Flag Malacca

THE PORTUGUESE CONQUEST

At the time of the Portuguese arrival in the Asian seas, Malacca, thanks to its strategic position on the strait bearing the same name, was a remarkable trading center for the trade and shunting of spices. At that time, Malacca was ruled by a Muslim Sultanate. The town extended its influence over a vast territory, which included the whole Malaya Peninsula. Its port was frequented by a multitude of ships and merchants from all the Asian nations of the time: Arabia, Persia, China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Ceylon, and Bengal. In it were gathered and sold all the Asian spices: pepper, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg, etc.

After their arrival in India, the Portuguese soon became aware of the importance of the city. An expedition sailed to Malacca in 1509 but failed, and many of the Portuguese were captured and imprisoned by the Sultan.

In 1511, the ViceRoy of India, Afonso de Albuquerque, decided to organize an expedition destined to conquer Malacca. At the head of 1.100 - 1.200 men and 14 ships, Afonso de Albuquerque arrived in view of Malacca in June of 1511 and immediately demanded the rescue of the Portuguese that were taken prisoners in the 1509 expedition. The Sultan tried to gain time to strengthen the town defenses. He was well aware of the small number of Portuguese troops and was confident on his powerful army of 20.000 men and 2.000 guns.

Albuquerque wasted no time. At dawn of 25 July 1511 the Portuguese attacked the town concentrating the assault on the bridge on the river dividing the town. After a fierce battle the bridge was conquered by the Portuguese, but at nightfall they were forced to retreat.

After some days of preparations, on 10 August 1511, the Portuguese renewed the attack. Albuquerque had the assistance of some Chinese junks that were anchored in the port. The use of a junk offered by the Chinese merchants was decisive, as this junk was used as a bridgehead. This time the attack was successful and the Portuguese finally succeeded in establishing a bridgehead in the town.

There were then several days of siege in which the Portuguese bombarded the city. On 24 August 1511 the Portuguese again attacked only to discover that the Sultan had escaped. With Malacca now in Portuguese hands, they sacked the town, but following Albuquerque’s orders, they respected the property of those who sided with them.

B. W. Diffie and G. D. Winius in the book 'Foundations of the Portuguese Empire 1415-1580' write: 'the capture of Asia's greatest trading city by a mere 900 Portuguese and 200 Indians must rank as an event in the history of European expansion no less stunning than the better known conquest of Tenochtitlan by Hernando Cortés'.

The gate to Albuquerque’s fortress 'A Famosa'. Here, the Vice Roy ordered the erection of a large stone monument inscribed with the names of the men having taken part in the exploit.

MALACCA A PORTUGUESE TOWN

Malacca was one of the three key-points, with Goa and Hormuz, which gave Portugal the control over the main Asiatic trade routes. After the conquest, Albuquerque immediately ordered the building of a fortress on the south side of the river. This fortress was called 'A Famosa' and it was finished in November 1511. Ruy de Brito Patalim was appointed Captain of the 'Fortaleza de Malacca' and about 500 Portuguese soldiers were left as garrison. Shortly thereafter, Albuquerque prepared the ships for the return with the Malacca’s booty. However, during the return voyage to Goa his ship 'Flor do Mar' sank during a storm and all the treasures fetched in Malacca’s were lost. Several Florentine merchants took part in the Portuguese enterprises in Asia. Amongst them, Giovanni da Empoli, was present in Malacca during the siege and the conquest. He described his experiences in an interesting letter to his father.

After the conquest of Malacca, Portugal’s policy in the Malaya Peninsula was either to establish alliances with local rulers or to convince the adjoining Kingdoms to accept Portuguese suzerainty.

From his base at Johore, the old Sultan of Malacca repeatedly attacked Malacca in 1517, 1520, 1521 and in 1525. At last, in 1583, a peace treaty was signed. Malacca was repeatedly under siege in 1550, 1567, 1571 and the main enemies were Johore and Atjeh (in Sumatra). In Malacca, Albuquerque established a new administration, minted a new currency and built a wooden chapel close to the fortress. Adjoining the fortress, a stone church dedicated to 'Nossa Senhora da Anunciada' was erected in 1521, and later to 'Nossa Senhora da Assumpção'. On 4 February 1558 this church was consecrated as a Cathedral. Many Portuguese 'Casados', mostly artisans, merchants or farmers, settled in Malacca.

