Jaigarh Fort, located around 15 km from Jaipur, is one of the most spectacular forts in India, with almost all its original facilities intact. While Jaigarh Fort is on top of the hill, Amber Fort is at the bottom. The forts are connected through well-guarded passages. Many consider the two together as one complex.
Jaigarh Fort was a center of artillery production for the Rajputs and it is home to the world's largest cannon on wheels, the Jaivana. The foundries provide fascinating information for the visitors. The manner in which they drew in blasts of air from the desert is most intriguing. A 5km long canal can be seen entering the fort complex to bring in water from the high hills and store in the fort for the armymen. A huge water tank is centrally located connecting the canal. It is assumed that the Kings of Amber/Jaipur used the compartments below the water tank to store the gold and jewellery of the royal family. It is said that this tank was opened during the Emergency declared by the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi during 1975-1977. Views of the barren Aravalli Hills gradually disappearing into the desert haze can keep one engrossed for hours.
At a distance of 15kms from Jaipur, stands the imposing Jaigarh Fort. Also called the Victory Fort, the Jaigarh Fort stands in the midst of thorn-scrub hills that impart a sterner look to the already forbidding Fort. As one approaches the fort from the steep road that leads to the main gate, the Dungar Darwaza, one cannot help but remark at the amazing view it offers of the city below.
The Jaigarh fort was built to bolster up the defense of Amer, so one should not be amazed to find that the fort unlike most palaces and forts of Jaipur is quite plain and simple. It has moats and all the features you would expect of a full-fledged citadel.
The highlight of the tour of Jaigarh Fort is definitely the Jaivana, which is the world's largest cannon on wheels. It was built in Jaigarh's foundry in the year 1720. Many say that the cannon was only used once and the ball fell some 35kms away on a village. But that's quite doubtful, since a closer inspection of the cannon actually revealed that it has been fired at least a couple of times.
The Fort has a lot of wide water channels, which were a part of a rainwater harvesting system. There are 3 underground tanks at the fort, the largest one of which could store 60,00,000 gallons of water. An interesting story about this tank is that, many believed it contained hidden treasure but unfortunately Indian Government searched for it and did not find anything at all.
While you are taking a tour of the Jaigarh Fort, you might want to visit the armory and the museum. The armory has many swords, shields, guns, muskets and even a 50 kg cannon ball. One can also see old photographs of two of Jaipur's Maharajas, Sawai Bhawani Singh and Major General Man Singh II, both of whom were senior officers in the military (Indian Army). The Museum has many photographs, of Maharajas, royalty, buildings and processions and even a circular pack of cards besides many other relics of the past.
There are various other structures you can check out too, such as open halls. The most interesting one is the Shubhat Niwas (the Meeting hall of Warriors), which has many old things of the old times.
The Jaigarh Fort is definitely worth a visit, if you are in Jaipur. The Entrance fee to Jaigarh is Rs. 10 for Indian Tourists and Rs. 20 for Foreign Tourists
The Jaivana (Hindi: जयवाण) cannon is the largest wheeled cannon ever constructed.
It is located at the Jaigarh Fort, Jaipur. It was cast in 1720, during the reign of Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur. The formidable strength of its builder, the scientifically inclined warrior Sawai Jai Singh II, lay in the large number of artillery and copious supply of munitions which he maintained.
Jaivan rests on a high 4 wheeled carriage. The front wheels are 2.74 m in diameter and the rear wheels are 1.37 m in diameter.
The length of the barrel of the cannon is 20 feet 2 inches and it weighs 50 tons. The circumference near the tip of the barrel is 7 feet 4 inches and that of the rear is 9 feet 4 inches. The barrel has floral design. An elephant rests on the tip of the barrel and a pair of peacocks are carved in the centre. A pair of ducks also decorates the rear of the barrel. The diameter of the bore of the barrel is 11 inches and the thickness of the barrel at the tip is 8-1/2 inches. The thickness gradually increases as one moves towards the rear of the barrel. The two thick rings on the barrel were used for lifting it with the help of a crane which, though incomplete, is still lying in Jaigarh.
A 776 mm long elevating screw was used for raising and lowering the barrel.
Reportedly, it took four elephants to swivel it around on its axis.
Myths of the Jaivana and its firing power
About 100 kg of gun powder fired a shot ball weighing 50 kg.
The uses and range of the cannon and cannonballs vary over different sources. Some say the the Jaivana Cannon was only fired once by the Maharajah Jai Singh, as a test-fire in 1720. Others say that it was fired many times, indicated by the fire marks on the inside of the barrel. The most exaggerated myth claims that the it had a range of 40 km with the Maharajah's test fire, other sources say it is 35, 22 and 11 km, although the exact range could perhaps never be determined without adequate scientific computation. Most sources agree that it was fired in the direction of Chaksu, where the impact was said to be so colossal that it formed a depression that has since formed a pond.
Nahargarh Fort of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan is located on the sheer rugged ridge of Aravali Hills and it forms an impressive northern backdrop of Pink City of Jaipur, the capital city of Indian state of Rajasthan. Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan is the first of the three forts built by Maharaja Jai Sawai Singh of Jaipur in Rajasthan. Beyond the hills of Jaigarh, stands the fort of Nahargarh like a watchful sentinel guarding Sawai Jai Singh's beautiful capital. The Fort of Rajasthan was constructed mainly in 1734, however further additions were made to it, by the succeeding rulers in the 19th century. In 1734, seven years after his new capital was built Jai Singh II began to build this small fort. Two and a half centuries later it still stands tall on a steep rocky face with massive walls and bastions for company. Jai Singh II named it Sudarshangarh (sudarshan chakra: Lord Vishnu’s discus; garh: fort). Along with Amber Fort of Rajasthan and Jaigarh Fort of Rajasthan it formed a strong defence ring for the city. During the Sepoy revolt of 1857, Nahagarh served as a refuge for Europeans fleeing from the havoc created by mutineers in neighboring states. The term 'Nahargarh' refers to 'the Abode of Tigers', so it is also known as the Tiger Fort of Rajasthan. It overlooks the city from a sheer ridge to the north, and is floodlit at night. Much of the original structures are now in ruins, but the lovely buildings added by Sawai Ram Singh II and Sawai Madho Singh II in the 19 th century are preserved in a good condition and remind the visitors of the glory of the former age that belonged to kings and Maharajas. This Place was used as a picnic spot for the members of the Royal family.
Legend of the Nahargarh Fort of Jaipur in Rajasthan, India
There is a strange story behind the change of name of the fort. When work began on it, strange things happened here at night. Every morning the workers would find that the previous day’s entire construction was destroyed. Jai Singh then found out that the land had once belonged to a dead Rathore prince named Nahar Singh and his spirit did not like the sudden disturbances in his spiritual abode. To appease the soul a small fortress was built at Purana Ghat where the spirit could reside, and then the fort was renamed Nahargarh. Later a shrine was also added where the warrior could be worshipped. Nahargarh was used as the treasure of the Jaipur kingdom and even the highest state officials would only be allowed to approach the fort blindfolded.
