United States Navy aircraft carrier CV-6 USS Enterprise
USS Enterprise (CV-6)
Name: USS Enterprise (CV-6)
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding
Laid down: 16 July 1934
Launched: 3 October 1936
Commissioned: 12 May 1938
Decommissioned: 17 February 1947
Nickname: The Big E, Lucky E, The Grey Ghost, The Galloping Ghost
Honors and awards: Campaign Star 20 Battle Stars Presidential Unit Citation Navy Unit Commendation American Defense Service Medal ("Fleet" clasp) American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (20 stars) World War II Victory Medal Philippine Presidential Unit Citation Philippine Liberation Medal (1 star) British Admiralty Pennant
Fate: Scrapped 1958–1960
Class and type: Yorktown-class aircraft carrier
Displacement: As built: 19,800 tons standard 25,500 tons full load
From October 1943: 21,000 tons standard 32,060 tons full load
Length: As built: 770 ft (230 m) waterline 824 ft 9 in (251.38 m) overall
From July 1942: 827 ft 5 in overall length
Beam: As built: 83 ft 3 in (25.37 m) 109 ft 6 in (33.38 m) overall
From October 1942: 114 ft 5 in overall width
From October 1943: 95 ft 5 in waterline
Draft: 25 ft 11.5 in (7.912 m)
Propulsion: 9 × Babcock & Wilcox boilers 4 × Parsons geared turbines 120,000 shp 4 × propellers
Speed: 32.5 knots (37.4 mph; 60.2 km/h)
Range: 12,500 nautical miles (23,150 km; 14,380 mi) at 15 knots (17 mph; 28 km/h)
Complement: 2,217 officers and men (1941)
Sensors and processing systems: CXAM-1 RADAR
Armament: As built: 8 × single 5 in/38 cal guns 4 × quad 1.1 in/75 cal guns 24 × .50 caliber machine guns
From April 1942: 8 × 5 in/38 cal 4 × quad 1.1 in/75 cal 30 × 20 mm Oerlikon cannons
From mid-June 1942 to mid-Sept 1942: 8 × 5"/38 cal 5 × quad 1.1"/75 cal 32 × 20 mm Oerlikons
From Mid-Sept. 1942: 8 × 5 in/38 cal 4 × quad 40 mm Bofors guns 1 × quad 1.1 in/75 cal 44 × 20 mm Oerlikons(46 from 11/42)
From October 1943: 8 × 5 in/38 cal 40 × 40 mm Bofors (8×2, 6×4) 50 × 20 mm Oerlikon
From September 1945: 8 × 5 in/38 cal 54 × 40 mm Bofors (5×2, 11×4) 32 × 20 mm Oerlikons (16×2)
Armor: 2.5–4 in belt 60 lb protective decks 4 in bulkheads 4 in side and 2 in top round conning tower 4 in side over steering gear
Aircraft carried: 90 aircraft
Aviation facilities: 3 × elevators 2 × flight deck hydraulic catapults 1 × hangar deck hydraulic catapults
USS Enterprise (CV-6), colloquially referred to as the 'Big E,' was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh U.S. Navy ship to bear the name. Launched in 1936, she was a ship of the Yorktown class, and one of only three American carriers commissioned prior to World War II to survive the war (the others being Saratoga and Ranger). She participated in more major actions of the war against Japan than did any other US ship. These actions included the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, various other air-sea engagements during the Guadalcanal campaign, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, and the Battle of Leyte Gulf. On three separate occasions during the Pacific War, the Japanese announced that she had been sunk in battle, earning her the name 'The Grey Ghost'.
Enterprise earned 20 battle stars, the most for any U.S. warship in World War II. Some have labeled her the most glorious and honored ship in the history of the United States Navy, rivaled only perhaps by the 18th century frigate USS Constitution.
Construction and commissioning
Enterprise was launched on 3 October 1936 at Newport News Shipbuilding, sponsored by Lulie Swanson, wife of Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson, and commissioned on 12 May 1938. Enterprise sailed south on a shakedown cruise which took her to Rio de Janeiro. After her return, she operated along the east coast and in the Caribbean until April 1939, when she was ordered to duty in the Pacific.
