Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper photo gallery

European Theater of Operations - ETO in WWII

World War II was unique in that it was a multi-theater war, and saw fighting occur in: Africa, Europe and the Pacific. The European Theater and the Pacific Theater, in particular, saw some of the most intense fighting of World War II and involved some of the most significant events of the war, including: the Holocaust, the use of atomic weapons and end of famous dictators. The war in Europe saw the Allied powers of Britain, France, the Soviet Union, Canada and the United States face off against the Axis powers of Germany and Italy.

German Invasion of Poland

World War II began on September 1st, 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. The war in Europe began at this point and unfolded as a series of major events and battles. The first weeks of the war in Europe consisted mostly of Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, unleashing its blitzkrieg tactics against Poland. Germany used its lighting war strategy to quickly overwhelm and confuse enemy armies. While Britain and France condemned the German aggression against Poland, and declared war against Germany, little action was taken in the first 8 months of World War II. This period of inaction was referred to as the Phoney War and saw the armies of Britain and France preparing for a war with Germany, but without any actual fighting on the western half of Europe. For their part, Britain and France were mostly worried about reinforcing the Maginot Line, the defensive line built by France along the France-German border. It was believed that German troops would have to invade France across the border and go up against the Maginot Line.

The fighting began in May of 1940 when Germany surprised the Allied powers and instead attacked France and Belgium from the north through the Ardennes Forest. French leadership believed it would be impossible for the Germans to carry out such a maneuver, but German soldiers moved swiftly through the forested region. The German attack would be called the Battle of France and saw German forces quickly maneuver around the Maginot Line and overrun both Belgium and France. The German assault was so quick and successful, that the British Expeditionary Force, which was in Northern France was forced to retreat mainland Europe at Dunkirk, France in the famous Dunkirk Evacuation. Germany then maintained control over France with its soldiers and the help of its ally, Italy, who was led by Benito Mussolini.

Once France was defeated, Germany turned its attention towards defeating Britain. At the time, the Soviet Union was not a concern for Germany because the two countries had agreed earlier to a non-aggression pact. Therefore, Germany was able to unleash its full force against the island nation of Britain, who was being led by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Churchill referred to the German attack against Britain as the Battle of Britain. The battle was known as a war of air superiority and involved the British air force facing off against the German air force in the skies over Britain. While Britain was able to withstand the German attack, German bombers inflicted large amounts of damage on British cities and towns. The British victory in the Battle of Britain was important for the Allied cause as Britain would be an important player in the later stages of the war.

Being unable to defeat Britain, Nazi Germany turned its attention towards the Soviet Union. Hitler's forces broke the terms of the non-aggression pact when Germany attacked the Soviet Union as part of its Operation Barbarossa. The German attack on the Soviet Union began in June of 1941 and saw Germany make massive territorial gains against the country, which was led by Joseph Stalin. German forces pushed quickly through the Soviet Union before they stalled at the edge of Moscow. Next, Hitler diverted his troops to the southern Soviet city of Stalingrad, where German blitzkrieg tactics failed to capture the city. The Battle of Stalingrad would be one of the bloodiest battles of World War II and a major turning point for the overall war. Germany lost its entire 6th Army at the Battle of Stalingrad and was never able to recover from the loss. In fact, Operation Barbarossa was the last time that Nazi Germany would be the aggressor in World War II in Europe and would spend the rest of the war being pushed back to Germany and its capital of Berlin.

It was also during this time when the Japanese Empire, who was allied with Germany and Italy as part of the Axis powers, surprise attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor. While not an event in the European Theater of World War II, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, was significant because it led to the United States joining the fighting of World War II alongside the other Allied nations. American soldiers would come to play a vital role in Europe, as they helped lead the push to open up a second front in Europe and begin the process of defeating Nazi Germany and Italy.

