur which literally means “muddy confluence” in Bahasa Melayu. Later, tin mines were opened at Pudu and Batu. Among the early notable pioneers are Hiu Siew and Liu Ngim Kong.

These mines became a trading post and was considered a frontier town with many problems including the Selangor Civil War; it was also plagued by diseases and constant fires and floods. Around the 1870s, the Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy, emerged as leader, and became responsible for the survival and subsequent systematic growth of this town.He is the one who began to develop Kuala Lumpur from a small unknown place into a mining town with economic boom. In 1880, the state capital of Selangor was moved from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur.

In 1881, a flood swept through the town following a fire which engulfed it earlier. These successive problems destroyed the town's structures of wood and atap (thatching). As a response, Frank Swettenham, the British Resident of Selangor, required that buildings be constructed of brick and tile. Many of the new brick buildings mirrored that of shop houses in southern China, with 'five foot ways' as well as skilled Chinese carpentry. This resulted in a distinct eclectic shop house architecture typical to this region. A railway line increased accessibility into this town. Development intensified in the 1890s, leading to the creation of a Sanitary Board. In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States.

A mixture of different communities settled in various sections of Kuala Lumpur. The Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square, east of Klang River, and towards Chinatown. The Malays, Indian Chettiars, and Indian Muslims resided along Java Street (now Jalan Tun Perak). The Padang, now known as Merdeka Square, was the center of the British administrative offices.

During World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Japanese army on January 11, 1942. They remained in occupation until August 15, 1945, when the commander in chief of the Japanese Seventh Area Army in Singapore and Malaya, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the British administration following the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Kuala Lumpur grew through the war, the rubber and tin commodity crashes and the Malayan Emergency, during which Malaya was preoccupied with the communist insurgency. In 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from British rule. Kuala Lumpur remained the capital through the formation of Malaysia on September 16, 1963.

On May 13, 1969, one of the worst race riots in Malaysia took place in Kuala Lumpur. The May 13 Incident was a riot between the Malays and the Chinese who were dissatisfied with the socio-political situation at the time. The riot resulted in the deaths of 196 people, and led to a major reform in the country's economic policy.

Kuala Lumpur later achieved city status in 1972, becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on February 1, 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory. Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of Selangor in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared as the new state capital.

In 1998, another political movement known as Reformasi took place mainly in this city. The movement was a result of the sacking of former Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister, Anwar Ibrahim, and resulted in a chain of protests until 1999, where supporters of Anwar Ibrahim took to the streets to demand reforms in the government's administration, among others.

On February 1, 2001, Putrajaya was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government. The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function, and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King).

Geography
The geography of Kuala Lumpur is characterized by a huge valley known as Klang Valley. The valley is bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountains in the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south and the Strait of Malacca in the west. Kuala Lumpur is a Malay term which translates to 'muddy confluence' as it is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak rivers.

Located in the center of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur was previously under the rule of Selangor State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was separated from Selangor to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian Federal Government. Its location on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which has wider flat land than the east coast, has contributed to its faster development relative to other cities in Malaysia.

The municipality of the city covers an area of 243.65 km2 (94.07 sq mi), with an average elevation of 21.95 m (72 ft).

Climate and weather
Protected by the Titiwangsa Mountains in the east and Indonesia's Sumatra Island in the west, Kuala Lumpur has a year-round equatorial climate which is warm and sunny, along with abundant rainfall, especially during the southwest monsoon season from September to April. Temperatures tend to remain constant. Maximums hover between 31 °C and 33 °C (88-92 °F) and have never exceeded 37 °C (99 °F), while minimums hover between 22 °C and 23.5 °C (71-74 °F) and have never fallen below 19 °C (66 °F). Kuala Lumpur typically receives 2,266 mm (89.2 in) of rain annually; June and July are relatively dry, but even then rainfall typically exceeds 125 mm (5 in) per month.