Enterprise was one of fourteen ships to receive the early RCA CXAM-1 RADAR. Based first at San Diego (where she was used in the filming of Dive Bomber, starring Errol Flynn and Fred MacMurray) and then at Pearl Harbor after President Roosevelt ordered the Fleet to be 'forward based,' the carrier and her aircraft squadrons trained intensively and transported aircraft among the island bases of the Pacific. Enterprise left Pearl Harbor on 28 November 1941. Enterprise was completing one such mission, returning to Hawaii after delivering Marine Fighter Squadron 211 (VMF-211) to Wake Island on 7 December 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.
World War II
Enterprise was returning to Oahu on the morning of 7 December 1941: 18 SBD Dauntlesses of Enterprise squadrons Scouting Squadron Six (VS-6) and Bombing Squadron Six (VB-6) arrived over Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack and, though surprised, immediately went into action in defense of the naval base. VS-6 lost six planes during the attack, while VB-6 lost one. Several of these planes were shot down by the Japanese; however, at least one plane was lost to heavy antiaircraft (AA) fire, and many more were damaged. At one point a radio report was heard: 'Do not attack me, this is Six Baker Three an American plane' and later the same pilot (Ensign Manuel Gonzales of VB-6) was heard ordering his radioman/gunner to prepare for a water landing. Lieutenant C. E. Dickinson and his crewmate William C. Miller of VS-6 shot down one Japanese plane before being forced to bail out after their plane caught fire. Dickinson later made his way to Ford Island to man another plane, and participated in the search for the Japanese fleet. He was recommended for a commendation for 'displaying a superb courage, stamina, devotion to duty, unexcelled logic and coolness in action.'
Enterprise also launched six F4F Wildcats of Fighting Squadron Six (VF-6) in the wake of the attack; all except two were shot down by shell-shocked AA gunners as they attempted to land on Ford Island that night. The carrier, meanwhile, assembled her remaining aircraft in a fruitless search for the Japanese striking force; the search was to the south and west of Oahu, while the Japanese retired to the northwest. Enterprise put into Pearl Harbor for fuel and supplies on the night of 8 December, and sailed early the next morning to patrol against possible additional attacks in the Hawaiian Islands. Although the group encountered no surface ships, Enterprise aircraft sank Japanese submarine I-70 at 23°45′N 155°35′W on 10 December 1941.
During the last two weeks of December 1941, Enterprise and her group steamed west of Hawaii to cover those islands while two other carrier groups made a belated attempt to relieve Wake Island. After a brief rest at Pearl Harbor, the Enterprise group sailed on 11 January, protecting convoys reinforcing Samoa. On 1 February, Enterprise's Task Force 8 raided Kwajalein, Wotje, and Maloelap in the Marshall Islands, sinking three ships, damaging eight, and destroying numerous airplanes and ground facilities. Enterprise received only minor damage in the Japanese counterattack, as her group retired to Pearl Harbor.
During the next month the Enterprise group swept the central Pacific, attacking enemy installations on Wake and Marcus Islands, then received minor alterations and repairs at Pearl Harbor. On 8 April 1942, she departed to rendezvous with Hornet and sail west, escorting Hornet on the mission to launch 16 Army B-25 Mitchells in the 'Doolittle Raid' on Tokyo. While Enterprise fighters flew combat air patrol, the B-25s launched on 18 April, and flew undetected the remaining 600 miles (1,000 km) to the target. The task force, its presence known to the enemy after a sighting by small vessels, reversed course and returned to Pearl Harbor on 25 April.
Five days later, the 'Big E' sortied toward the South Pacific to reinforce U.S. carriers operating in the Coral Sea. However, the Battle of the Coral Sea was over before Enterprise arrived. After executing, with Hornet, a feint towards Nauru and Banaba (Ocean) islands which caused the Japanese to cancel their operation to seize the two islands, Enterprise returned to Pearl Harbor on 26 May, and began intensive preparation to meet the expected Japanese thrust at Midway Island.