In fact, America, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, played a crucial role in the Allied invasion of Italy. In general, the Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy was incredibly successful and achieved what it set out to. The Allied armies were able to force Axis naval, air and land divisions out of the area and allowed Allied merchant ships into the Mediterranean for the first time since 1941. As well, it led to the end of Benito Mussolini in Italy and forced Nazi Germany to divert troops from its battles against the Soviet Union as it had to grapple with a two front war. Next, the United States, along with other Allied nations carried out the Normandy Invasion in order to begin the process of liberating France.

The Normandy Invasion began on June 6th, 1944 and was codenamed Operation Overlord. Operation Overlord involved a large attack on northern France, including: amphibious landings, naval bombardment and an assault by airborne forces the night before. The United States, Britain and Canada were the three main participating countries in the amphibious landings of the Normandy Invasion. Each country landed on their own codenamed beaches with the goal of pushing back the Nazi defences and opening the beach for Allied heavy weapons. The United States’ beaches were Utah and Omaha, Britain’s beaches were Gold and Sword, and Canada’s beach was Juno. All three countries landed on the morning of June 6th, 1944 and faced difficult resistance from Nazi soldiers. However, the Allied attack had worked and the United States, Britain and Canada were all able to open their beaches to further Allied reinforcements and heavy weaponry. The battle is important because it opened the way for another front in Europe and began the process of liberating France and the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany.

As the Allies swept through France, Germany prepared its last offensive push in the region, known as the Battle of the Bulge. The Battle of the Bulge occurred from December 16th, 1944 to January 25th, 1944 and is one of the last major battles of World War II in Europe. The major participating countries of the battle included Britain, the United States and Germany. The Battle of the Bulge was a German offensive attack into the Ardennes Forest region of France and Belgium. Today, the Battle of the Bulge is remembered as a time of great heroism by American soldiers who had to withstand a powerful German attack in the cold and difficult terrain of the Ardennes Forest. In fact, many historians now look the Battle of the Bulge as a major loss to Germans and that it significantly lessened the ability of the Nazi’s to maintain control over parts of Europe.

Following the Battle of the Bulge, the Allies pushed into Germany from all sides. The British, Canadians and Americans assaulted the country from the south and west, while the Soviet Union invaded from the east. In fact, the Soviet Union army was able to advance into Berlin, the capital of Germany. Known as the Battle of Berlin, the Soviet invasion of the city, saw the end of Nazi Germany and ended World War II in Europe. The outcome of the battle saw the end of Nazi Germany and the leadership of Nazi Germany. For example, many significant Nazi leaders, including Adolf Hitler, committed suicide before the end of the battle. Hitler committed suicide by a gun shot on April 30th, 1945 in a bunker underneath Berlin. World War II in Europe and the Nazi regime were over.

The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper

National origin:-    United States
Role:- Military transport aircraft
Manufacturer:- Douglas Aircraft Company
Designer:- Donald Wills Douglas Sr. and Arthur Emmons Raymond
First flight:- 23rd December 1941[1]
Introduction:- 1942 Retired:- never
Primary users:-   USAAF   RAF   RAAF,   RCAF   SAAF
Status:- In service
Number built:- 10,174
Developed from:- Douglas DC-3 Dakota
Developed into:- Douglas XCG-17; Douglas AC-47 Spooky; Douglas R4D-8

Douglas C-47 Skytrain

The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota (RAF, RAAF, RCAF, RNZAF, and SAAF designation) is a military transport aircraft developed from the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner. It was used extensively by the Allies during World War II and remained in front-line service with various military operators for many years.[2]

Design and development

The C-47 differed from the civilian DC-3 by way of numerous modifications, including being fitted with a cargo door, hoist attachment and strengthened floor - along with a shortened tail cone for glider-towing shackles, and an astrodome in the cabin roof.[3][4]

During World War II, the armed forces of many countries used the C-47 and modified DC-3s for the transport of troops, cargo, and wounded. The U.S. naval designation was R4D. More than 10,000 aircraft were produced in Long Beach and Santa Monica, California, and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Between March 1943 and August 1945, the Oklahoma City plant produced 5,354 C-47s.[2][5]

The specialized C-53 Skytrooper troop transport started production in October 1941 at Douglas Aircraft's Santa Monica plant. It lacked the cargo door, hoist attachment, and reinforced floor of the C-47. Only 380 aircraft were produced in all because the C-47 was found to be more versatile.