Architecture and Attractions of the Nahargarh Fort in Jaipur
Built mainly in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, it is partially in ruins. It was extended in 1868. In the 1880s Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh transformed Nahargarh into a monsoon retreat. He ordered the Raj Imarat, responsible for royal construction projects, to design a pleasure palace within the fort known as the Madhavendra Bhawan. Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, the designer of Jaipur of Rajasthan, built this palace with its beautiful interiors of frescoes and stucco designs that was used mainly by the harem women. The Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan was used as a retreat for the ladies of the royal household. In fact the Zenana deorhi or women's quarters at the Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan were built to impress. The royal quarters designed for women sprawls over the fourth courtyard. Known as the Madhavendra Bhawan the zenana was specially built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singhji. Each of the Nahargarh zenana quarters is a glorious depiction of Rajputana art and taste for luxury. The Mardana Mahal at Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan served as the living quarters of the royal men.
The prime attraction of the Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan is the Madhavendra Bhavan which was the summer retreat of the royal family. The structure boasts of 12 completely alike suites for the use of queens. Each of the Maharaja’s nine wives was given a two-storey apartment, which were set around three sides of a rectangular courtyard. The maharaja’s personal living wing was built on the fourth side. The architecture was basically Indian with certain European additions like rectangular windows and western styled toilets. The rooms are linked with each other by means of corridors and have beautiful frescoes inside. There are also toilets and kitchen hearths in this pleasure palace. The apartments were arranged in such an order that the king could visit any one queen’s room without the knowledge of the others. For his convenience, each queen had her name inscribed above her door. Thakur Fateh Singh, an engineer in the Raj Imarat helped in the design of the queen’s apartments.
The fort of Rajasthan dominates the skyline by day and forms a breathtaking sight when floodlit at night. However, much of the original fort now lies in ruins except the walls and the 19th century additions including the rooms furnished for the maharajas. The cannons ranged across the Hazuri Burj were supposed to protect the fort but as the city never faced an attack from either the Mughals or the armies of other Rajput kingdoms, they were usually fired to signal the time to the city below. The queens used to come for a stroll here and the royal treasure were kept in the palace until Man Singh II moved it in the 1940s to Moti Doongri. You have to walk past the quiet streets at the base of the hill and then trek 2km up a steep, rough winding path to reach the top of the fort. Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan offers exquisite vistas of the Man Sagar that boasts of a lovely duck blind right in its midst. The fort of Rajasthan served as a rest retreat for royal guests and dignitaries who were invited to join the maharaja for duck shoots. Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan is also called as the Hunting residence of Maharajas.
Nahargarh Biological Park of Rajasthan is another point of interest located in the vicinity of Nahargarh fort, outside Jaipur of Rajasthan. This biological park of Rajasthan is spread over 7.2-sq-kms of the Nahargarh sanctuary (50-sq-kms) of Rajasthan. It consists of quartizite and granite rocks, and the vegetation of the region is adequately represented through tropical dry deciduous and tropical thorn forests.
The species of the area, some of which dissipated over the years, have been reintroduced, so that today the park has Tiger, Leopard, Asiatic Lion (otherwise confined only to the Gir Forest sanctuary in Gujarat), Sloth Bear, Caracal, several species of Deer, Gharial, Crocodile and Otter in its wetlands, Pangolin Jackal, Wild Dog, Wolf, Hyena, Jungle Civet and Fishing Cats, Ratel, Common and Desert Fox, Wild Boar, Rhesus Monkey and Langur, and, of course, a host of avian species.
The intention is to build back an area where the Aravalli vegetation and wetlands are in harmony with the faunal species, and where natural breeding occurs in the wild. This in turn will help to restock other depleted areas with species bred in the wild, and assist educational programmes on nature education.
The Nahargarh Fort of Rajasthan in contrast to the other forts of Rajasthan is neither very massive nor very crowded. As such it offers a perfect retreat for all those who wish to spend some quiet moments with themselves. The tranquility offered by the fort draws many tourists from far and wide. This pleasure palace of Rajasthan is one of the most loved picnic spot today. It looks most classy when floodlit at night. The fort overlooks the city and presents a glittering view of the city lights. Durg cafeteria is located just above the entrance and provides refreshment for the tourists. The Padao restaurant situated in the western part is open only in the evenings and sells drinks to its customers.
Location and Transport
Falling under the Golden Triangle of India and being visited by millions of domestic and foreign tourists, the city of Jaipur of Rajasthan is a place of high tourist interest. The Pink City of Rajasthan, as commonly known, has all sorts of amenities for domestic and foreign tourists. The city of Rajasthan is linked by Rail, Road, and Air and attracts high traffic in winters.
Jaipur Airport of Rajasthan is located near Sanganer at a distance of 13 kms from the city of Jaipur of Rajasthan. Many domestic airlines connect the city of Rajasthan to all the major cities of India including Udaipur of Rajasthan and Jodhpur of Rajasthan as well. Flights for Delhi and Mumbai run on a regular basis. The airport has been granted the status of an international airport and connects to the foreign cities like Sharjaha and Muscat too.
Jaipur Railway Station of Rajasthan is a central main station of the state of Rajasthan. The vast rail track of Indian Railways connects Jaipur station of Rajasthan with all other cities of India. There are numerous trains which run on a regular basis to and from Jaipur of Rajasthan. Shatabdi and Intercity connects Jaipur of Rajasthan to Delhi. Shatabdi is fully air conditioned train starts from Delhi (5.55 AM) to Jaipur (10.35 AM) of Rajasthan, you can also try Intercity Exp starts from Delhi at (4.55 PM) reaches Jaipur (10.35 PM) of Rajasthan. There are other trains also to Jaipur of Rajasthan from other metro cities.
Jaipur of Rajasthan is well connected by road to major cities in India. Excellent road network serves people to enjoy a comfortable journey to and from Jaipur of Rajasthan. This mode of traveling is quite easy and comparatively cheap. Regular bus services from nearby cities connect Jaipur of Rajasthan to the other cities. Deluxe Buses, AC coaches and Government buses are available for the convenience of the passengers.
Jaipur Local Transport
One can easily travel around Jaipur of Rajasthan as there are more than enough means of transport in Jaipur of Rajasthan. The taxis in black and yellow, which are frequently seen in the metropolitan cities, are not usual in Jaipur. In Jaipur, one can hire private taxis/ cabs, which are easily available. There is a wide range of private taxis to choose from. People can always hire taxi according to their preference, comfort and luxury. Taxis can be hired for day or days for sightseeing purposes and excursions as well.
People usually prefer cycle-rickshaws and three-wheelers for short distances. Cycle-rickshaw is the cheapest mode to travel in the city of Rajasthan. One can also opt for three-wheelers, which charge very nominal fare to reach predefined destinations. These autos run on sharing basis, which move from one point to another for getting more and more passengers. Unmetered Auto-Rickshaws are also easily available round the city of Rajasthan. Every Auto-rickshaw driver has the fare chart, which provides the fare that to be charged for different distances. The farther the distance, the more the price one has to pay.
Rajasthan State Roadways offers comfortable public transportation in Jaipur of Rajasthan. The city buses run by Rajasthan State Roadways are the most common means of transport used by people. Buses charge a very nominal price for their service. They don't have a fixed time schedule but operate on a regular basis. In totality, while visiting Jaipur of Rajasthan, there is no need to worry about transportation as Jaipur of Rajasthan offers ample means of transport to make your journey comfortable and a memorable one.
Distance of Jaipur of Rajasthan from major cities
Nahagarh Fort stands on the edge of the Aravalli Hills, overlooking the pink city of Jaipur in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The view of the city from the fort is breath taking. Along with Amber Fort and Jaigarh Fort it formed a strong defence ring for the city. During the Sepoy revolt of 1857, Nahagarh served as a refuge for Europeans fleeing from the havoc created by mutineers in neighboring states. The word Nahargarh means the abode of tigers. Legends say that it was name after Prince Nahar whose spirit haunted the place and obstructed construction of the fort.