In 1532, the Confraria da Misericórdia was founded and a beautiful wooden hospital for the poor was also built. The church also started a school. Active missionary work began in 1545 with the arrival of St. Francisco Xavier. In 1552 was set up the 'Camara' (Municipal Council) of Malacca.

In 1602-1603 the Dutch blockaded Malacca by sea, but this was only a first timid attempt.
In 1606 Johore and the Dutch concluded an alliance against the Portuguese and in 1607 they set again the town under siege. Reinforcements from Goa aborted the attempt. Eredia estimated that the Christian population in Malacca in 1613 was around 7.400. There were eight parishes in the town. In 1629 Atjeh made a new great effort, but this time again the Portuguese were victorious. The Dutch made several fruitless attempts between 1623 and 1627, and in 1633 a blockade was set up.

The last siege of Portuguese Malacca begun in June 1640 when a combined Dutch-Johore fleet of 1.500 Dutchmen, 1.500 Malays, 12 Dutch ships, 6 sloops and 40 Johore vessels was sighted off the Malacca port. The siege was extremely hard and nearly 1.500 Dutchmen lost theirs lives. After five months of siege, the Portuguese defenders were without gunpowder and with a severe scarcity of food. Despite the difficulties, under the command of Dom Manuel de Sousa Coutinho, which was sick, they were able to hold out the siege. At the time of the Dutch attack in June 1640, there was, in Malacca, a garrison of about 50 Portuguese soldiers, more than 300 Portuguese 'Casados' with their families and 2.000 or 3.000 Mestiços and Native inhabitants. On 14 January 1641, Dutch commander Willmsoon Kartekoe ordered the last desperate assault. The Portuguese defenders made a fierce final resistance in the Fortaleza Velha and the Dutch were finally driven back.

Detail of the gate of 'A Famosa' where the Portuguese made the last attempt to resist the Dutch attack.

In desperation, the Dutch commander offered to the Portuguese honourable terms of surrender. The brave (and dying) Portuguese commander accepted the generous terms. Dying two days later, he was buried by the Dutch with military honours in the church of São Domingo. The city of Malacca was thus in Portuguese hands from 24 August 1511 till 14 January 1641.

Bibliography:

- Fernandis, Gerard 'Save our Portuguese heritage conference 95 Malacca, Malaysia'
103 pp. Gerard Fernandis, 1995, Malacca, Malaysia, A very interesting book on the Portuguese heritage and history in Malacca.
- Irwin, G. W. 'Melaka fort'
In 'Melaka-The Transformation of a Malay Capital c. 1400-1980' Vol. one Edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. p. 195-241.
The history of the fort of Malacca during the Portuguese and Dutch time.
- Leupe, P.A. 'The seige and capture of Malacca from the Portuguese in 1640-1641'
JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. 1 (1936) pp 1-176.
The occupation of the straits of Malacca 1636-1639, the siege and the capture of Malacca 1640-1641, commissary Justus Schouten's report of his visit to Malacca 1641.
- Noonan, L. 'The Portuguese in Malacca: a study of the first major european impact on East Asia'
In: 'Studia' N° 23 April, pp. 33-104 Centro de Estudos Historicos Ultramarinos, 1968, Lisbon, Portugal.
Very interesting.
The coming of the Portuguese, Portuguese rule in Malacca, Malacca's role in Portuguese colonial strategy, Portuguese-Asian relations in Malacca, the end of Portuguese rule.
- O'Neill, Brian Juan ' A tripla identidade dos portugueses de Malaca'
In: 'Oceanos' n° 32 Outubro - Dezembro 1997, pp. 63-83
- Sandhu K. and Wheatley P. ' Melaka; The Transformation of a Malay Capital c1400 - 1980' ?
816 + 784 pp. 2 volumes, illustrated throughout OUP / Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1983, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
A complete study on Malacca town from the beginning till today, with a bibliography of Melaka studies.
- Silva Rego, Padre Antonio da 'A Comunidade Luso-Malaia de Malaca e Singapura '
In: Actas do V Colóquio Internacional de Estudos Luso-Brasileiros, vol. I, Coimbra, 1964, pp. 507-512.
Also in: Silva Rego, Padre Antonio da  'Dialecto Portugues de Malaca e outros escritos' 304 pp. (Cadernos Ásia) CNCDP, 1998, Lisboa, Portugal.
- Silva Rego, Padre Antonio da 'A Cultura Portuguesa na Malaia e em Singapura '
Comunicaçao apresentata a reuniao conjunta da Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa e do Conselho Geral da Uniao das Comunitades de Cultura Portuguesa, 28 May 1968.
Also in: Silva Rego, Padre Antonio da  'Dialecto Portugues de Malaca e outros escritos' 304 pp. (Cadernos Ásia) CNCDP, 1998, Lisboa, Portugal.
- Sousa Pinto, P. J. de 'Portugueses e Malaios: Malaca e os Sultanatos de Johor e Achém 1575-1619'
334 pp. maps, Fundaçao Oriente, 1997, Lisbon, Portugal.
Malaca e o Estado da India: enquadramento economico, quadro politico militar; Malaca e a geopolitica dos estreitos 1575-1619, Portugueses e Malaios, a cidade de Malaca.
- Sousa Pinto, P. J. de 'Capitaes e casados: um retrato de Malaca nos finais do seculo XVI'
In: 'Oceanos' n° 32 Outubro - Dezembro 1997, pp. 45-60
- Sta Maria, Bernard 'My people, my country. The story of the Malacca Portuguese community' ?
236pp. Malacca Portuguese Development Centre, 1982, Malacca, Malaysia.
Draws attention to role of lay groups in keeping the faith particularly during the Dutch period.
- Sta Maria, Joseph 'Where do we go from here ?'
89 pp.       Joseph Sta Maria , 1991, Malacca, Malaysia.
- Subrahmanyam, Sanjay 'Commerce and conflict: two views of Portuguese Melaka in the 1620s' ?
In: Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, n° 19(1), March 1988, pp.62-79.
- Teixeira, Manuel 'The Portuguese missions in Malacca and Singapore (1511-1958)' ?
3 vols. Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1961, 1963, Lisbon, Portugal.
- Thomaz, Luís Filipe Ferreira Reis 'Early Portuguese Malacca'
196 pp. CTMCDP - IPM, 1998, Macau
From: Thesis 'Os Portugueses em Malaca: 1511-1580' Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, 218 pp. maps 2 voll. 1964, Lisboa.
This volume comprises three essays on the city of Malacca and its society, during the first decades of Portuguese rule.
- Thomaz, Luis Filipe Ferreira Reis 'The Indian merchant communities in Malacca under the Portuguese rule' ?
In: Souza, T. R. de (ed., ) 'Indo-Portuguese History: Old issues, new questions' Concept, New Delhi, 1985, pp.56-72.
Find over 80 million new, used, rare and out-of-print books.

The descendants of the Portuguese of Malacca still today speak Creole Portuguese (Papia Kristang), they are Christians and have Portuguese surnames. The Eurasian community has 12,000 members in the Malaya Peninsula.
ILHA DAS NAUS: the first line of defence at sea of the fort of Malacca

The Portuguese called Ilha das Naus (Pulau Java or Pulau Melaka) a small island outside the harbour of Malacca.
In 1606/1615 the Portuguese  stationed a battery on this island. On the Ilha das Naus the Portuguese planned  a fort 60 feet square. As late as 1638, however, only the foundations of the Ilha das Naus fort had been laid, and its walls were still not finished when the Dutch invasion force sailed into Malacca Harbour two years later. For this reason, the Portuguese, in 1640, had to abandon their partly finished fort without a shot being fired. Shortly afterwards the conquest of Malacca, the Dutch, completed the Portuguese fort on the Ilha das Naus (called by them Red Island).