Super DC-3 (R4D-8)

Large numbers of DC-3s and surplus C-47s were in commercial use in the United States in the 1940s. In response to proposed changes to the Civil Air Regulations airworthiness requirements that would limit the continuing use of these aircraft, Douglas offered a late-1940s DC-3 conversion to improve takeoff and single-engine performance. This new model, the DC-3S or 'Super DC-3', was 39 in (0.99 m) longer. It allowed 30 passengers to be carried, with increased speed to compete with newer airliners. The rearward shift in the center of gravity led to larger tail surfaces and new outer, swept-back wings. More powerful engines were installed along with shorter, jet ejection-type exhaust stacks. These were either 1,475 hp (1,100 kW) Wright R-1820 Cyclones or 1,450 hp (1,081 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasps in larger engine nacelles. Minor changes included wheel-well doors, a partially retractable tailwheel, flush rivets, and low-drag antenna. These all contributed to an increased top speed of 250 mph (400 km/h; 220 kn). With greater than 75% of the original DC-3/C-47 configuration changed, the modified design was virtually a new aircraft.[6] The first DC-3S made its maiden flight on 23 June 1949.[7]

The changes fully met the new FAR 4B airworthiness requirements, with significantly improved performance. However, little interest was expressed by commercial operators in the DC-3S. It was too expensive for the smaller operators that were its main target; only three were sold to Capital Airlines. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps had 100 of their R4D aircraft modified to Super DC-3 standards as the R4D-8, later redesignated the C-117D.[8]

Operational history

World War II

The C-47 was vital to the success of many Allied campaigns, in particular, those at Guadalcanal and in the jungles of New Guinea and Burma, where the C-47 and its naval version, the R4D, made it possible for Allied troops to counter the mobility of the light-traveling Japanese Army. C-47s were used to airlift supplies to the encircled American forces during the Battle of Bastogne in Belgium. Possibly its most influential role in military aviation, however, was flying 'The Hump' from India into China. The expertise gained flying 'The Hump' was later used in the Berlin Airlift, in which the C-47 played a major role until the aircraft were replaced by Douglas C-54 Skymasters.

In Europe, the C-47 and a specialized paratroop variant, the C-53 Skytrooper, were used in vast numbers in the later stages of the war, particularly to tow gliders and drop paratroops. During the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, C-47s dropped 4,381 Allied paratroops. More than 50,000 paratroops were dropped by C-47s during the first few days of the D-Day campaign also known as the invasion of Normandy, France, in June 1944.[9] In the Pacific War, with careful use of the island landing strips of the Pacific Ocean, C-47s were used for ferrying soldiers serving in the Pacific theater back to the United States.

About 2,000 C-47s (received under Lend-Lease) in British and Commonwealth service took the name 'Dakota', possibly inspired by the acronym 'DACoTA' for Douglas Aircraft Company Transport Aircraft.[10]

The C-47 also earned the informal nickname 'gooney bird' in the European theatre of operations.[11] Other sources[12] attribute this name to the first aircraft, a USMC R2D—the military version of the DC-2—being the first aircraft to land on Midway Island, previously home to the long-winged albatross known as the gooney bird which was native to Midway.

Postwar era

The United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command had Skytrains in service from 1946 through 1967. The US Air Force's 6th Special Operations Squadron was flying the C-47 until 2008.

With all of their aircraft and pilots having been part of the Indian Air Force prior to independence, both the Indian Air Force and Pakistan Air Force used C-47s to transport supplies to their soldiers fighting in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947.

After World War II, thousands of surplus C-47s were converted to civilian airline use, some remaining in operation in 2012, as well as being used as private aircraft.