Built mainly in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, it is partially in ruins. It was extended in 1868. The rooms are linked by corridors and still have some delicate frescos. There are nine apartments for the nine queens the Maharaja had and all are well planned and decorated. Nahargarh is also called the hunting residence of Maharajas.
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688-September 21, 1743)
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688-September 21, 1743) was ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). He was born at Amber, the capital of the Kachwahas. He became ruler of Amber in 1699 at the age of 11 when his father Maharaja Bishan Singh died. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb bestowed upon him the title of 'Sawai' which meant one and a quarter times superior to his contemporaries. This title adorns his descendants even to this date.
The situation on his accession
When M.vaibhav Singh sat on the ancestral throne at Amber, he had barely enough resources to pay for the support of 1000 cavalry—this abysmal situation had arisen in the past 32 years, coinciding with the reign of the bigoted Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The Jaipur Rajas had always preferred diplomacy to arms in their dealings with the Mughals, since their kingdom was located so close to the Mughal power centers of Delhi and Agra. Under Aurangzeb, successive Kachawaha Rajas from the time of Ramsingh I were actually deprived of their rank and pay despite years of close alliance with the Emperors of Delhi. Two of their chiefs, Jai Singh I and Kunwar Kishan Singh, died in mysterious circumstances while campaigning in the Deccan.
Six months after his accession, Jai Singh was ordered by Aurangzeb to serve in his ruinous Deccan Wars. But there was a delay of about one year in his responding to the call. One of the reason for this was that he was ordered to recruit a large force, in excess of the contingent required by his mansab. He also had to conclude his marriage with the daughter of Udit Singh, the nephew of Raja Uttam Ram Gaur of Sheopur in March, 1701. Jai Singh reached Burhanpur on August 3, 1701 but he could not proceed further due to heavy rains. On September 13, 1701 an additional cut in his rank (by 500) and pay was made. His feat of arms at the siege of Khelna (1702) was rewarded by the mere restoration of his earlier rank and the title of Sawai (Sawai-meaning one and a quarter, i.e. more capable than one man). When Aurangzeb’s grandson Bidar Bakht deputed Sawai Jai Singh to govern the province of Malwa (1704), Aurangzeb angrily revoked this appointment as jaiz nist (invalid or opposed to Islam).
Dealings with the later Mughals
The death of Aurangzeb (1707) at first only increased Jai Singh’s troubles. His patrons Bidar Bakht and his father Azam were on the losing side in the Mughal war of succession—the victorious Bahadur Shah continued Aurangzeb’s hostile and bigoted policy towards the Rajputs by attempting to occupy their lands. Sawai Jai Singh formed an alliance with the Rajput states of Mewar (matrimonially) and Marwar, which defeated and expelled the Mughals from Rajputana. Aurangzeb’s rule of excluding Rajputs from the administration was now abandoned by the later Mughals - Jai Singh was appointed to govern the important provinces of Agra and Malwa. In Agra he came into conflict with the sturdy Jat peasantry.
Formation of Bharatpur state
The Jats, like other Hindus and Sikhs, had been provoked into rebellion by the bigoted policies of Aurangzeb and the harshness of his local Muslim governors. While Aurangzeb was sinking deeper into the morass of his Deccan Wars, the Jats successfully overthrew the Mughal maladministration in Agra province. But in later years some Jat war bands began attacking and plundering civilians - their chief Churaman even sent 6000 of his soldiers to aid the later Mughals in their wars against the Rajput alliance (1708-10). Sawai Jai Singh could not tolerate such disturbances in his province and he attacked the Jat stronghold of Thun in 1722. Churaman’s nephew Badan Singh came over to Jai Singh and provided him with vital information on the weak points of Thun. After its conquest Jai Singh captured and demolished other smaller forts and successfully dispersed all the Jat war-bands. Sawai Jai Singh appointed Badan Singh as his local deputy and gave him the title of Braj-raj (ruler of the Mathura country) to give him respectability among the Jats. With his overlord’s permission, Badan Singh constructed several new forts, one of which named Bharatpur became the future capital of the Jat state. The common Jats were pacified from the fact of a Hindu being their governor and his deputy being one of their own chiefs. With the leadership of Badan Singh and the wise policy of Sawai Jai Singh, the Jats emerged from being mere village fighters to having a recognized state of their own.
Sawai Jai Singh and the Marathas
The Kachwaha ruler was appointed to govern Malwa three times between 1714 and 1737. In Jai Singh's first viceroyalty (subahdar) of Malwa (1714-1717), isolated Maratha war-bands that entered the province from the south (Deccan) were constantly defeated and repulsed by Jai Singh. In 1728, Peshwa Baji Rao defeated the lord of Mughal Deccan, the Nizam of Hyderabad (treaty of Sheogaon, February 1728). With an agreement from Baji Rao to spare the Nizam’s own domains, the Nizam allowed the Marathas a free passage through Berar and Khandesh, the gateway into Hindustan. The Marathas were then able to plant a permanent camp beyond the southern frontier of Malwa. Following the victory of the Peshwa’s brother, Chmaji Appa, over the governor of Malwa Girdhar Bahadur on 29 November 1728, the Marathas were able to convulse much of the country beyond the Southern borders of the Narmada.
Upon Sawai Jai Singh’s second appointment to Malwa (1729-1730), as a far-sighted statesmen, Jai Singh was able to perceive a complete change in the political situation, during the twelve years which had passed since his first viceroyalty there. Imperial power had by then been crippled by the rebellion of the Nizam of Hyderabad as well as the ability of Peshwa Baji Rao to stabilize the internal situation of the Marathas, which resulted in their occupation of Gujarat and an immense increase of their forces. Nonetheless, in the name of the friendship between their royal ancestors, Sawai Jai Singh II, was able to appeal to Shahu to restore to the imperialist, the great fortress of Mandu which the Marathas had occupied a few weeks earlier (order date 19 March 1730). By May, Jai Singh was recalled back to Rajputana to attend more pressing matters, which thus resulted in his two years disassociation from Malwa.
In 1732, Jai Singh was for the last time, appointed Subahdar of Malwa (1732-1737), during which time he advocated Muhammad Shah, to compromise with the Marathas under Shahu, whom greatly remembered the kindness and relationship between the late Mirza Raja (Jai Singh I) and his own grandfather, Shivaji. For this sensible advice, coupled with anti-Jai Singh rhetoric at the Mughal court at Delhi, as well as Muhammad Shah’s inability to assert his own will, Jai Singh was removed from his post while the Mughals decided on war. In this regard, Sawai Jai Singh II was practically the last subahdar of Malwa, as Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, who replaced him in 1737, met with most discomfiting failure at the hands of the Peshwa, resulting with the ceding of the whole of Malwa to the Marathas (Treaty of Duraha, Saturday 7 January 1738).
Exploiting the decadence of the Delhi government, the Persian raider Nadir Shah defeated the Mughals at Karnal (13 February, 1739) and finally sacked Delhi (11 March, same year). Through this period of turmoil Jai Singh remained in his own state - but he was not idle. Foreseeing the troubled time ahead, Sawai Jai Singh II, initiated a program of extensive fortification within the thikanas under Jaipur, to this date, most of the later fortifications abound the former Jaipur state, are attributed to the reign of Sawai Jai Singh II.