MUAR: a Portuguese fort in Malay Peninsula

The Portuguese had a second fort in Malay Peninsula, this fort was in Muar, and it now vanished.
Was built by Eredia in 1604 at the mouth of the Muar river. The fort was triangular with round ramparts.

PACEM-PASSUMAH: a Portuguese fort in Sumatra

The actual name should be Pueek ( 05.09N -97.13E ).
The fort was built in 1520/21, and its life was short, Gaspar Correia is positive (Lendas da India,Tomo II ,Parte II ,pp.795 : '...e puserão fogo á fortalesa,que tudo foy feito em cinza: o que foy em Maio de 1524.'
The fort , was square with a wooden 'tranqueira' (palisade) and was built near the seashore.

http://www.colonialvoyage.com/malacca.html

Malacca

Malacca (Malay: Melaka, dubbed as The Historical State or Negeri Bersejarah amongst locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The state's capital is Malacca Town. This historical city centre has been listed as a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO since 7 July 2008.

Although Malacca was once one of the oldest Malay sultanates, the state has no Sultan today. Instead, the head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor.

Geography
The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,650-sq. km. or 0.5 percent of the whole area of Malaysia. The state is divided into 3 districts, that is Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca is located on the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commanding a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital Malacca Town is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore respectively) and is linked with excellent roads and highways. Malacca is yet to have its own train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. It has a domestic airport terminal located in Batu Berendam.

The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.

Demographics

Malacca has a population of 759,000 as of 2007, being composed of:

* Malays: 57%;
* Chinese: 32%, including the Peranakan community;
* Indians, including the Chitty people: a sizeable minority;
* Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community.
* Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.

The major towns of Malacca are Malacca Town, Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Batu Berendam and Ayer Keroh.

History

Sultanate of Malacca
The precise origins of Malacca are disputed. It appears that Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan prince of Palembang who fled Sumatra following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca c. 1400 where he found a good port accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a gray tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on the very place that he was sitting. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration. Parameswara converted to Islam in 1414 and changed his name to 'Raja Iskandar Shah'. In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut) the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara, occurred in the vicinity of the Bukit China ('Chinese Hill') area, which had among the best Feng Shui (geomancy) in Malacca then. Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424, and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.

The prosperity of Malacca attracted the invasion of the Siamese. Attempts in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was at that time a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks.

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's spectacular fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, allegedly a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina).(See Zheng He in Malacca).

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.

During its prime Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca was rising. Malacca was also central in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.
Malacca Harbor in 1831.

European colonization
In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). 'In order to appease the King of Ayudhya' (Siam, of which Malacca was a part) 'the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi.' in 1511.Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died two years later.
Maritime Museum, Malacca

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1795 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.
StadthuysSquare

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.

State government
Malacca is administered by its State Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.

The Chief Minister's Department is the administrative pillar of the State Government, and is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:

* Malacca Central District & Land Office
* Alor Gajah District & Land Office
* Jasin District & Land Office

These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.

Economy
The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, 'Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia' ('Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia'). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.

Malacca holds up several modern shopping complexes to attract more visitors to the state. Examples include Mahkota Parade Shopping Centre at Plaza Mahkota (City Centre), Dataran Pahlawan Melaka Megamall (which is situated on the historical field of Padang Pahlawan, where Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj announced the independence day of the Federation Of Malaya), Melaka Mall Shopping Complex (formerly known as Kotamas Shopping Complexe) and Plaza Melaka Raya at the Taman Melaka Raya.

Malacca also has its very own hypermarket and departmental store. A few examples include Parkson Departmental Store (Mahkota Parade and Melaka Mall), Jusco Supermarket and Departmental Store (Ayer Keroh and coming soon near Melaka Sentral), Tesco Hypermarket and Giant Hypermarket at Bachang Utama; also a Supermarket at (Mahkota Parade).

Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts. There are at least 23 industrial estates that houses some 500 factories from the United States, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore.

Education
Malacca has given birth to numerous successful Malaysians who have achieved immense success in Malaysia and abroad.

The state is much sought after for medical education with the establishment of the Melaka Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.