Vietnam War

Several C-47 variations were used in the Vietnam War by the United States Air Force, including three advanced electronic-warfare variations, which sometimes were called 'electric gooneys' designated EC-47N, EC-47P, or EC-47Q depending on the engine used. In addition, HC-47s were used by the 9th Special Operations Squadron to conduct psychological warfare operations over South Vietnam and Laos. Miami Air International, Miami International Airport was a USAF military depot used to convert the commercial DC-3s/C-47s into military use. They came in as commercial aircraft purchased from third-world airlines and were completely stripped, rebuilt, and reconditioned. Long-range fuel tanks were installed, along with upgraded avionics and gun mounts. They left as first-rate military aircraft headed for combat in Vietnam in a variety of missions. [Note 1] EC-47s were also operated by the Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian Air Forces.[14] A gunship variation, using three 7.62 mm miniguns, designated AC-47 'Spooky', often nicknamed 'Puff the magic dragon', also was deployed.[11]

Variants

C-47
Initial military version of the DC-3 had four crew (pilot, co-pilot, navigator, and radio operator) and seats for 27 troops alongside the fuselage interior. 'Aerial Ambulances' fitted for casualty evacuation could carry 18 stretcher cases and a medical crew of three; 965 built (including 12 for the United States Navy as R4D-1).

C-47A
C-47 with a 24-volt electrical system, 5,254 built including USN aircraft designated R4D-5

RC-47A
C-47A equipped for photographic reconnaissance and ELINT missions

SC-47A
C-47A equipped for Search Air Rescue; redesignated HC-47A in 1962

VC-47A
C-47A equipped for VIP transport role

C-47B
Powered by R-1830-90 engines with two-speed superchargers (better altitude performance) to cover the China-Burma-India routes, 3,364 built

VC-47B
C-47B equipped for VIP transport role

XC-47C
C-47 tested with Edo Model 78 floats for possible use as a seaplane [15][16]

C-47D
C-47B with second speed (high blower) of engine supercharger disabled or removed after the war

AC-47D Spooky
Gunship aircraft with three side-firing .30 in (7.62 mm) Minigun machine guns

EC-47D
C-47D with equipment for the Electronics Calibration, of which 26 were so converted by Hayes in 1953; prior to 1962 was designated AC-47D

NC-47D
C-47D modified for test roles

RC-47D
C-47D equipped for photographic reconnaissance and ELINT missions

SC-47D
C-47D equipped for Search Air Rescue; redesignated HC-47D in 1962

VC-47D
C-47D equipped for VIP transport role

C-47E
Modified cargo variant with space for 27–28 passengers or 18–24 litters

C-47F
YC-129 redesignated, Super DC-3 prototype for evaluation by USAF later passed to USN as XR4D-8

C-47L/M
C-47H/Js equipped for the support of American Legation United States Naval Attache (ALUSNA) and Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) missions

EC-47N/P/Q
C-47A and D aircraft modified for ELINT/ARDF mission, N and P differ in radio bands covered, while Q replaces analog equipment found on the N and P with a digital suite, redesigned antenna equipment and uprated engines

C-47R
One C-47M modified for high altitude work, specifically for missions in Ecuador

C-53 Skytrooper
Troop transport version of the C-47 that lacked the reinforced cargo floor, large cargo door, and hoist attachment of the C-47 Skytrain. It was dedicated for the troop transport role and could carry 28 passengers in fixed metal seats arranged in rows in the former cargo space; 221 built.

XC-53A Skytrooper
One testbed aircraft modified in March 1942 with full-span slotted flaps and hot-air leading edge de-icing. Converted to C-53 standard in 1949 and sold as surplus.

C-53B Skytrooper
Winterised and long-range Arctic version of the C-53 with extra fuel tanks in the fuselage and separate navigator's astrodome station for celestial navigation; eight built.

C-53C Skytrooper
C-53 with larger port-side access door; 17 built.