On 28 May, Enterprise sortied as Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance's flagship with orders 'to hold Midway and inflict maximum damage on the enemy by strong attrition tactics'. With Enterprise in CTF 16 were Hornet, six cruisers, and 10 destroyers. On 30 May, Task Force 17 (TF17), with Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher in Yorktown, left Pearl with two cruisers and six destroyers as CTF-17; as senior officer present, Rear Admiral Fletcher became 'Officer in Tactical Command.' The usual commander of the Enterprise task force, Vice Admiral William F. 'Bull' Halsey, was kept in hospital at Pearl with a stress-related skin condition.
Each side launched air attacks during the day in a decisive battle. Though the forces were in contact until 7 June, by the end of the day on 4 June the outcome had been decided. The Battle of Midway began on the morning of 4 June 1942, when four Japanese carriers, unaware of the presence of U.S. naval forces, launched attacks on Midway Island. Just three hours after the first bomb fell on Midway, planes from the U.S. carriers attacked. Enterprise launched a failed attack using torpedo bombers, then soon after Enterprise dive bombers attacked and sank the Japanese carriers Kaga and Akagi. Later in the afternoon, a mixed squadron of Enterprise and Yorktown bombers destroyed Hiryu (aircraft from Yorktown also sank Sōryū). Yorktown and Hammann were the only American ships sunk, but TF 16 and TF 17 lost a total of 113 planes, 61 of them in combat, during the battle. Japanese losses were much larger: four carriers, one cruiser, and 272 carrier aircraft. Despite losses to her aircraft squadrons, Enterprise came through undamaged and returned to Pearl Harbor on 13 June 1942.
After a month of rest and overhaul, Enterprise sailed on 15 July 1942 for the South Pacific, where she joined TF 61 to support the amphibious landings in the Solomon Islands on 8 August. For the next two weeks, the carrier and her planes guarded seaborne communication lines southwest of the Solomons. On 24 August, a strong Japanese force was discovered some 200 miles (300 km) north of Guadalcanal, and TF 61 sent planes to the attack. This was the first time that the Grim Reapers of VF-10 deployed from Enterprise under commanding officer James H. Flatley, who became known as 'Reaper Leader.' In the ensuing Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the light carrier Ryūjō was sunk, and the Japanese troops intended for Guadalcanal were forced back. Enterprise suffered most heavily of the American ships; three direct hits and four near misses killed 77, wounded 91, and inflicted serious damage on the carrier. Quick, hard work by damage control parties patched her up so that she was able to return to Hawaii under her own power.
Repaired at Pearl Harbor from 10 September-16 October 1942, Enterprise departed once more for the South Pacific, where with Hornet she formed TF 61. On 26 October, Enterprise scout planes located a Japanese carrier force and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands was under way. Enterprise aircraft struck carriers and cruisers during the struggle, while the 'Big E' herself underwent intensive attack. Hit twice by bombs, Enterprise lost 44 men and had 75 wounded. Despite serious damage, she continued in action and took on board a large number of planes and crewmen from Hornet when that carrier was sunk. Though the American losses of a carrier and a destroyer were more severe than the Japanese loss of one light cruiser, the battle gained time to reinforce Guadalcanal against the next enemy onslaught, and nearby Henderson Field was therefore secure from the Japanese bombardment. Enterprise was now the only functioning US carrier in the Pacific Theater because the USS Saratoga was undergoing repairs at Pearl Harbor and the USS Ranger was reassigned to the Atlantic fleet. On the flight deck, the crew posted a sign: 'Enterprise vs Japan.'
A Japanese bomb explodes on the flight deck of Enterprise on 24 August 1942, during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, causing minor damage.