Flooding is a frequent occurrence in Kuala Lumpur whenever there is a heavy downpour, especially in the city centre and downstream areas. Dust particles from forest fires from nearby Sumatra sometimes cast a haze over the region. It is a major source of pollution in the city together with open burning, emission from motor vehicles and construction work.

Demographics
Bahasa Melayu—the national language, is one of the principal languages of Kuala Lumpur. Other major languages spoken in the city are Mandarin, Cantonese and Tamil. English has a strong presence, especially in business and is a compulsory language taught in schools.
Kuala Lumpur City Centre Park

Kuala Lumpur also has a mix of different cultures which include Malays, Chinese, Indians, Eurasians, as well as Kadazans, Ibans and other indigenous races from East Malaysia and Peninsula Malaysia.

Kuala Lumpur's rapid development, triggered huge influx of foreign workers from Indonesia, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and China into Malaysia.

In the late-18th century, when Europe underwent Industrial Revolution, large groups of Chinese from Fujian and Guangdong in China were brought in to Malaya to work in the booming tin mining industry. The Chinese in Kuala Lumpur speak different dialects but the majority in Kuala Lumpur are of Cantonese descent, followed by the Hokkiens and the Hakkas.

Indians form 10% of the population in Kuala Lumpur (as in 2000), mostly practise Hinduism and speak Tamil and other Indian and Pakistani languages such as Hindi, Malayalam, Punjabi, Telugu and Pashtu. Historically, most of the Indians were brought in during the British colonisation of the Malaysia. Their popular festivals are Thaipusam, Deepavali and Pongal.

Islam is practised primarily by the Malays and the Indian Muslim communities. Other major religions are Hinduism (among Indians), Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism (mainly among Chinese) and Christianity. The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population.

Population statistics
The estimated population of Kuala Lumpur in the city proper for 2006 was 1.58 million. It has a population density of 6,502 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,840 /sq mi), and is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia. With an estimated metropolitan population of 6.9 million in 2007, it can be considered a primate city. The continuing decline in the birth rate for Kuala Lumpur has resulted in the decline in the proportion of young people below 15 years old from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000. On the other hand, the working age group of 15-59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000. The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.

Based on the census of the Department of Statistics (see http://www.statistics.gov.my/eng/), the percentage of Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur alone was around 38% in 2000 (next census is in 2010) while the Chinese population comprised 43% and Indians 10%. A notable phenomenon has been the increase in the presence of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, who now constitute about 9% of the city’s population.

Crime in Kuala Lumpur has been a concern of residents in recent years. Among the crimes showing increasing rates were snatch theft, drug addiction, gambling and vice. These problems have been associated with the rising numbers of immigrants from Indonesia and Myanmar. Some of them are brought in with the promise of low to medium grade salary.

Government
The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia. They are responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970.

Since Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory of Malaysia on February 1, 1974, the city has been led by nine mayors. The current mayor of Kuala Lumpur is Dato' Ahmad Fuad Ismail, who is in his first term of office. He was appointed in 2008.

Politics
Kuala Lumpur is home to the Parliament of Malaysia. The parliament is composed of a lower House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) and an upper House of Senate (Dewan Negara). The city is represented in the lower House of Representatives by eleven Members of Parliament (MPs), who are elected to five-year terms. Traditionally, political leanings in Kuala Lumpur have been dominated by Barisan Nasional (BN), with seven representatives from BN and the other four from the Democratic Action Party (DAP) prior to the 2008 General Elections. After the 2008 elections BN was left with just one representative, Federal Territories Minister Zulhasnan Rafique, in the Setiawangsa seat. DAP took control of five seats, Parti Keadilan Rakyat taking four seats, and PAS one seat, marking the first time in which the majority of the Federal Territory's constituencies was dominated by opposition parties.

Economy
Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialized and economically, the fastest growing region in Malaysia. Despite the relocation of federal government administration to Putrajaya, certain government’s important machineries such as Bank Negara Malaysia (Central Bank of Malaysia), Companies Commission of Malaysia and Securities Commission as well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city.

The city remains as the economic and business center of the country. In fact, the city is a center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts of Malaysia. The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport at Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang further reinforce the economic significance of the city.