C-53D Skytrooper
C-53C with 24V DC electrical system and its 28 seats attached to the sides of the fuselage; 159 built.

C-117A Skytrooper
C-47B with 24-seat airline-type interior for staff transport use, 16 built.

VC-117A
Three redesignated C-117s used in the VIP role

SC-117A
One C-117C converted for air-sea rescue

C-117B/VC-117B
High-altitude two-speed superchargers replaced by one-speed superchargers, one built and conversions from C-117As all later VC-117B

C-117D
USN/USMC R4D-8 redesignated C-117D in 1962.

LC-117D
USN/USMC R4D-8L redesignated LC-117D in 1962.

TC-117D
USN/USMC R4D-8T redesignated TC-117D in 1962.

VC-117D
USN R4D-8Z redesignated VC-117D in 1962.

YC-129
Super DC-3 prototype for evaluation by USAF redesignated C-47F and later passed to USN as XR4D-8. Wright R-1820 engines uprated to 1425 hp.

CC-129
Canadian Forces designation for the C-47 (post-1970)

XCG-17
One C-47 tested as a 40-seat troop glider with engines removed and faired over

R4D-1 Skytrain
USN/USMC version of the C-47

R4D-3
Twenty C-53Cs transferred to USN

R4D-5
C-47A variant 24-volt electrical system replacing the 12-volt of the C-47; redesignated C-47H in 1962, 238 transferred from USAF

R4D-5L
R4D-5 for use in Antarctica. Redesignated LC-47H in 1962. Photos of this type show the removal of underslung engine oil coolers typical of the R-1830 engine installation; apparently not needed in the cold polar regions.

R4D-5Q
R4D-5 for use as special ECM trainer. Redesignated EC-47H in 1962

R4D-5R
R4D-5 for use as a personnel transport for 21 passengers and as a trainer aircraft; redesignated TC-47H in 1962

R4D-5S
R4D-5 for use as a special ASW trainer; redesignated SC-47H in 1962

R4D-5Z
R4D-5 for use as a VIP transport; redesignated VC-47H in 1962

R4D-6
157 C-47Bs transferred to USN; redesignated C-47J in 1962

R4D-6L, Q, R, S, and Z
Variants as the R4D-5 series; redesignated LC-47J, EC-47J, TC-47J, SC-47J, and VC-47J respectively in 1962

R4D-7
44 TC-47Bs transferred from USAF for use as a navigational trainer; redesignated TC-47K in 1962

R4D-8
R4D-5 and R4D-6 remanufactured aircraft with stretched fuselage, Wright R-1820 engines, fitted with modified wings and redesigned tail surfaces; redesignated C-117D in 1962

R4D-8L
R4D-8 converted for Antarctic use, redesignated LC-117D in 1962

R4D-8T
R4D-8 converted as crew trainers, redesignated TC-117D in 1962

R4D-8Z
R4D-8 converted as a staff transport, redesignated VC-117D in 1962

C-47TP 'Turbo Dak'
Refit with two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67R engines and fuselage stretch for the South African Air Force

Basler BT-67
C-47 conversion with a stretched fuselage, strengthened structure, modern avionics, and powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT-6A-67R turboprops

RAF designations

Dakota I
RAF designation for the C-47 and R4D-1.

Dakota II
RAF designation for nine C-53 Skytroopers received under the lend lease scheme. Unlike the majority of RAF Dakotas, these aircraft were therefore dedicated troop transports, lacking the wide cargo doors and reinforced floor of the C-47.

Dakota III
RAF designation for the C-47A.

Dakota IV
RAF designation for the C-47B.

Airspeed AS.61
Projected conversion of Dakota I aircraft by Airspeed. None built.

Airspeed AS.62
Projected conversion of Dakota II aircraft by Airspeed. None built.

Airspeed AS.63
Projected conversion of Dakota III aircraft by Airspeed. None built.

