Hindu Symbols

Selangor Sri Subramaniam Kovil Batu Caves

Batu Caves is a limestone hill, which has a series of caves and cave temples, located in Gombak district, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) north of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It takes its name from the Sungai Batu or Batu River, which flows past the hill. Batu Caves is also the name of the nearby village.

The cave is one of the most popular Hindu shrines outside India, dedicated to Lord Murugan. It is the focal point of Hindu festival of Thaipusam in Malaysia which attracts over 1.5 million pilgrims yearly, making it one of the largest annual gatherings anywhere in the world.


The limestone forming Batu Caves is said to be around 400 million years old. Some of the cave entrances were used as shelters by the indigenous Temuan people (a tribe of Orang Asli).

As early as 1860, Chinese settlers began excavating guano for fertilising their vegetable patches. However, they became famous only after the limestone hills were recorded by colonial authorities including Daly and Syers as well as American Naturalist, William Hornaday in 1878.

Batu Caves was promoted as a place of worship by K. Thamboosamy Pillai, an Indian trader. He was inspired by the 'vel'-shaped entrance of the main cave and was inspired to dedicate a temple to Lord Muruga within the caves.

In 1891, Pillai, who also founded the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur, installed the murti (consecrated statue) of Sri Subramania Swamy in what is today known as the Temple Cave. Since 1892, the Thaipusam festival in the Tamil month of Thai (which falls in late January/early February) has been celebrated there.

Wooden steps up to the Temple Cave were built in 1920 and have since been replaced by 272 concrete steps. Of the various cave temples that comprise the site, the largest and best known is the Temple or Cathedral Cave, so named because it houses several Hindu shrines beneath its 100 m vaulted ceiling.

Religious Site

Standing at 42.7 meter (140.09 ft) high, the world's tallest statue of Murugan, a Hindu deity, is located outside Batu Caves, near the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The statue, which cost approximately Rupees 24 million, is made of 1550 cubic metres of concrete, 250 tonnes of steel bars and 300 litres of gold paint brought in from neighboring Thailand.

Rising almost 100 m above the ground, Batu Caves temple complex consists of three main caves and a few smaller ones. The biggest, referred to as Cathedral Cave or Temple Cave, has a 100 m-high ceiling, and features ornate Hindu shrines. To reach it, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps.

At the base of the hill are two more cave temples, Art Gallery Cave and Museum Cave, both of which are full of Hindu statues and paintings. This complex was renovated and opened as the Cave Villa in 2008. Many of the shrines relate the story of Lord Murugan's victory over demon Soorapadam. An audio tour is available to visitors.

The Ramayana Cave is situated to the extreme left as one faces the sheer wall of the hill. On the way to the Ramayana Cave, there is a 50-foot (15 m) tall murti of Hanuman and a temple dedicated to Hanuman, the noble monkey devotee and aide of Lord Rama. The consecration ceremony of the temple was held in November 2001.

The Ramayana Cave depicts the story of Rama in a chronicle manner quite effectively. The cave is well lit and allows the visitor to stroll leisurely viewing the depictions along the irregular walls of the cave. One might experience the feeling that one is strolling through the giant intestines of the mighty demon, Kumbhakarann, brother of King Ravana of Lanka.

A 42.7m (130 feet high) high statue of Lord Muruga was unveiled in January 2006, having taken 3 years to construct. It is the tallest Lord Muruga statue in the world.


Temple is managed by the Board of Management of Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Devasthanam, which also manages the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur and the Kortumalai Pillaiyar Temple. It also performs the role of Hindu Religious Consultant to the Government of Malaysia in determining the Hindu yearly calendar.

Nature, Flora and Fauna

There are various undeveloped caves which contain a diverse range of cave fauna, including some unique species, such as Liphistiidae spiders and Eonycteris and Rousettus fruit bats. The site is also well known for its numerous macaque monkeys, which visitors feed - sometimes involuntarily. These monkeys may also pose a biting hazard to tourists (especially small children) as they can be quite territorial.

Below the Temple Cave is the Dark Cave, with its amazing rock formations and a number of animals found nowhere else. It is a two-kilometer network of relatively untouched caverns. Stalactites jutting from the cave's ceiling and stalagmites rising from the floor form intricate formations such as cave curtains, flow stones, cave pearls and scallops which took thousands of years to form.

In order to maintain the cave's ecology, access is restricted. The Malaysian Nature Society organises regular educational and adventure trips to the Dark Caves.

Rock Climbing
Batu Caves is also the centre of rock climbing development in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Not many people realise that Batu Caves offers more than 160 climbing routes. The routes are scattered all around the side of Batu Caves, which is made up of limestone hills rising to 150 m. These climbing routes are easily accessed as most crags start from ground level.


Icons carried in procession during Thaipusam at Batu Caves. Also seen in the background is the 42.7 m high golden statue of Lord Muruga.

Batu Caves serves as the focus of the Hindu community's yearly Thaipusam (Tamil: தைபூசம்) festival. It has become a pligrimage site for not only Malaysian Hindus, but Hindus worldwide from countries such as India, Australia and Singapore.