Bursa Malaysia or the Malaysia Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of 20 November, 2007, the market capitalisation stood at US$318.65 billion.

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM25,968 million in 2000 with an average annual growth rate of 4.2 percent. The per capita GDP for Kuala Lumpur in year 2000 is RM30,727, an average annual growth rate of 6.1 percent. The total employment in Kuala Lumpur is estimated at around 838,400. The service sector comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment representing about 83.0 percent of the total. The remaining 17 percent comes from manufacturing and construction.

The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur is poised to become the global Islamic Financing hub with an increasing number of financial institutions providing Islamic Financing and the strong presence of Gulf's financial institutions such as the world's largest Islamic bank, Al-Rajhi Bank and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf. The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is also host to many multi national companies’ regional offices or support centres, particularly for finance and accounting, and information technology functions. Most of the countries’ largest companies have their headquarters based here and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000 based in Kuala Lumpur.

Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur also has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions located within its boundaries, providing a wide range of courses. Such public institutions include the International Islamic University Malaysia,University of Malaya, the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Medical University and the Medical Faculty of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. There are also a large number of private colleges, including the Universiti Tun Abdul Razak and Tunku Abdul Rahman College, in and around Kuala Lumpur providing a wide range of courses which attract students from all over Malaysia as well as from other countries. There are numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city which offer general health services and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment catering to locals and tourists.

There has been growing emphasis to expand the economic scope of the city into other service activities such as research and development which supports the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to important research centers such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the Institute of Medical Research and more research centers are expected to be established in the coming years.

Tourism
The tourism sector also plays an important part in the city’s economy, providing income, employment and expanding business opportunities. As an extension of this, many large worldwide hotel chains have presence in the city. Kuala Lumpur has also developed into an international shopping destination with a wide variety of shopping centres and mega malls which carry well-known global and local brands. Conference tourism has also expanded in recent years and is becoming a very important component of the industry.

Major destinations include the Kuala Lumpur City Centre, KLCC,House of Parliament, Kuala Lumpur Tower, Putra World Trade Centre, Dataran Merdeka, Tugu Negara, Istana Negara, Istana Budaya, mosques such as the Masjid Jamek, Masjid Negara and the Federal Territory Mosque, Muzium Negara, and other tourist attractions including Aquaria KLCC, Batu Caves, Makam Pahlawan, National Science Centre, Zoo Negara, and events such as Malay cultural centres, the Chinese cultural festivals at the Thean Hou Temple and the Thaipusam procession at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple. The Golden Triangle, the commercial hub of the city, contains the Petronas Twin Towers and has a distinctive nightlife. Trendy nightclubs, bars and lounges, such as Hakka Republic Wine bar & Restaurant,Hard Rock Cafe, Zouk, Thai Club, Beach Club (voted Best Bar in Asia), Luna Bar, Rum Jungle, Nuovo, Espanda and many others are located within and around Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail and Jalan Ampang. If it's Italian you're after Nerovivo (Jalan Ceylon), Neroteca (Lorong Ceylon) or Nerofico (Jalan Dungun) are the best in town.

Hotels, from five-star to budget types, have cropped up everywhere to accommodate the influx of tourists each year. While there are many hotels near Kuala Lumpur's entertainment and business districts, some have chosen to veer away from the hustle and bustle.