BEA Pionair/Dart-Dakota
Conversion of Dakota to Rolls-Royce Dart power and used by BEA to prove turboprop engines prior to entry into service of Vickers Viscount.[17]

Operators

Argentina
Australia
Belgium
Benin
Biafra
Bangladesh
Bolivia
Brazil
Burma Cambodia
Canada[18]
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Cuba
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia

Finland
France
Gabon
Germany[19]
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jordan
Japan
Kenya
Laos
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania

Mexico
Monaco
Morocco
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Northern Rhodesia[20]
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Rhodesia
Romania
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
South Africa

South Korea
South Vietnam
Somalia
Soviet Union (also as Lisunov Li-2)
Sri Lanka
Spain
Sweden
Singapore
Syria
Taiwan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Turkey
Uganda
Uruguay
United Kingdom
United States
Venezuela
Vietnam
West Germany
Yemen
Yugoslavia
Zaire
Zambia[20]

Surviving aircraft

Large numbers of C-47s, C-117s and other variants survive, on display in museums or as monuments; operated as warbirds; or remaining in service.

As part of the D-Day 75th-anniversary commemoration in June 2019, 14 American C-47s (including That's All, Brother; Betsy's Biscuit Bomber; Miss Montana; Spirit of Benovia; D-Day Doll; Boogie Baby; N47E Miss Virginia; and Whiskey 7 [21]), and another group of 'Daks' from Europe retraced the route across the English Channel to Normandy taken by roughly 850 of these aircraft on D-Day.[22][23]

Specifications (Douglas C-47B-DK)

Data from McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume I,[24]

General characteristics

Crew: 4 (pilot, co-pilot, navigator, radio operator)
Capacity: 28 troops
Length: 63 ft 9 in (19.43 m)
Wingspan: 95 ft 6 in (29.11 m)
Height: 17 ft 0 in (5.18 m)
Wing area: 987 sq ft (91.7 m2)
Airfoil: root: NACA 2215; tip: NACA 2206[25]
Empty weight: 18,135 lb (8,226 kg)
Gross weight: 26,000 lb (11,793 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 31,000 lb (14,061 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-90C Twin Wasp 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,200 hp (890 kW) each
Propellers: 3-bladed constant-speed propellers

Performance

Maximum speed: 224 mph (360 km/h, 195 kn) at 10,000 ft (3,000 m)
Range: 1,600 mi (2,600 km, 1,400 nmi)
Ferry range: 3,600 mi (5,800 km, 3,100 nmi)
Service ceiling: 26,400 ft (8,000 m)
Time to altitude: 10,000 ft (3,000 m) in 9 minutes 30 seconds
Wing loading: 26.3 lb/sq ft (128 kg/m2)
Power/mass: 0.0926 hp/lb (0.1522 kW/kg)

Armament

Guns: Only the Spooky versions were armed it was primary a transport aircraft with no armament

Avionics

not known

 Flight Simulators
 

   IL-2 Sturmovik 'Cliff's of Dover' Blitz - has no 3D model

   IL-2 Great Battles Series IL-2 - has no 3D model

   DCS World - has no 3D model

 

 

 Royal Air Force Debden Map

 Moscow Russia Map

 

    Pacific Ocean theater of World War II Citations

  1. Cressman 2000, p. 84.
  2. Potter & Nimitz 1960, p. 717.
  3. Potter & Nimitz 1960, pp. 759–60.
  4. Silverstone 1968, pp. 9–11.
  5. Potter & Nimitz 1960, pp. 651–62.
  6. Kafka & Pepperburg 1946, p. 185.
  7. Potter & Nimitz 1960, p. 751.
  8. Ofstie 1946, p. 194.
  9. Potter & Nimitz 1960, p. 761.
  10. Potter & Nimitz 1960, p. 765.
  11. Potter & Nimitz 1960, p. 770.
  12. Ofstie 1946, p. 275..