A procession begins in the wee hours of the morning on Thaipusam from the Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Kuala Lumpur leading up to Batu Caves as a religious undertaking to Lord Muruga lasting eight hours. Devotees carry containers containing milk as offering to Lord Muruga either by hand or in huge decorated carriers on their shoulders called 'kavadi'.

The kavadi may be simple wooden arched semi-circular supports holding a carrier foisted with brass or clay pots of milk or huge, heavy ones which may rise up to two metres, built of bowed metal frames which hold long skewers, the sharpened end of which pierce the skin of the bearers torso. The kavadi is decorated with flowers and peacock feathers imported from India. Some kavadi may weigh as much as a hundred kilograms.

After a bath in the nearby Sungei Batu (Rocky River), the devotees wend their way to the Temple Cave and with remarkable endurance they climb the flights of stairs to the temple in the cave. Devotees use the wider centre staircase while worshippers and onlookers throng up and down those balustrades off on either side.

When the kavadi bearer arrives at the foot of the 272 step stairway leading up to the Temple Cave, the devotee has to make the arduous climb against gravity- against the press of the bustling masses.

Priests attend to the kavadi bearers. Consecrated ash is sprinkled over the hooks and skewers piercing the devotees flesh before they are removed. No blood is shed during the piercing and removal.

In 2007, the festival attracted more than 1.5 million pilgrims, making it one of the largest gatherings in history.


Housing development began since 1970 with housing estates such as Taman Batu Caves, Taman Selayang, Taman Amaniah, Taman Sri Selayang, and Taman Medan Batu Caves.

In the last decade, the surrounding area has changed from a small villages to industrial estates and new housing and shops. There is also an elevated flyover over the highway. A new RM515mil KTM Komuter rail extension from Sentul to Batu Caves is expected to be completed in May 2009.

List of Hindu temples in Malaysia



* Sri Thandayuthapani Kovil Alor Setar


* Sri Mariamman Temple Penang
* Sri Sangilikarrupar Kaliamman Temple Butterworth, Penang
* Sri Jalan Baru Muneeswarar Temple Butterworth, Penang
* Sri Thandayuthapani Kovil Penang


* Kanniamman Kovil Batu Gajah
* Kanthan Kallumalai Sri Kaliamman Kovil Kuala Kangsar,Chemor
* Sri Thandayuthapani Kovil Ipoh
* Sri Thandayuthapani Kovil Teluk Intan
* Sri Muthu Mariamman Kovil Batu Gajah
* Sri Subramaniyar Swami Kovil Batu Gajah
* Sri Maha Ganapathy Alayam [Ipoh]


* Sri Subramaniam Kovil Batu Caves
* Sri Subramaniar Alayam Sepang, Selangor
* Sri Sitthi Vinayagar Kovil P.J., Selangor
* Sri Sakthi Easwari Kovil P.J., Selangor
* Sri Shivan Temple Bukit Gasing,Selangor
* Sri Subramaniar Kovil P.J., Selangor
* Sri Subramania Swamy Kovil Klang, Selangor
* Sri Sivan Kovil Kota Road, Klang, Selangor
* Sri Maha Mariamman Kovil Klang, Selangor
* Sri Selva Vinayagar Kovil Klang, Selangor
* Sri Raja Rajeswary Kovil Ampang
* Sri Sakthi Vinayagar Alayam Ampang
* Sri Subramaniaswami Temple Paribalana Sabai Kajang
* Sri Sundaraja Perumal Kovil Klang, Selangor
* Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Telok Panglima Garang, Banting
* Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Klang (Istana)
* Sri Vartharaja Perumal Temple SS 13 Subang Jaya, Selangor
* Sri Verrakathy Vinayagar Temple Rawang, Selangor

Negeri Sembilan

* Rasah Mariamman Temple


* Sri Subramaniar Thuropathai Amman Alayam (Gajah Berang Melaka)
* Sri Subramaniar Alayam (Batu Berendam Melaka)
* Sri Mutu Mariam Alayam (Bukit Beruang Melaka)
* Sri Maha Mariamman Temple (Gajah Berang Melaka )
* Sri Maha Mariamman Temple (Pengakalan Rama Melaka )
* Sri Maa Veeran Temple(Madurai Veeran Temple) (Melaka)


* Sri Maha Mariamman Alayam (Chua Estate Ladang Sungai Labis)
* Sri Muniswarar Thiru Kovil (Lorong Mempelam, Jalan Skudai, Tampoi)


* Sri Marathandavar Bala Dhandayuthapani Aalayam Maran
* Sri Maha Mariamman Temple (Jalan Kemunting, Kuantan)
* Sri Sitti Vinayagar Temple (Bukit Ubi, Kuantan)
* Sri Subramaniar Aalayam (Jalan Sungai Lembing, Kuantan)





* Mount Matang Maha Mariamman Temple Mount Matang, Kuching, Sarawak
* Sri Srinivasagar Kaliamman Temple Ban Hock Road, Kuching, Sarawak
* Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Batu Lintang, Kuching, Sarawak

Federal Territory

* Sri Mahamariamman Temple, Jalan Tun H.S Lee
* Sri Kandaswamy Kovil Kuala Lumpur
* Sri Maha Eeswaran Temple Kg. Bumi Hijau, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur
* Sri Thandayuthapani Kovil Kuala Lumpur

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