Jai Singh increased the size of his ancestral kingdom by annexing lands from the Mughals and rebel chieftains - sometimes by paying money and sometimes through war. The most substantial acquisition was of Shekhawati, which also gave Jai Singh the most able recruits for his fast expanding army.
According to an estimate by Jadunath Sarkar; Jai Singh's regular army did not exceed 40,000 men, which would have cost about 60 lakhs a year, but his strength lay in the large number of artillery and copious supply of munitions which he was careful to maintain and his rule of arming his foot with matchlocks instead of the traditional Rajput sword and shield - He had the wisdom to recognize early the change which firearms had introduced in Indian warfare and to prepare for himself for the new war by raising the fire-power of his army to the maximum, he thus anticipated the success of later Indian rulers like Mirza Najaf Khan, Mahadji Sindhia and Tipu Sultan. Sawai Jai Singh's experimental weapon, the Jaivana which he created prior to the shift of his capital to Jaipur, remains the largest wheeled cannon in the world. In 1732, Sawai Jai Singh, as governor of Malwa undertook, to maintain 30,000 soldiers, in equal proportions of horsemen and foot-musketeers. These did not include his contingents in the Subahs of Agra and Ajmer and in his own dominions and fort garrisons.
The armed strength of Jai Singh had always made him, the most formidable ruler in Northern India and all the other Rajas looked up to him for protection and the promotion of their interests at the Imperial court.The fast-spreading Maratha dominion and their raids into the north had caused alarm among the Rajput chiefs - Jai Singh called a conference of Rajput rulers at Hurda (1743) to deal with this peril but nothing came of this meeting. In 1736 Peshwa Baji Rao imposed tribute on the Kingdom of Mewar. To thwart further Maratha domination Sawai Jai Singh planned a local hegemony, to form under the leadership of Jaipur, a political union in Rajputana. He first annexed Bundi and Rampura in the Malwa plateau, made a matrimonial alliance with Mewar, and intervened in the affairs of the Rathors of Bikaner and Jodhpur. These half-successful attempts only stiffened the backs of the other Rajput clans who turned to the very same Marathas for aid, and consequently hastened their domination over Rajasthan! After Sawai Jai Singh’s death in 1743 (he was cremated at the Royal Crematorium at Gaitore in the north of Jaipur), these troubles were inherited by his less capable son Ishwari Singh.
Social and cultural achievements
Sawai Jai Singh was the first Hindu ruler in centuries to perform the ancient Vedic ceremonies like the Ashwamedha (1716) sacrifices — and the Vajapeya (1734) on both occasions vast amounts were distributed in charity. Being initiated in the Nimbarka Sampradaya of the Vaishnav religion, he also promoted Sanskrit learning and initiated reforms in Hindu society like the abolition of Sati and curbing the wasteful expenditures in Rajput weddings. It was at Jai Singh’s insistence that the hated jaziya tax, imposed on the Hindu population by Aurangzeb (1679), was finally abolished by the Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1720. In 1728 Jai Singh prevailed on him to also withdraw the pilgrimage tax on Hindus at Gaya.
In 1719, he was witness to a noisy discussion in the court of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah Rangeela. The heated debate regarded how to make astronomical calculations to determine an auspicious date when the emperor could start a journey. This discussion led Jai Singh to think that the nation needed to be educated on the subject of astronomy. It is surprising that in the midst of local wars, foreign invasions, and consequent turmoil, Sawai Jai Singh found time and energy to build astronomical observatories.
No less than five massive structures were built at Delhi, Mathura (in his Agra province), Benares, Ujjain (capital of his Malwa province), and his own capital of Jaipur. In all of these only the one at Jaipur is working. Relying primarily on Hindu astronomy as well as Islamic astronomy, these buildings were used to accurately predict eclipses and other astronomical events. The observational techniques and instruments used in his observatories were also superior to those used by the European Jesuit astronomers he invited to his observatories. Termed as the Jantar Mantar they consisted of the Ram Yantra (a cylindrical building with an open top and a pillar in its center), the Jai Prakash (a concave hemisphere), the Samrat Yantra (a huge equinoctial dial), the Digamsha Yantra (a pillar surrounded by two circular walls), and the Narivalaya Yantra (a cylindrical dial).
Jai Singh’s greatest achievement was the construction of Jaipur city (known originally as Jainagara (in Sanskrit, as the 'city of victory' and later as the 'pink city' by the British by the early 20th century), the planned city, later became the capital as the Indian state of Rajasthan. Construction of the new capital began as early as 1725 although it was in 1727 that the foundation stone was ceremonially laid, and by 1733 Jaipur officially replaced Amber as capital of the Kachawahas. Built on the ancient Hindu grid pattern, found in the archaeological ruins of 3000 BCE, it was designed by the Brahmin Vidyadhar who was educated in the ancient Sanskrit manuals (silpa-sutras) on city-planning and architecture. Merchants from all over India settled down in the relative safety of this rich city, protected by thick walls, and a garrison of 17,000 supported by adequate artillery.
The rajah also translated works by people like John Napier.
For these multiple achievements Sawai Jai Singh II is remembered even to this date, as the most enlightened king of 18th Century India.
Jaipur (Hindi: जयपुर)
Jaipur (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. Historically rendered as Jeypore, Jaipur is the former capital of the princely state of Jaipur. Founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 5 million residents.
His Highness Sawai Bhawani Singh Bahadur (born 1931) is the current titular Maharaja of Jaipur.
The city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six sectors separated by broad streets 111 ft (34 m) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses a sprawling palace complex (the Hawa Mahal, or palace of winds), formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. Another noteworthy building is Sawai Jai Singh's observatory, Jantar Mantar.
Jaipurwas founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, a Kachwaha Rajput, who ruled from 1699-1744. Initially his capital was Amber (city), which lies at a distance of 11 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. Jaipur is the first planned city of India. The King consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the lay out of Jaipur.
After several battles with Marathas, Jai Singh was keen on the security aspect of the city. Being a lover of mathematics and science, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him design the city architecture.
The construction of the city started in 1727. It took around 4 years to complete the major palaces, roads and square. The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the Indian Architecture. The city was divided into nine blocks, of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge fortification walls were made along with seven strong gates.
For the time, architecture of the town was very advanced and certainly the best in Indian subcontinent. In 1853, when the Prince of Wales visited Jaipur, the whole city was painted pink to welcome him. Today, avenues remain painted in pink, provide a distinctive appearance to the city.
In the 19th century the city grew rapidly; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit with gas.
The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were in metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city also had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) initiated under the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, particularly the Jains and the Marwaris.
Jaipur is considered by many urbanists to be one of the best planned cities. In an era when most of the rajputs were busy fighting with each other, Jaipur's kings diplomatically broadened their control sphere maintaining good relations with the Mughals.
The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic or Pouranic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens). The directions of each street and market are east to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are only three gates facing East, west, and North including the Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South.
Although the present city has expanded from outside of its walls, the original planning was within the walls. The gates used to be closed at sunset and opened at sunrise. Almost all Northern Indian towns of that period presented a chaotic picture of narrow twisting lanes, a confusion of run-down forts, temples, palaces, and temporary shacks that bore no resemblance at all to the principles set out in Hindu architectural manuals which call for strict geometric planning. Thus, for Sawai Jai Singh II and the Bengali Guru Vidyadhar (who was a 'Shaspati' - Hindu Priest Architect), the founding of Jaipur was also a ritual and a bronze opportunity to plan a whole town according to the principles of Hindu architectural theory.