The state also has a twin campus of Multimedia University which is located in Bukit Beruang. The campus currently attracts many foreign students, especially from the Middle East and Africa, through its computer and engineering programmes. The university also features degree programmes in fields like robotics, bio-instrumentation and law. Most of the student population of Multimedia University is drawn from its foundation programmes, also known as the Alpha Programmes.

Malacca also has several public universities and colleges such as Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) in Lendu, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTeM (previously known as Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia, KUTKM) located in Ayer Keroh, Kolej Yayasan Melaka (KYM), Bukit Baru and Kolej Teknologi Islam Antarabangsa Melaka (KTIAM).

Malacca has its own boarding school called Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah Melaka. The intake of students to this school is based on the Ministry of Education of Malaysia. Usually students with great achievement will be chosen to enter this school. Students normally come from this state, Negeri Sembilan, Johor or from the Klang Valley.

Health care

Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:

* Government hospitals
o Melaka General Hospital
o Jasin District Hospital

Currently, both these government hospitals serve as teaching hospitals for Melaka Manipal Medical College.

* Private Hospitals
o Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
o Pantai Ayer Keroh
o Mahkota Hospital (opposite Mahkota Parade)

Culture
The historic centre of Malacca was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town, the capital of Penang.

The Malays who are the original settlers of Malacca since 1400, form the largest community. The Malaccan Malays are rich in culture from their daily life to the building arts. The famous Malacca Steps or Tangga Melaka are common in front of many Malay houses in Malacca.

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Melaka Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food. Most notable of all is the traditional Malay dishes like ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh tiny shrimp of a species known as geragau in Malay. These are mashed into a paste and Dried in little mashed lumps, then pounded again and formed into large balls, dried again for a week or so, wrapped in plastic and stored for future use. It is in this form that most of these blachan balls are sold .Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chilli peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried. The aroma from the frying mixture can be unpalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur. Melaka is also famous for satay celup. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce. The satay celup is often self service where you pay for individual sticks.

There is also Nyonya-Baba cuisine which is a mixture of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Interesting dishes of the Peranakan include Itek Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce which is usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.

Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the ancient traditions passed down since the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. 'Intrudu' from portuguese word 'Entrudo' (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), 'branyu' (traditional dance), 'Santa Cruz' (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).

The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's already rich cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.

Transport
Pulau Sebang at Alor Gajah district, a town 30 km north of Malacca town, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but were dismantled by the Japanese during the war for the construction of the infamous Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war though traces of the line remain.

Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Central which has air-conditioned waiting areas and separate areas for buses plying the town routes and for buses plying the intertown routes with regular bus services to Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, and other places in Malaysia. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy. It is now refurbished into a brand new international Airport for the state of Melaka.

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits

Popular historical attractions
* Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
* St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inwards towards the mainland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
* St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
* St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named 'Our Lady of The Hill', but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed 'St. Paul's Church'. Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
* Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of 'The Last Supper'.
* Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the 'Apostle of the East'. St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
* Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the 'Museum of History and Ethnography'. The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
* Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is famous for its antique goods. It is also famous for its carnival-like atmosphere during weekend nights.
* Portuguese Square Perhaps the right phrase to infer strong affinity to Portugal would be 'Mini Lisbon'. Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
* Cheng Hoon Teng: Oldest Chinese temple in Malaysia.

In order to attract more tourists to Malacca, the State government has built a number of museums to house its rich cultural heritage.

Key people from Malacca
The following is a list of historically significant as well as well-known contemporary personages who are either born in Malacca, or otherwise, significantly linked to the history of Malacca:

* Tun Ghafar Baba, Malaysia Deputy Prime Minister (1986-1993), UMNO Vice-President (1962-1987), Malacca Chief Minister (1959-1963)
* Ibu Zain, was a pioneer for Malay women (Srikandi) in education, nationalist and politics in Malaysia.
* Shirley Geok-lin Lim, award winning novelist, writer and Professor of English, University of California at Santa Barbara
* Maria Jane Dyer a.k.a. Maria Jane Taylor, born in Malacca in 1837, pioneer missionary to China, daughter of Samuel Dyer and Maria (Tarn) Dyer, she became the wife of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malacca


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