    Pacific Ocean theater of World War II Bibliography:

  • Cressman, Robert J. (2000), The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 1-55750-149-1.
  • Drea, Edward J. (1998), In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army, NB: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-1708-0.
  • Hakim, Joy (1995), A History of Us: War, Peace and All That Jazz, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509514-6.
  • Kafka, Roger; Pepperburg, Roy L. (1946), Warships of the World, New York: Cornell Maritime Press.
  • Miller, Edward S. (2007), War Plan Orange: The U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan, 1897–1945, US Naval Institute Press, ISBN 978-1-59114-500-4.
  • Ofstie, Ralph A. (1946). The Campaigns of the Pacific War. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office..
  • Potter, E. B.; Nimitz, Chester W. (1960), Sea Power, Prentice-Hal.
  • Silverstone, Paul H. (1968), U.S. Warships of World War II, Doubleday & Co.
  • Toll, Ian W. (2011). Pacific Crucible: War at Sea in the Pacific, 1941–1942. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • The Conquering Tide: War in the Pacific Islands, 1942–1944. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • Twilight of the Gods: War in the Western Pacific, 1944–1945. New York: W. W. Norton.

    Fifth Air Force Bibliography:

  • Bartsch, William H. Doomed at the Start: American Pursuit Pilots in the Philippines, 1941–1942. Reveille Books, 1995. ISBN 0-89096-679-6.
  • Birdsall, Steve. Flying Buccaneers: The Illustrated History of Kenney's Fifth Air Force. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977. ISBN 0-385-03218-8.
  • Craven, Wesley F. and James L. Cate. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948–58.
  • Holmes, Tony. "Twelve to One": V Fighter Command Aces of the Pacific. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-84176-784-0.
  • Rust, Kenn C. Fifth Air Force Story...in World War II. Temple City, California: Historical Aviation Album, 1973. ISBN 0-911852-75-1.

    Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper Notes

  1. Air International out of Miami International Airport was a military depot used by the air force to convert the DC-3s into military use.[13]

    Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper Citations

  1. C-47 Skytrain Military Transport Historical Snapshot Boeing.
  2. Parker 2013, pp. 13, 35, 37, 39, 45-47.
  3. Wilson, Stewart. Aircraft of WWII. Fyshwick, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-875671-35-8.
  4. Parker 2013, pp. 37, 39, 45-47.
  5. Herman 2012, pp. 202-203, 227.
  6. 'Super DC-3'. dc3history.org.
  7. Francillon 1979, pp. 464–465.
  8. Francillon 1979, pp. 466–467.
  9. Cacutt, Len. 'The World's Greatest Aircraft,' Exeter Books, New York, NY, 1988. ISBN 0-7917-0011-9.
  10. 'History: Douglas C-47 Skytrain Military Transport'. Boeing. Retrieved: 14 July 2015.
  11. O'Rourke, G.G, CAPT USN. 'Of Hosenoses, Stoofs, and Lefthanded Spads'. United States Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1968.
  12. C-47/R4D Skytrain units of the Pacific and CBI, David Isby, Osprey Combat Aircraft #66, Osprey Publishing Limited, 2007
  13. 'Chronological History of the EC-47's Location by Tail Number.' ec47.com. Retrieved: 7 April 2009.
  14. Rickard, J. 'Douglas EC-47N'. historyofwar.org, 12 November 2008. Retrieved: 7 April 2009.
  15. 'Aviation in Long Pants' (photo of XC-47C). Popular Mechanics, July 1944.
  16. 'DC-3s On Floats.' YouTube, 8 November 2008. Note: first part has rare World War II film footage and narration by project manager for the XC-47C.
  17. '1952 | 3204 | Flight Archive'. Flightglobal.com. 1951-08-15. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  18. 'Douglas DC-3 (CC-129) Dakota.' Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine DND - Canada's Air Force.
  19. 'Das Archiv der Deutschen Luftwaffe.' (in German) LuftArchiv.de. Retrieved: 5 July 2010.
  20. 'Trade Registers'. Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
  21. 'The Mighty Fifteen—The American Contingent Flying to Normandy'. The D-Day Squadron. DC-3 Society. Archived from the original on 2019-11-30. Retrieved January 7, 2021. See archive link for aircraft photos.
  22. 'Miss Montana – Miss Montana to Normandy'. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  23. Golds, Alan (2 June 2019). 'A World War II-era veteran returns to the air'. www.cbsnews.com.
  24. Francillon, René J. (1988). McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 : Volume I. London: Naval Institute Press. pp. 217–251. ISBN 0870214284.
  25. Lednicer, David. 'The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage'. m-selig.ae.illinois.edu.

    Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper Bibliography:

  • Anderson, C. E. 'Bud' (December 1981 – March 1982). 'Caught by the Wing-tip'. Air Enthusiast. No. 17. pp. 74–80. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Chorlton, Martyn. Paths in the Wood. Cowbit, UK: Old Forge Publishing Ltd, 2003. ISBN 0-9544507-0-1.
  • De Vink, Hervé (August 1976). 'Adieu au 'Dakota' de la Force aérienne belge' [Farewell to the Dakotas of the Belgian Air Force]. Le Fana de l'Aviation (in French) (81): 17–19. ISSN 0757-4169.
  • Donald, David. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
  • Flintham, Victor. Air Wars and Aircraft: A Detailed Record of Air Combat, 1945 to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 1990. ISBN 0-8160-2356-5.
  • Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Since 1920. London: Putnam & Company, 1979. ISBN 0-370-00050-1.
  • Gradidge, Jennifer M. The Douglas DC-1, DC-2, DC-3: The First Seventy Years. Two volumes. Tonbridge, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2006. ISBN 0-85130-332-3.
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II. New York: Random House, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  • Kaplan, Philip. Legend: A Celebration of the Douglas DC-3/C-47/Dakota. Peter Livanos & Philip Kaplan, 2009. ISBN 978-0-9557061-1-0.
  • Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II. Cypress, California: Dana Parker Enterprises, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  • Pearcy, Arthur Jr. 'Douglas R4D variants (US Navy's DC-3/C-47)'. Aircraft in Profile, Volume 14. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications, 1974, pp. 49–73. ISBN 0-85383-023-1.
  • 'Pentagon Over the Islands: The Thirty-Year History of Indonesian Military Aviation'. Air Enthusiast Quarterly (2): 154–162. n.d. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Serrano, José Luis González (March–April 1999). 'Fifty Years of DC Service: Douglas Transports Used by the Spanish Air Force'. Air Enthusiast (80): 61–71. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Widfeldt, Bo (April–July 1980). ''Operation Ball': USAAF Operations in Sweden 1944–45'. Air Enthusiast. No. 12. pp. 51–53. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Yenne, Bill. McDonnell Douglas: A Tale of Two Giants. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-517-44287-6.

    Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper further reading:

    Magazine References: +

  • Airfix Magazines (English) - http://www.airfix.com/
  • Avions (French) - http://www.aerostories.org/~aerobiblio/rubrique10.html
  • FlyPast (English) - http://www.flypast.com/
  • Flugzeug Publikations GmbH (German) - http://vdmedien.com/flugzeug-publikations-gmbh-hersteller_verlag-vdm-heinz-nickel-33.html
  • Flugzeug Classic (German) - http://www.flugzeugclassic.de/
  • Klassiker (German) - http://shop.flugrevue.de/abo/klassiker-der-luftfahrt
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://boutique.editions-lariviere.fr/site/abonnement-le-fana-de-l-aviation-626-4-6.html
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://www.pdfmagazines.org/tags/Le+Fana+De+L+Aviation/
  • Osprey (English) - http://www.ospreypublishing.com/
  • Revi Magazines (Czech) - http://www.revi.cz/

    Web References: +

  • Wikipedia Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota and Douglas C-53 Skytrooper: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_C-47_Skytrain
  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/

This webpage was updated 25th August 2022

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