Polikarpov I-16

National origin:- Soviet Union
Role:- Fighter
Manufacturer:- Plant No.21 (Gorky), Plant No.39 (Moscow), Plant No.153 (Novosibirsk), Plant No.458 (Rostov-on-Don/Baku)
Designer:- N.N. Polikarpov Design Bureau
First flight:- 30th December 1933 (TsKB-12)
Introduction:- March 1935
Produced:- November 1934 - 1942
Number built:- 10,292 (6,848 fighters and 3,444 trainers)[1]
Primary users:- Soviet Air Force; Spanish Republican Air Force; Chinese Nationalist Air Force
Developed into:- Polikarpov I-180

The Polikarpov I-16 (Russian: Поликарпов И-16) is a Soviet single-engine single-seat fighter aircraft of revolutionary design; it was the world's first low-wing cantilever monoplane fighter with retractable landing gear to attain operational status and as such 'introduced a new vogue in fighter design.' [2] The I-16 was introduced in the mid-1930s and formed the backbone of the Soviet Air Force at the beginning of World War II. The diminutive fighter, nicknamed 'Ishak' or 'Ishachok' ('donkey' or 'burro') by Soviet pilots, figured prominently in the Second Sino-Japanese War, [3] the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, [3] Winter War and the Spanish Civil War [4] [5] - where it was called the Rata ('rat') by the Nationalists or Mosca ('fly') by the Republicans.

Design and Development

Design and Development

While working on the Polikarpov I-15 biplane, Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov began designing an advanced monoplane fighter. It featured cutting-edge innovations such as retractable landing gear and a fully enclosed cockpit, and was optimized for speed with a short stubby fuselage, and a Wright R-1820 radial engine in a NACA cowling. The aircraft is small, light and simple to build.

Full-scale work on the TsKB-12 prototype began in June 1933, and the aircraft was accepted into production on 22 November 1933, a month before it took to the air. The TsKB-12 was of mixed construction, using a wooden monocoque fuselage and wings employing a KhMA chrome-molybdenum steel alloy wing spar, dural ribs and D1 aluminum alloy skinning on the center and leading edges, with the remaining portions of the wings fabric covered. Another modern feature were the ailerons which ran along almost the entire trailing edge of the wing and also operated as flaps (in the manner of more modern flaperons) by drooping 15°. The cockpit was covered by a 40-centimetre-wide (16 in) canopy which featured an Aldis-type tubular gun sight which could slide back and forth on runners fitted with rubber bungee cords. A 225 l (59.4 US gal) fuel tank was fitted directly in front of the cockpit. The main landing gear is fully retractable by a hand crank. The armament consisted of a pair of 7.62×54mmR (0.30 in) ShKAS machine guns in the wings, mounted on the outboard side of the main gear and 900 rounds of ammunition.

These features were proposed at first by Andrei Tupolev; however, the NII VVS was more concerned about the stresses a typical combat aircraft was subjected to in combat, and initially considered the risk too great. However, TsAGI, with the help of the 3rd Design Brigade under the leadership of Pavel Sukhoi and Aleksandr Putylov, eventually convinced NII VVS that what was being proposed was not only feasible, but would enhance the aircraft's performance.

The TsKB-12 was designed for the Wright Cyclone SR-1820-F-3 9-cylinder radial engine (rated at 529 kW/710 hp); a license to build this engine under the supervision of the OKB-19 Shvetsov design bureau in the Soviet Union was being negotiated. As the license was not yet approved, Polikarpov was asked to settle for the less powerful M-22 (Soviet-built version of the Gnome-Rhone Jupiter 9ASB, which itself was a licensed version of the Bristol Jupiter VI) with 358 kW (480 hp). This was deemed acceptable because the projected top speed still exceeded 300 km/h (185 mph).