Enterprise reached Nouméa, New Caledonia on 30 October for repairs, but a new Japanese thrust at the Solomons demanded her presence and she sailed on 11 November, with repair crews from Vestal still working on board. Part of the repair crew comprised a 75-man Seabee detachment because adequate regular repair forces were lacking. Underway with orders to engage the enemy, the Seabees continued their repair work even during the forthcoming battle. Ship repairs fell under the round-the-clock supervision of her damage control officer Lieutenant Commander Herschel Albert Smith, USN (USNA- Class 1922, Michigan). 'She made the open sea with her decks still shaking and echoing to air hammers, with welders' arcs still sparking, with a big bulge in her right side forward, without water tight integrity and one oil tank still leaking, and with her forward elevator still jammed as it had been since the bomb at Santa Cruz broke in half.'. It should be noted here that the 75-man Seabee detachment was from Company B of the 3rd Construction Battalion.
The commanding officer of Enterprise, Captain Osborne Bennett 'Ozzie B' 'Oby' Hardison, USN (USNA- Class 1916, North Carolina) notified the Navy Department that 'The emergency repairs accomplished by this skillful, well-trained, and enthusiastically energetic force have placed this vessel in condition for further action against the enemy'. This remarkable job later won the praise of Vice Admiral William Halsey, Jr., USN, Commander South Pacific Area and the South Pacific Force, who sent a dispatch to the OIC of the Seabee detachment stating: 'Your commander wishes to express to you and the men of the Construction Battalion serving under you his appreciation for the services rendered by you in effecting emergency repairs during action against the enemy. The repairs were completed by these men with speed and efficiency. I hereby commend them for their willingness, zeal, and capability.'
On 13 November, aviators from Enterprise helped to sink Hiei. When the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ended on 15 November 1942, Enterprise had shared in sinking 16 ships and damaging eight more. The carrier returned to Nouméa on 16 November to complete her repairs.
Sailing again on 4 December, Enterprise trained out of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, until 28 January 1943, when she departed for the Solomons area. On 30 January, her fighters flew combat air patrol for a cruiser–destroyer group during the Battle of Rennell Island. Despite the destruction of most of the attacking Japanese bombers by Enterprise planes, USS Chicago was sunk by aerial torpedoes.
Detached after the battle, the carrier arrived at Espiritu Santo on 1 February, and for the next three months operated out of that base, covering U.S. surface forces up to the Solomons. Enterprise then steamed to Pearl Harbor where, on 27 May 1943, Admiral Chester Nimitz presented the ship with the first Presidential Unit citation awarded to an aircraft carrier. On 20 July 1943, with Essex-class carriers now joining the fleet, Enterprise was temporarily relieved of duty, and entered Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a much-needed overhaul.
Over the course of several months, Enterprise received an extensive refit, which included, among other upgrades, an anti-torpedo blister that significantly improved her underwater protection.
Return to duty
Back in waters by mid-November, Enterprise joined in providing close air support to the 27th Infantry Division (United States) landing on Makin Atoll, from 19–21 November 1943. On the night of 26 November, 'Big E' introduced carrier-based night fighters to the Pacific when a three-plane team from the ship broke up a large group of land-based bombers attacking TG 50.2. After a heavy strike by aircraft of TF 50 against Kwajalein on 4 December, Enterprise returned to Pearl Harbor five days later.
The carrier's next operation was with the Fast Carrier Task Force in softening up the Marshall Islands and supporting the landings on Kwajalein, from 29 January-3 February 1944. Then, Enterprise sailed, still with TF 58, to strike the Japanese naval base at Truk Lagoon in the Caroline Islands, on 17 February. Again Enterprise made aviation history, when she launched the first night radar bombing attack from a U.S. carrier. The 12 torpedo bombers in this strike achieved excellent results, accounting for nearly one-third of the 200,000 tons of shipping destroyed by aircraft.
Detached from TF 58 with escorts, Enterprise launched raids on Jaluit Atoll on 20 February, then steamed to Majuro and Espiritu Santo. Sailing on 15 March in TG 36.1, she provided air cover and close support for the landings on Emirau Island (19–25 March). The carrier rejoined TF 58 on 26 March, and for the next 12 days, joined in a series of strikes against the islands of Yap, Ulithi, Woleai, and Palau. After a week's rest and replenishment at Majuro, Enterprise sailed on 14 April to support landings in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea, and then hit Truk again from 29–30 April.