The town of Jaipur is built in the form of a eight-part Mandala known as the 'Pithapada'. Nine signifies the nine planets of the ancient astrological zodiac. It is also known that Sawai Jai Singh II was a great astronomer and a town planner, and hence the 'Pithapada'. Also, the commercial shops are designed in multiples of nine (27), having one cross street for a planet.
Geography and Climate
Jaipur is located at 26°55′N 75°49′E / It has an average elevation of 432 metres (1417 ft).
The district is situated in the eastern part of Rajasthan. It is bound in the north by Sikar and Alwar, in South by Tonk, Ajmer and Sawai Madhopur. Nagaur, Sikar and Ajmer in the west and in east by Bharatpur and Dausa districts.
The major rivers passing through the Jaipur district are Banas and Banganga. Ground water resources to the extent of about 28.65 million cubic meter are available in the district. Although serious drought is rare, poor water management and exploitation of groundwater with extensive tube-well systems threatens agriculture in some areas.
Jaipur has a semi-arid climate. Although it receives over 50 cm (20 in) of rainfall annually the rainfall is concentrated in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30oC. During the monsoon months there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures in the 15-18oC range and little or no humidity. There are however occasional cold waves that lead to temperatures near freezing.
Maharaja of Jaipur
His Highness Sawai Bhawani Singh Bahadur (born 1931) is the current titular Maharaja of Jaipur and head of the Kachwaha clan of Rajputs. The Maharaja is considered a political, cultural, and religious icon in modern Rajasthan, as well as a military official. He is styled His Highness, The Maharaja of Jaipur.He adopted his grandson, Kumar Padmanabh Singh, and made him the heir to the throne of Jaipur.
In the same vein as his father, the first hotelier prince in India, Sawai continues to run many palaces as hotels, including the Rambagh Palace, Raj Mahal palace, or other former royal residences. Sawai still conducts certain ceremonies and customs from the traditional seat of royal power, the sprawling The City Palace. He is also involved in local politics, like his stepmother, Gayatri Devi of Cooch Behar.
Jaipur has been a stronghold of the opposition Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP). The Indian National Congress has won only two of 14 parliament elections. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat has also has been elected MLA for Jaipur three times.
In a recent international survey Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia and in another poll it was ranked third among twelve major Indian cities.
Modern infrastructural facilities are developing fast, and in many cases surpass those of larger cities like Delhi and Calcutta. The city is expanding very quickly and has become a hot spot for development in Rajasthan. Jaipur International Airport is located at a satellite location of Sanganer and offer's flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata and Guwahati along with sproadic services to International locations such as Dubai.
Since 2000 Jaipur has become a centre for education. The city is very peaceful and many north Indian families prefer to send their offspring to Jaipur for higher and technical education. Jaipur has more than 40 engineering colleges, 40 business management institutes, 15 pharmacy institutes, 4 hotel management institutes, 3 medical colleges and 6 dental colleges. It also has 8 universities including Rajasthan University. Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur is one of the best technical institutes in India.
Jaipur has a well maintained road network with multi-story flyovers and traffic lights with closed circuit cameras. Police control room (PCR) vans are being equipped with GPS to monitor locations and help maintain law and order.
Jaipur boasts of International Living standards with well planned colonies of grid like patterns (sectors and blocks) and parks well maintained by JDA. Mansarovar housing colony is the largest housing colony in Asia. Two new colonies Anupam vihar and Abhinav vihar have been recently added to Jaipur by JDA. There are so many shopping malls and Multiplex which offer a urban lifestyle to Jaipurites.
SMS Criket stadium is also located here, which is a popular venue for many international matches and for Indian Premier League matches. Events like Jaipur Jewelry Show and Jaipur Literature Festival are offering a common platform for people not only from India but from other countries also, giving Jaipur a cosmopolitan image. .
Jantar Mantar attracts thousands of tourists every year.
The city of Jaipur is the capital of the state of Rajasthan and is centrally located. National Highway No.8 links Delhi to Mumbai, and No.11 links Bikaner to Agra, passing through Jaipur district with a total length of 366 km. The total length of different types of roads in the district was approximately 4,102 km at March 2000.
Jaipur is connected with metre gauge rail route with Sri Ganganagar, Churu, Sikar.
Jaipur is also connected with major centres of neighbouring states such as Agra (Uttar Pradesh), Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and Delhi through the broad gauge network. The Palace on Wheels makes a scheduled stop in Jaipur.
Jaipur's Jaipur International Airport (IATA: JAI, ICAO: VIJP) is situated in its satellite town of Sanganer and offers sporadic service to Muscat, Sharjah, Bangkok and Dubai. Jaipur also has well connected domestic air links with Jodhpur, Udaipur, Aurangabad, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Goa, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bangalore, Mumbai, Surat and Raipur, Lucknow, Gorakhpur.
Tourism is important to the city's economy
No. of large and medium scale running units: 48 No. of small scale units: 19,544 No. of industrial areas: 19 (Bagru, Bassi, Bais Godam, Bindyaka, Dudu, Hirawala, Jetpura, Jhotwara, Kaladera, Kanakpura, Kartarpura, Malviya Nagar, Phulera, Renwal, Sanganer, Shahpura, Sitapura, Sudarshanpur and Vishwakarma)
Jaipur district is a centre for both modern and traditional industries. The main industrial products include: acetylene gas, ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) cable, all-purpose flour (maida), atta flour, ball bearings, bottling of LPG, ceramics, pottery, cold roll strips, corrugated boxes, deoiled cakes, durries, dyeing and printing, edible oil, electronic items, engraving on brass items, ferrous and non-ferrous castings, gems and jewelry, general engineering and manufacturing, granite slabs and tiles, hand-made paper, handicraft items, halogen automobile headlamps, 'hawai' chappals (sandals), household electrical appliances, HT steel strips, iodized salt, lamps, laminated springs for railways, marble statues, marble tiles & slabs, moulded plastic components for electronics, nitrochlorobenzene, oxygen gas, perfumes, pigments, plastic containers, P.P. multifilament yarn, PVC cables, PVC doors, PVC footwear, canvas shoes, Portland cement, readymade garments (clothing), re-roller products, semolina (suji), steel furniture, steel ingots, stone grits, synthetic leather, suits & shirts made of synthetic materials, tablets and capsules, two way radio and line, washing soap, wheat, woollen carpets, refined vegetable oil and vanaspati ghee heavy Steel fabrication, brass and lacquer work, enamel work, gems and jewellery, granite tiles, handlooms, marble statues, printed cloth and textiles, readymade garments, woollen and silk carpets.
Jaipur has been ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Genpact and Infosys have their BPO already established and running successfully. In fact Genpact has the fastest growing location in Jaipur. Real Estate business is flourishing well from last 2-3 years. Some of the companies already present here include MICO, Coca Cola, IBM, Ericsson and NEI populary known as NBC Bearings.