Retail
Kuala Lumpur alone has 66 shopping malls and it is the retail and fashion hub for Malaysia. Shopping in Malaysia contributes RM7.7 billion (USD 2.26 billion) or 20.8 percent of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006. and Kuala Lumpur, as Malaysia's retail hub, plays a big role in attracting consumers. Suria KLCC is one of Malaysia's premier shopping destinations due to its location beneath the Petronas Twin Towers, the world's tallest twin towers and second and third-tallest singular towers. Apart from Suria KLCC, Bukit Bintang, which resembles Tokyo's Ginza, New York's Fifth Avenue and Singapore's Orchard Road has the highest concentration of shopping outlets in Kuala Lumpur. Bukit Bintang, which is part of the Kuala Lumpur's Golden Triangle, spans over 3 roads which are Jalan Bukit Bintang, Jalan Imbi and Jalan Sultan Ismail. It houses various cafes, alfresco (open air) dining outlets and shopping complexes namely Berjaya Times Square, Bukit Bintang Plaza, Imbi Plaza, Kuala Lumpur Plaza, Lot 10, Low Yat Plaza, Pavilion KL, Starhill Plaza, Berjaya Plaza and Sungei Wang Plaza. It is also the location of the largest single department store in Malaysia, SOGO Kuala Lumpur (also known as KL SOGO) which is located at a landmark site on Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, one of the best known shopping streets for locals in Kuala Lumpur. The Bangsar district also has a few shopping complexes, namely Mid Valley Megamall, The Gardens and Bangsar Village. The Damansara area north-west of Kuala Lumpur, though not in the city-proper, is the home of the only IKEA outlet in the country, and a cluster of locally-operated malls including Ikano Power Centre, NiuXehSui at Ara Damansara, The Curve, Cathay Multi Screen Cinemas and One Utama.

Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, or commonly known as Petaling Street, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese and European traditions influence. The Kuala Lumpur's Central Market, which was once the city's wet market, offers an assortment of arts and craft merchandise, varying from antiques and paintings to souvenirs and clothing. It is also known as Pasar Seni in Malay.

Since 2000, the Ministry of Tourism of Malaysia has kick-started the mega sale event for all shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event is held thrice in a year—in March, May and December—where all shopping malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur as a leading shopping destination.

Cityscape

Architecture
The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a blend of old colonial influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern, and postmodern architecture mix. Being a relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur's colonial buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings have Moorish, Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture. Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and acclimatised to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around.

Prior to the Second World War, many shophouses, usually two storeys with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese and European traditions. Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today around Medan Pasar (Old Market Square), Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang and Tengkat Tong Shin areas.

Independence coupled with the rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the keris. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated with the designs of the building, signifying Islamic restriction on imitating nature through drawings. Examples of these buildings are Menara Telekom, Menara Maybank, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Center. Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact it is a place of science and knowledge. The 452-metre (1,480 ft) tall Petronas Twin Towers were designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art.

Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With the economic development, old buildings such as Bok House have been razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all glass shell appears around the city, with the most prominent example being the Petronas Twin Towers and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre.

Kuala Lumpur’s central business district today has shifted around the Kuala Lumpur city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline.
View of the KL skyline from Bangsar

Parks
The Perdana Lake Gardens, a 92-hectare (230-acre) manicured garden near the Malaysian Parliament building, was once home to a British colonial official. The park includes a Butterfly Park, Deer Park, Orchid Garden, Hibiscus Garden and Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, Southeast Asia's largest bird park. Other parks in the city include, the ASEAN Sculpture Garden, Kuala Lumpur City Centre Park (KLCC), Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Taman Tasik Permaisuri (Queen’s Lake Gardens), Bukit Kiara Botanical Gardens, Equestrian Park and West Valley Park near TTDI, and Bukit Jalil International Park.

There are three forest reserves within the city namely the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve in the city centre, the oldest gazetted forest reserve in the country (10.52 ha/26.0 acres, Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve (7.41 ha/18.3 acres) and Bukit Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (42.11 ha/104.1 acres). Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city. These residual forest areas are home to a number of fauna species particularly monkeys, tree shrews, squirrels and birds.

Culture

Arts
Kuala Lumpur is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the National Museum which is situated along the Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artifacts and paintings collected throughout the country.

Kuala Lumpur also has an Islamic Arts Museum which houses more than seven thousand Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits from China as well as a library of Islamic art books. This museum features some impressively decorated domes and large open exhibition spaces. It is located at Jalan Lembah Perdana next to the National Mosque.

The premier performing arts venue is the Petronas Philharmonic Hall. The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra (MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances.