On 6 June 1944, she and her companions of TG 58.3 sortied from Majuro to join the rest of TF 58 in attacking the Marianas Islands. Striking Saipan, Rota, and Guam from 11 – 14 June, Enterprise pilots gave direct support to the landings on Saipan on 15 June, and covered the troops ashore for the next two days.
Aware of a major Japanese attempt to break up the invasion of Saipan, Admiral Spruance, now Commander 5th Fleet, positioned TF 58 to meet the threat.
The Battle of the Philippine Sea
On 19 June 1944, the greatest carrier aircraft battle in history took place: the Battle of the Philippine Sea. For over eight hours, airmen of the United States and Imperial Japanese navies fought in the skies over TF 58 and the Marianas. By the end of the day, an American victory was apparent, and at the conclusion of the strikes against the Japanese fleet on 20 June, the triumph became complete. Six American ships were damaged, and 130 planes and a total of 76 pilots and aircrew lost. With a major assist from U.S. submarines, three Japanese carriers (Hiyō, Shōkaku, and Taihō) were sunk, and 426 carrier aircraft were destroyed. Japanese naval aviation never recovered.
Enterprise participated both in the defense of the fleet and in the subsequent early-evening strike against the Japanese task forces. During the chaotic after-dark recovery of the air strike, a fighter and a bomber came aboard simultaneously, but fortunately did not cause an accident. A planned midnight strike against the Japanese fleet by night-flying Enterprise pilots was cancelled because of the recovery and rescue operations required after the dusk attack.
After the battle, Enterprise and her companions continued to provide air support for the invasion of Saipan through 5 July. She then sailed for Pearl Harbor and a month of rest and overhaul. Back in action on 24 August, the carrier sailed with TF 38 in that force's aerial assault on the Volcano and Bonin Islands from 31 August – 2 September, and Yap, Ulithi, and the Palaus from 6–8 September.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf
After operating west of the Palau Islands, the Enterprise joined other units of TF 38 on 7 October and set course to the north. From 10–20 October, her aviators flew over Okinawa, Formosa, and the Philippines, blasting enemy airfields, shore installations, and shipping in preparation for the assault on Leyte. After supporting the Leyte landings on 20 October, Enterprise headed for Ulithi to replenish, but the approach of the Japanese fleet on 23 October called her back to action.
In the Battle of Leyte Gulf (23–26 October), Enterprise planes struck all three groups of enemy forces, battering battleships and destroyers before the action ended. The carrier remained on patrol east of Samar and Leyte until the end of October, then retired to Ulithi for supplies. During November, her aircraft struck targets in the Manila area, and at the island of Yap. She returned to Pearl Harbor on 6 December 1944.
Sailing on 24 December for the Philippines, Enterprise carried an air group specially trained in night carrier operations; as the only carrier capable of night operations, she left Oahu with her hull code changed from CV to CV(N). She joined TG 38.5 and swept the waters north of Luzon and of the South China Sea during January 1945, striking shore targets and shipping from Formosa to Indo-China including an attack on Macau. After a brief visit to Ulithi, Enterprise joined TG 58.5 on 10 February 1945, and provided day and night combat air patrol for TF 58 as it struck Tokyo on 16–17 February. She then supported the Marines in the Battle of Iwo Jima from 19 February – 9 March, when she sailed for Ulithi. During one part of that period, Enterprise kept aircraft aloft continuously over Iwo Jima for 174 hours.
Departing Ulithi on 15 March, the carrier continued her night work in raids against Kyūshū, Honshū, and shipping in the Inland Sea of Japan. Damaged lightly by an enemy bomb on 18 March, Enterprise entered Ulithi six days later for repairs. Back in action on 5 April, she supported the Okinawa operation until she was damaged on 11 April—this time by a kamikaze—and was forced back to Ulithi. Off Okinawa once more on 6 May, Enterprise flew patrols around the clock as kamikaze attacks increased. On 14 May 1945, she suffered her last wound of World War II when a kamikaze Zero, piloted by Lt. J.G. Shunsuke Tomiyasu, destroyed her forward elevator, killing 14 and wounding 34. The carrier sailed for repairs at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, arriving on 7 June and where she was still moored on V-J Day, 15 August 1945.