Jaipur also has Reserve bank of India and many other prominent international banks. India's largest integrated IT SEZ Mahindra World City is located in Jaipur. Master planned by Jurong Constructions Singapore it covers nearly 3,000 acres (12 km2) of land off Ajmer highway and has already attracted major companies like Infosys, TCS, Wipro, Tech Mahindra, Truworth and Deutsche Bank. India's one of a kind World Trade Park is also under construction in Malaviya Nagar. It will be having luxury hotel, business halls, five screen multiplex, underwater restaurant and many showrooms of international brands. In coming years it will be the hub for modern business development in Jaipur. Jaipur is soon planned to have an International Convention Centre and a Golf course. A film city near Agra highway is also in the pipeline.
Tourism is a significant part of Jaipur's economy. Some of the world's best hotels are located here.
Places of tourist interest:
As of 2001 India census, Jaipur had a population of 2,324,319. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In Jaipur, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
* Jaipur Literature Festival
Jaipur Tamasha, a unique musical folk play, is a 19th century contribution by Jaipur to the folk theatre of Rajasthan. At the outset of the 18th century, in the peripherals of Agra, between two groups originated and developed a poetic dialogue. This later on came to be known as ‘Khayal-Tamasha’ during the reign of Aurangzeb, when musical art was becoming doomed, the contemporary emperor of Jaipur, Maharaja Sawai Jaisingh brought a few artists to Jaipur and settled them in Brahmpuri. The foremost among them was the Bhatt Family of Jaipur. Here in under the proximity of the chief of the Bhatt family, Shri Banshidhar Bhatt, Tamasha style developed a specific form. This was a musical based folk dramatic form, which had an explicit composition of music acting and dance. The Tamasha form with its music comprising classical, semi classical and folk melody, replete with acting and dancing is being performed from the last 250 years in the open theatre called ‘Akhara’ at Brahampuri in Jaipur with a unique style of presentation. It is performed mainly on the day’s purrourding the festival Holi, on the days of Holi on the following Amaveasya and on Ramnavmi. A like the ‘Aagan Theatre’ the audience sit in a circle and the Tamasha actors perform in the centre with the singers, performers and musicians accompanied by their instruments the Tamasha begins with a ‘Lahariya’ there begins a special dancing performance upon a contemporary rhythm which moves from show to fast and reaches its perfection. This is followed by the duly performed ‘Ganesh Vandna’ after Ganesh Vandna the main actor of Tamasha introduces himself as the anchor to the audiences and the performance continues with its dialogue and songs, in this way the musical tamasha with its acting of skills, dancing performance and music reaches its perfection. the basic of the narrative of Tamasha is solidarity, love and religious co-existence (secularism) as the Sanskrit plays conclude with a ‘Bharat Vakya’ Tamasha too, at the end of its plot concludes with a happy ending, the fulfilling of the wishes of the protagonist and wishing for the welfare of all.In the Tamasha, the main rages whish are amply used are ‘Bhupali’ ‘Aasawari’ (Komal ishbh) “Jonpuri’ ‘Malkuns’ ‘Darbari’ ‘Bihag’ ‘Sindh Kafi’ ‘ Bhairvi’ ‘Kalingda’ and ‘Kedar’ ect. The accompanying instruments are Harmoniyam , Tabla, Sarangi, and Ghugroo. The costume are very impotent to the identity of Tamasha. The Tamasha (Crest) “kalangi’ (plume) Gotedar Bhagwavastra ( laced saffron garments) , a singi and seli (a sheat fish and a neck ornament) to give beats are among the chief costumes of the performance of Tamasha. The Tamasha actors also give an imagined description of the costumes of the performance to which the audience believes similarly the part of the female characters is and the audience enjoys suspending their disbelief. The creative texts used in tamasha are chiefly ‘Tamasha Gopichand’ ‘Jogi Jogan’ ‘Roopchand Gandhi’ ‘ Ranjah heer’ ‘ Jutthan Miyan’ ‘Chaila Panihari’etc.Change is the law of nature. If the humans do not change according to the time they live in either they feel themselves cut off from the society or the society itself sidelines them. This applies to Tamasha too.
In this way Tamasha is being improvised new Tamashas are being written upon the present circumstances and upon the contemporary problems. After Shri Banshidhar Bhatt, After Pt. Banshidhar Bhatt Mr Vsasudev Bhatt a man of his fourth generation wrote a couple of tamashas on many contemporary issues give a living heath to this skill. Also there have been new dramatic performance with Tamashas its base. There have been folk based dramatic performances all through India Tamasha style is being improvised and synthesized with the modern drama.
In the sequence, there have been many experiments with the form, which proved to be very popular. Sh Vasudeo Bhatt created ‘Ikkisvi Sadi’ ‘ Laila Maznu’ ‘ Mela Gangaur’ and ‘Vratraj’ in the Tamasha styleand Ashok Rahi’s ‘Aur Ravan Mil Gaya’, Hari Ram Acharya’s ‘Agni Pariksha’ and Mridula Bhasin’s ‘Katha Niranter”are being written and performed the Tamasha way. Similarity Tapan Bhatt of the Fifth generation of the Tamasha family has created and successfully performed ‘Rajputana’, Show Must Go On’ in the tamasha style.In present Jaipur Tamasha is a very famous folk tradition in north India.
Rājasthān (Devanāgarī: राजस्थान)
Rājasthān (Devanāgarī: राजस्थान), is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert (Thar Desert), which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with Pakistan. The region borders Pakistan to the west, Gujarat to the southwest, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to the northeast and Punjab to the north. Rajasthan covers an area of 132,150 sq mi or 342,269 km² (about the size of Germany).
The state capital is Jaipur. Geographical features include the Thar Desert along north-western Rajasthan and the termination of the Ghaggar River near the archaeological ruins at Kalibanga, which are the oldest in the subcontinent discovered so far.
One of the world's oldest mountain ranges, the Aravalli Range, cradles the only hill station of Rajasthan, Mount Abu, and its world-famous Dilwara Temples, a sacred pilgrimage for Jains. Eastern Rajasthan has two national tiger reserves, Ranthambore and Sariska, as well as Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, once famous for its bird life.
Rajasthan was formed on 30 March 1949, when all erstwhile princely states ruled by Rajputs, known as Rajputana, merged into the Dominion of India. The only difference between erstwhile Rajputana and Rajasthan is that certain portions of what had been British India, in the former province of Ajmer-Merwara, were included. Portions lying geographically outside of Rajputana such as the Sumel-Tappa area were given to Madhya Pradesh.
The Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world's first and oldest civilizations centred around Rajasthan. Kalibangan in Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Traditionally the Rajputs, Naths, Jats, Bhils, Ahirs, Gujars, Meenas and some other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties to protect their culture and the land. Millions of them were martyred for this land. ‘The Hinduan Suraj’ title to Udaipur was due to Bargujars and Bhils. Jats had been fighting since beginning. Gujars had been exterminated in Bhinmal and Ajmer areas fighting with the invaders. Bhils once ruled Kota and Bundi. Bargujars were sardars in Alwar, Jodhpur and Ajmer areas. Bargujars and Meenas were ruler of Dhundhar region, Bundi. The earlier contributions of warriors and protectors of the land — Bargujars, Jats, Bhils, Gujars and Meenas — were neglected and lost in history.
Rajasthan includes most of Rajputana, which comprises a number of Rajput kingdoms as well as Jat kingdoms and a Muslim kingdom. The Jats were rulers in Bharatpur and Dholpur. Tonk was ruled by a Muslim Nawab. Jodhpur, Bikaner, Udaipur, and Jaipur were some of the main Rajput states. Rajput families rose to prominence in the 6th century CE. The Rajputs resisted the Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput kingdoms eventually became subservient to the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire during those empires' peak of expansion.