The National Art Gallery of Malaysia is located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a 5.67-hectare (14.0-acre) site neighbouring the National Theater (Istana Budaya) and National Library. The architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, as well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and trustee of the national art heritage.

The Petronas Art Gallery, another centre for fine art, is situated in Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC). The Galeri Tangsi near Dataran Merdeka houses exhibitions of works by local and foreign artists.

The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac) in Sentul West is one of the most established centres for the performing arts, notably theatre, music, and film screening, in the country. It has housed many local productions and has been a supporter of local and regional independent performance artists. One of the highlights in 2006 was the KL Sing Song 2006 music fest which featured Malaysian singer-songwriters of various cultural backgrounds, from both West and East Malaysia, through two days of performances and workshops.

Kuala Lumpur holds the Malaysia International Gourmet Festival annually Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, which includes international brands as well as local designers.

Kuala Lumpur has numerous parks and open spaces for recreational purposes. Total open space for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from 586 hectares (1,450 acres) in 1984 to 1,580 hectares (3,900 acres) in 2000.

Kuala Lumpur is one of the host cities for the Formula One World Championship, the open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix and the Motorcycle Grand Prix with races being held at Sepang International Circuit in the neighbouring state of Selangor, next to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The Formula One event contributes significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This is evident during the Asian Financial Crisis in 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, Kuala Lumpur tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6% increase in tourist arrivals.

Other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run, the KL Tower International BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur International Marathon. Kuala Lumpur is also one of the stages of the Tour de Langkawi cycling race.

Kuala Lumpur has a considerable array of sports facilities of international class after hosting the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Many of these facilities including the main stadium (with running track and a football field), hockey stadium and swimming pools are located in the National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalil while a velodrome and more swimming pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, next to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are also soccer fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburbs. Badminton and ‘takraw’ courts are usually included in community halls.

Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil.

The city also has numerous large private fitness centers run by California Fitness, Fitness First, Celebrity Gym, True Fitness and the major five star hotels.

Media
There are several newspapers, including daily newspapers, opposition newspaper, business newspapers and also a digital newspaper, based in Kuala Lumpur. Daily newspapers include Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Harian Metro, The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun, Malay Mail, Kosmo! as well as other language newspapers like Sin Chew Daily, China Press, Nanyang Siang Pau and others oppositions newspapers such as Harakah, Suara Keadilan, Siasah and Wasilah. Kuala Lumpur is also the headquarters for Malaysia's state broadcaster RTM and Media Prima, a media corporation which houses the commercial television stations TV3, ntv7, 8TV and TV9. Programmes are broadcast in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil.

The city is also home to the country's main pay-TV service, Astro, a satellite television service, which broadcasts local and global television channels such as CNN, BBC World, Star World and HBO. Al-Jazeera, the Doha-based Arab news network has launched a new English-speaking channel called Al-Jazeera English to boost its international viewership with one of its broadcast centers based in Kuala Lumpur. Phoenix TV, a Hong Kong based television broadcaster has also announced plans to expand its regional business by partnership with local satellite TV provider, Astro. The Hong Kong office of Channel V International, an international music channel, relocated its programme production unit in Kuala Lumpur by appointing the local company Double Vision Sdn Bhd. In March 2008, Time Out, the international listings and events magazine, launched in Kuala Lumpur as its 24th global city.

Kuala Lumpur has been featured in all aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. Movies set in Kuala Lumpur include Entrapment, starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones, and Children of Men, (starring Clive Owen) where the Petronas Twin Towers were depicted in flames for a few seconds. Books which were set in Kuala Lumpur include KL 24/7 by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin and Democracy by Joan Didion. Kuala Lumpur is also mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists such as Keroncong Kuala Lumpur by P. Ramlee, Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota by Saloma, Chow Kit Road by Sudirman Arshad, Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur by Alleycats, Streets of Kuala Lumpur by Murkyway, K.L. by Vandal, Kuala Lumpur by Poetic Ammo, Anak Dara by Azmyl Yunor and KL by Too Phat. Kuala Lumpur was also one of the destinations in The Amazing Race Asia and The Amazing Race. Games have also been set in Kuala Lumpur. They include three levels of the game Hitman 2: Silent

Transportation
Unlike most other Asian cities, driving is the main mode of commuting in Kuala Lumpur. Hence, every part of the city is well connected by highways. As capital of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road network that leads to the rest of Peninsular Malaysia. High speed roadways, or expressways are tolled roadways, and motorists using these expressways have an option of paying by cash, or by stored value cards such as Touch 'n Go and SmartTAG.