Operation Magic Carpet
Restored to peak condition, Enterprise voyaged to Pearl Harbor, returning to the States with some 1,100 servicemen due for discharge, then sailed on to New York, arriving on 17 October 1945. Two weeks later, she proceeded to Boston for installation of additional berthing facilities, then began a series of Operation Magic Carpet voyages to Europe, bringing more than 10,000 veterans home in her final service to her country. During the Enterprise's last Magic Carpet voyage, the ship was caught in a severe gale in the Atlantic. The crew came close to abandoning ship and the carrier was forced to return to New York.
On one trip to Europe, she was boarded by the British First Lord of the Admiralty, Sir Albert Alexander, who presented Enterprise with a British Admiralty Pennant that was hoisted when a majority of the Admiralty Board members were present. The pennant was given to the Big E as a token of respect from an ally. Thus, Enterprise is the only ship outside the Royal Navy to receive the honor in the more than 400 years since its creation.
The end of the 'Big E'
Enterprise entered the New York Naval Shipyard on 18 January 1946 for deactivation, and was decommissioned on 17 February 1947. In 1946, she had been scheduled to be handed over to the state of New York as a permanent memorial, but this plan was suspended in 1949. Subsequent attempts were made at preserving the ship as a museum or memorial, but fund-raising efforts failed to raise enough money to buy the vessel from the Navy, and the 'Big E' was sold on 1 July 1958 to the Lipsett Corporation of New York City for scrapping at Kearny, New Jersey. A promise was made to save the distinctive tripod mast for inclusion in the Naval Academy's new football stadium, but was never fulfilled; instead, a memorial plaque was installed at the base of what is still called 'Enterprise Tower.' Scrapping was complete as of May 1960. In 1984, a permanent 'Enterprise Exhibit' was dedicated at the Naval Aviation Museum, Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida to house artifacts, photos and other items of historical interest.
Surviving Enterprise artifacts include the ship's bell, which resides at the U.S. Naval Academy, where it is traditionally rung only after midshipmen victories over West Point; and the sixteen-foot, one-ton nameplate from the ship's stern, which sits near a Little League park in River Vale, New Jersey. Her commissioning plaque and one of her anchors are on display at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, D.C.
Successor to the 'Big E'
In November 1961, her name was revived with the commissioning of USS Enterprise (CVN-65), the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, which is also nicknamed the 'Big E'. Various artifacts and mementos (including one of her portholes) are kept aboard. The port holes in the captain's in-port cabin/conference room on the present 'Enterprise' CVN-65 are from the CV-6.
Awards and commendations
The Enterprise was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation for her service during World War II.
The citation states:'For consistently outstanding performance and distinguished achievement during repeated action against enemy Japanese forces in the Pacific war area, 7 December 1941, to 15 November 1942. Participating in nearly every major carrier engagement in the first year of the war, the Enterprise and her air group, exclusive of far-flung destruction of hostile shore installations throughout the battle area, did sink or damage on her own a total of 35 Japanese vessels and shot down a total of 185 Japanese aircraft. Her aggressive spirit and superb combat efficiency are fitting tribute to the officers and men who so gallantly established her as an ahead bulwark in the defense of the American nation.'
In addition to her Presidential Unit Citation, Enterprise received the Navy Unit Commendation and 20 battle stars for World War II service, making her the highest decorated US ship ever.
Finally, she was presented with a British Admiralty Pennant that was hoisted when a majority of the Admiralty Board members were present. The pennant was given to the Big E as a token of respect from an ally. Enterprise is the only ship outside the Royal Navy to receive the honor in the more than 400 years since its creation.
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Editor for Asisbiz: Matthew Laird Acred
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