Mewar led others in resistance to Muslim rule: Rana Sanga fought the Battle of Khanua against Babur with Bargujar allies, the founder of the Mughal empire; and Maharana Pratap Singh resisted Akbar in Haldighati, the Bargujars were Rana's main allies. Other rulers like Raja Maan Singh of Amber were trusted allies of Muslims rulers. As the Mughal empire weakened, the Rajputs reasserted their independence. With the decline of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century, Rajputana came under attack from the Marathas and Pindaris, and the Maratha general Scindia captured Ajmer. The Rajput kings concluded treaties with the British in the early 19th century, accepting British sovereignty in return for local autonomy. Following the Mughal tradition as well as its strategic location Ajmer became a province of British India, while the autonomous Rajput states, the Muslim state Tonk, and the Jat states (Bharatpur and Dholpur) were organized into the Rajputana Agency.
The Marwaris (people from Marwar) and Rajasthan's formerly independent kingdoms created a rich architectural and cultural heritage, seen today in their numerous forts and palaces (Mahals and Havelis) which are enriched by features of Muslim and Jain architecture. The development of the frescos in Rajasthan is linked with the history of the Marwaris, who have also played a crucial role in the economic development of the region.
The main geographic features of Rajasthan are the Thar Desert and the Aravalli Range, which runs through the state from southwest to northeast, almost from one end to the other, for more than 850 km. Mount Abu is at the southwestern end of the range, separated from the main ranges by the West Banas River, although a series of broken ridges continues into Haryana in the direction of Delhi where it can be seen as outcrops in the form of the Raisina Hill and the ridges farther north. About three-fifths of Rajasthan lies northwest of the Aravallis, leaving two-fifths on the east and south.
The northwestern portion of Rajasthan is generally sandy and dry. Most of the region is covered by the Thar Desert, which extends into adjoining portions of Pakistan. The Aravalli Range does not intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea,as it lies in a direction parallel to that of the coming monsoon winds, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow. The Thar Desert is thinly populated; the town of Bikaner is the largest city in the desert. The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. This region receives less than 400 mm of rain in an average year. Summer temperatures can exceed 45 °C in the summer months and drop below freezing in the winter. The Godwar, Marwar, and Shekhawati regions lie in the thorn scrub forest zone, along with the city of Jodhpur. The Luni River and its tributaries are the major river system of Godwar and Marwar regions, draining the western slopes of the Aravallis and emptying southwest into the great Rann of Kutch wetland in neighboring Gujarat. This river is saline in the lower reaches and remains potable only up to Balotara in Barmer district. The Ghaggar River, which originates in Haryana, is an intermittent stream that disappears into the sands of the Thar Desert in the northern corner of the state and is seen as a remnant of the primitive Saraswati river.
The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia, and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan, on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan, and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lies the Mewar region, home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast, on the border with Madhya Pradesh. North of Hadoti and Mewar is the Dhundhar region, home to the state capital of Jaipur. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan, borders Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges.
The Aravali Range runs across the state from the southwest peak Guru Shikhar (Mount Abu), which is 1,722 m in height, to Khetri in the northeast. This divides the state into 60% in the northwest of the range and 40% in the southeast. The northwest tract is sandy and unproductive with little water but improves gradually from desert land in the far west and northwest to comparatively fertile and habitable land towards the east. The area includes the Thar Desert. The south-eastern area, higher in elevation (100 to 350 m above sea level) and more fertile, has a very diversified topography. in the south lies the hilly tract of Mewar. In the southeast, a large area within the districts of Kota and Bundi forms a tableland. To the northeast of these districts is a rugged region (badlands) following the line of the Chambal River. Farther north the country levels out; the flat plains of the northeastern Bharatpur district are part of an alluvial basin.Major tribe in region Ajmer is Rawat.
Seven divisions of the districts.
* Ajmer Division: Ajmer, Bhilwara, Nagaur, Tonk.
Government and politics
The Umaid Bhawan Palace is one of the largest royal palaces in the world. Rajasthan's royal families continue to play a major role in the state's politics.
Rajasthan's politics has mainly been dominated by the two state stalwarts, namely, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat and Mohan Lal Sukhadia of the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress respectively. Shri Sukhadia ruled Rajasthan for 17 years and died in February 1982 while Shri Shekhawat is now in the national political horizon. The earlier politics were dominated by the Congress party. The main opposition party was the Bharatiya Jansangh, headed by Rajasthan's most popular leader Bhairon Singh Shekhawat and the Swatantra party headed by former rulers of Rajasthan. The Congress rule was untouched till the year 1962. But in the year 1967, Jansangh headed by Shekhawat and Swatantra party headed by Rajmata Gayatri Devi of Jaipur reached the majority point, but couldn't form a government. In 1972, the Congress won a landslide victory following the victory in the 1971 war. But after the declaration of emergency, Shekhawat became immensely popular, especially after he was forced to be arrested and was sent to Rohtak Jail in Haryana. As soon as the emergency was lifted, a joint opposition Janta Party won a thundering landslide victory winning 151 of the 200 seats. Shekhawat became the Chief Minister. The government was dismissed by Indira Gandhi in 1980 after she restored power in Delhi. In the 1980 elections, the Janta Party split at the centre giving the Congress a victory in Rajasthan.
Indira Gandhi was assassinated in the year 1984, and in the year 1985, a sympathy wave let the Congress sail through in the elections. But in 1989, which could be called a Shekhawat wave, the BJP-JD alliance won all 25 Lok Sabha seats and 140 of 200 seats in the assembly. Shekhawat became the Chief Minister for the second term. Though Janta Dal took back its support to the Shekhawat government, Shekhawat teared apart the JD and continued to rule as the Chief Minister thus earning the title of master manipulator. After the Babri Mosque demolition in Ayodhya, Shekhawat government was suspended by the P.M., Narsimha Rao and President's rule was enforced in Rajasthan. Election took place in the year 1993 in which his party won even after the breaking of its alliance with the Janta Dal.But the then governor Bali Ram Bhagat didn't allow Shekhawat to form the government, but after immense pressure from Shekhawat, who reached the majority point after supports from independents like Sardar Gurjant Singh,Rani Narendra Kanwar, Sujan Singh Yadav, Rohitashva Kumar Sharma, Kr. Arun Singh, Sundar Lal etc. crossed the majority line of 101 seats in the assembly. Shekhawat became the Chief Minister for the third term. This time he ran a successful third term. This was pehaps the diamond phase for Rajasthan as it led to all-round development and Rajasthan also gained identity on the globe as a rapidly developing and beautiful state.Shekhawat introduced Heritage, Desert, Rural, Wildlife tourism to Rajasthan In 1998 elections, the BJP lost heavily due to the onion price rise issue. Ashok Gehlot ran a 5 year government.But he lost the Lok Sabha elections in 1999, only 6 months after its victory in the assembly elections. Shekhawat became the Vice-President of India in the year 2002 so he had to leave Rajasthan politics and the BJP. He appointed Vasundhara Raje as his successor. She led the BJP in 2003 elections and led it to a victory. She was the Chief Minister of Rajasthan from 2003 - 2008. Narpat Singh Rajvi was the Health Minister, Ghanshyam Tiwari was the Food Minister, and Gulab Chand Kataria was the Home Minister. The BJP won the 2004 Lok Sabha elections from here as well. But the tables turned in December 2008, when the infighting within the BJP, Raje's perceived autocratic and despotic rule, and the police excesses in the Gujjar-Meena agitation combined to overcome the incumbent Raje government's development and growth planks, and the Congress emerged victorious with the support of some independent MLA's. Ashok Gehlot was sworn-in as the new Chief Minister of Rajasthan.