In terms of air connectivity, Kuala Lumpur is served by two airports. The main airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), which is also the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of city. The other airport is Subang Airport which used to be the main international airport serving the city until KLIA replaced it when it opened in 1998. The airport connects the city with direct flights to destinations in six continents around the world, and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspres high-speed train service from KL Sentral which takes only twenty-eight minutes, while travelling by car via highway will take about an hour. As of 2007, Subang Airport is only used for chartered and turboprops flights by airlines such as Firefly and Berjaya Air.

Public transport on Kuala Lumpur and the rest of the Klang Valley covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, rail and taxi. Despite efforts to promote usage of public transportation, utilisation rates are low as only 16 percent of the population used public transportation in 2006. The rapid transit system in Kuala Lumpur consists of three separate rail systems which meet in the city and extends towards other parts of Klang Valley. The rail systems are RapidKL RAIL, KL Monorail, and KTM Komuter. These lines have either underground or elevated stations around the city. The main rapid transit hub is KL Sentral which facilitates as an interchange station for the rail systems. KL Sentral is also a hub for intercity railway operated by KTM Intercity. It provides rail services to as far as Singapore in the south, and Hat Yai, Thailand, in the north.

The largest public transportation operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley is RapidKL. Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, RapidKL has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley metropolitan area to increase ridership and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transportation system. The management of RapidKL has adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater connectivity, and cut down the need of more buses. RapidKL is also the operator of three rapid transit rail lines in Kuala Lumpur, namely Ampang Line, Sri Petaling Line and Kelana Jaya Line.

Kuala Lumpur is served by Port Klang, located about 64 km (40 mi) southwest of the city. The port is the largest and busiest in the country handling about 6.3 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo in 2006.

Education
According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur has a literacy rate of 97.5% in 2000, the highest rate in any state or territory in Malaysia. In Malaysia, Malay is the language of instruction for most subjects while English is a compulsory subject and is used as the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences. There are also schools which provide Mandarin and Tamil as languages of instruction for certain subjects.

In Kuala Lumpur alone, there are 13 tertiary education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens.

There are several notable institutions located in the city which have existed for more than 100 years, such as, Victoria Institution (1893); Methodist Girls' School, Kuala Lumpur (1896); Methodist Boys' School (1897); Convent Bukit Nanas (1899) and St. John's Institution (1904);

Kuala Lumpur is home to the University of Malaya. Established in 1962, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region. It is also the most prestigious tertiary institution in Malaysia, having been ranked first among the universities in Malaysia in the 2004 THES international rankings. In recent years, the number of international students at University of Malaya has risen, a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students.

Other universities located in Kuala Lumpur include International Medical University, Open University Malaysia, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Wawasan Open University and the branch campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Apart from these, universities located around Kuala Lumpur include Monash University Malaysia Campus, Taylor's University College, HELP University College and others.

The National Defence University of Malaysia is located at Sungai Besi Army Base, at the southern part of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major centre for military and defence technology studies. This institution covers studies in the field of army, navy, and air force.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuala_Lumpur


asisbiz website qrcode x100

  
If you love photography as much as we do please help!
A small donation can go a long way allowing us to make this site even better !!
If you have any additional historical information about any of the photo's featured on our website please email me so we can add more information.
This webpage was updated September 06, 2014


 Editor for Asisbiz: Matthew Laird Acred
Please help us to improve these articles with any additional information or photo's, if you should encounter any broken links or display errors :-(