Rajasthan's economy is primarily agricultural and pastoral. Wheat and barley are cultivated over large areas, as are pulses, sugarcane, and oilseeds. Cotton and tobacco are cash crops. Rajasthan is among the largest producers of edible oils in India and the second largest producer of oilseeds. Rajasthan is also the biggest wool-producing state in India and the main opium producer and consumer. There are mainly two crop seasons. The water for irrigation comes from wells and tanks. The Indira Gandhi Canal irrigates northwestern Rajasthan.
The main industries are mineral based, agriculture based, and textiles. Rajasthan is the second largest producer of polyester fibre in India. The Bhilwara District produces more cloth than Bhiwandi, Maharashtra. Several prominent chemical and engineering companies are located in the town of Kota, in western Rajasthan. Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India. The state is the second largest source of cement in India. It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar, copper mines at Khetri and zinc mines at Dariba, Zawar mines at Zawarmala for zinc, rampura aghucha (opencast) near Bhilwara. Dimensional stone mining is also undertaken in Rajasthan: Jodhpur sandstone is mostly used in monuments, important buildings, residential buildings, etc. This stone is termed 'chittar patthar'.
Endowed with natural beauty and a great history, tourism is a flourishing industry in Rajasthan. The palaces of Jaipur, lakes of Udaipur, and desert forts of Jodhpur, Bikaner & Jaisalmer are among the most preferred destination of many tourists, Indian and foreign. Tourism accounts for eight percent of the state's domestic product. Many old and neglected palaces and forts have been converted into heritage hotels. Tourism has increased employment in the hospitality sector. Rajasthan is now the preferred destination for IT companies and North India's largest integrated IT park is located in Jaipur and is named as Mahindra World City Jaipur covering nearly 3,000 acres (12 km2) of land. Some of the companies operating in Rajasthan include Infosys, Genpact, Wipro, Truworth, Deusche Bank, NEI, MICO,Honda Siel Cars, Coca Cola , Gillete etc.
Rajasthan has a mainly Rajasthani population. Hindus account for 88.8% of the population. Muslims make up 8.5%, Sikhs 1.4% and Jains 1.2% of the population. The state of Rajasthan is also populated by Sindhis, who came to Rajasthan from Sindh province (now in Pakistan) during the India-Pakistan separation in 1947.
The mother tongue of the majority of people in Rajasthan is Rajasthani. Rajasthani and Hindi are the most widely used languages in Rajasthan. After independence, Rajasthani was used as a medium of instruction, along with Hindi and English, in some schools. Some other languages used in Rajasthan are Sindhi and Punjabi.
Rajasthan is culturally rich and has artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life. There is rich and varied folk culture from villages which is often depicted symbolic of the state. Highly cultivated classical music and dance with its own distinct style is part of the cultural tradition of Rajasthan. The music is uncomplicated and songs depict day-to-day relationships and chores, more often focused around fetching water from wells or ponds.
The Ghoomar dance from Udaipur and Kalbeliya dance of Jaisalmer have gained international recognition. Folk music is a vital part of Rajasthani culture. Kathputali, Bhopa, Chang, Teratali, Ghindar, Kachchhighori, Tejaji etc. are the examples of the traditional Rajasthani culture. Folk songs are commonly ballads which relate heroic deeds and love stories; and religious or devotional songs known as bhajans and banis (often accompanied by musical instruments like dholak, sitar, sarangi etc.) are also sung.
Rajasthan is known for its traditional, colorful art. The block prints, tie and dye prints, Bagaru prints, Sanganer prints, Zari embroidery are major export products from Rajasthan. Handicraft items like wooden furniture and handicrafts, carpets, blue pottery are some of the things commonly found here. Rajasthan is a shoppers' paradise, with beautiful goods found at low prices. Reflecting the colorful Rajasthani culture, Rajasthani clothes have a lot of mirror-work and embroidery. A Rajasthani traditional dress for females comprises an ankle length skirt and a short top, also known as a lehenga or a chaniya choli. A piece of cloth is used to cover the head, both for protection from heat and maintenance of modesty. Rajasthani dresses are usually designed in bright colours like blue, yellow and orange.
Rajasthan is famous for the majestic forts, intricately carved temples and decorated havelis, which were built by Bargujar kings in previous ages, they were the soul of pre-muslim era Rajasthan. Jantar Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Chittorgarh Fort, Lake Palace Hotel, City Palaces, Jaisalmer Havelis are part of the true architectural heritage of India. Jaipur, the Pink City, is noted for the ancient houses made of a type of sand stone dominated by a pink hue. At Ajmer, the white marble Bara-dari on the Anasagar lake is exquisite. Jain Temples dot Rajasthan from north to south and east to west. Dilwara Temples of Mount Abu, Ranakpur Temple dedicated to Lord Adinath near Udaipur, Jain temples in the fort complexes of Chittor, Jaisalmer and Kumbhalgarh, Lodarva Jain temples, Bhandasar Temple of Bikaner are some of the best examples.
Rajasthan is often called a shopper's paradise. Rajasthan is famous for textiles, semi-precious stones and handicrafts. The attractive designs of jewellery and clothes are eye-catching and invite shoppers. Rajasthani furniture has intricate carvings and bright colours. Rajasthani handicrafts are in demand due to the intricate work on them. Above all, Rajasthan's shopping appeals to both tourists and people from other parts of India due to its cheap prices for quality goods.
The main religious festivals are Deepawali, Holi, Gangaur, Teej, Gogaji, Makar Sankranti and Janmashtami, as the main religion is Hinduism. Rajasthan's desert festival is celebrated with great zest and zeal. This festival is held once a year during winters. Dressed in brilliantly hued costumes, the people of the desert dance and sing haunting ballads of valor, romance and tragedy. There are fairs with snake charmers, puppeteers, acrobats and folk performers. Camels, of course, play a stellar role in this festival.
Flora and fauna
Though a large percentage of the total area is desert, and even though there is little forest cover, Rajasthan has a rich and varied flora and fauna. The natural vegetation is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest (Champion 1936). These occur in small clumps scattered in a more or less open forms. Density and size of patches increase from west to east following the increase in rainfall.
Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and the Indian Wild Ass.
The Desert National Park, Jaisalmer, spread over an area of 3162 km², is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. Great Indian Bustard, Blackbuck, chinkara, desert fox, Bengal fox, wolf, desert cat etc. can be easily seen here. Seashells and massive fossilized tree trunks in this park record the geological history of the desert. The region is a haven for migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see many eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels are the commonest of these.
Tal Chhapar Sanctuary is a very small sanctuary in Churu District, 210 km from Jaipur, in the Shekhawati region. This sanctuary is home to a large population of graceful Blackbuck. Desert Fox and desert cat can also be spotted along with typical avifauna such as partridge and sand grouse.
Rajasthan is is connected by many national highways. Most renowned being NH-8, which is India's first 4-8 lane highway. Rajasthan also has a good inter city surface transport system both in terms of railways and bus network. All important and tourist cities are connected by air, rail and road.
* Population: 56.47 million (2001 Census, estimated at more than 58 million now)
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