The M-22-powered TsKB-12 first took to the air on 30 December 1933 with the famous Soviet test pilot Valery Chkalov at the controls. The second TsKB-12, with a Cyclone engine and three-bladed propeller, flew in January of the following year. Initial government trials in February 1934 revealed very good maneuverability, but the aircraft did not tolerate abrupt control inputs. Thus the TsKB-12 was deemed dangerous to fly and all aerobatics were forbidden. The M-22 version was preferred due to the vibration of the Cyclone-powered aircraft. Pilots commented early on about the difficulty of climbing into the cockpit, a trait that persisted through the I-16's service life. Before continuing test flights the designers had to answer the question of spin behavior. Wind tunnel testing suggested that the TsKB-12, with its short tail, would enter an unrecoverable flat spin, but real-life trials were necessary to confirm this. Since Cyclone engines were rare, it was decided to risk the M-22 prototype for this purpose. On 1 and 2 March 1934, Chkalov performed 75 spins and discovered that the aircraft had very benign stall behavior (dipping a wing and recovering without input from the pilot when airspeed increased) and intentional spins could be easily terminated by placing the controls in the neutral position. The stories of vicious spin behavior of the I-16 perpetuated in modern literature is unfounded (perhaps extrapolated from Gee Bee experience). In fact, the I-16's stablemate, the biplane Polikarpov I-153, exhibited much worse spin characteristics.

Service trials of the new fighter, designated I-16, began on 22 March 1934. The M-22 prototype reached 359 km/h (223 mph). The pioneering presence of a complex, triple-strut manually retracted main landing gear design was prone to jamming and required considerable strength from the pilot, who directly operated the rearmost strut's upper end, moved with a manually turned jackscrew running spanwise within the wing structure, to 'slide' outwards and inwards on each side to respectively get the main gear retracted and extended, with the main strut (the forward-most of the trio) needing to shorten its length during its retraction to fit the mainwheel into the lower fuselage, performed by the middle-location strut's geometric arrangement and pivot locations. [6]

Most of the test flights were performed with the gear extended. On 1 May 1934, the M-22 prototype participated in the flyover of Red Square. Approximately thirty I-16 Type 1 aircraft were delivered, but were not assigned to any VVS fighter squadron. Most pilots who flew the I-16 Type 1 for evaluation purposes did not find the aircraft to have many redeeming characteristics. Regardless of pilot opinion, much attention was focused on the Cyclone-powered aircraft and the M-25 (the license-built Cyclone). On 14 April 1934, the Cyclone prototype was damaged when one of the landing gear legs collapsed while it was taxiing.

The third prototype with a Cyclone engine incorporated a series of aerodynamic improvements and was delivered for government trials on 7 September 1934. The top speed of 437 km/h (270 mph) no longer satisfied the Air Force, who now wanted the experimental Nazarov M-58 engine and 470 km/h (290 mph). Subsequently, the M-22-powered version entered production at Factory 21 in Nizhny Novgorod and Factory 39 in Moscow. Because it was the fourth aircraft produced by these factories, it received the designation I-16 Type 4. Aircraft fitted with these new engines required a slightly changed airframe, including armor plating for the pilot and changes to the landing gear doors (particularly, the hinged lower mainwheel door) [7] to allow for complete closure.

The M-25 fitted I-16, the I-16 Type 5, featured a new engine cowling which was slightly smaller in diameter and featured nine forward-facing, radially-set shuttered openings to control cooling airflow, a redesigned exhaust with eight individual outlet stubs, and other changes. The M-25 was rated at 474 kW (635 hp) at sea level and 522 kW (700 hp) at 2,300 m (7,546 ft). Due to the poor quality of the canopy glazing, the I-16 Type 5 pilots typically left the canopy open or removed the rear portion completely. By the time the Type 5 arrived, it was the world's lightest production fighter (1,460 kg/3,219 lb), as well as the world's fastest, able to reach speeds of 454 km/h (282 mph) at altitude and 395 km/h (245 mph) at sea level. While the Type 5 could not perform the high-G maneuvers of other fighters, it possessed superior speed and climb rates, and had extremely responsive aileron control, which gave it a very good roll rate, which led to precision maneuvers in loops and split-Ss.

A total of 7,005 single-seat and 1,639 two-seat trainer variants were produced

Operational history

Operational history

Initial service experience revealed that the ShKAS machine guns had a tendency to jam. This was the result of the guns being installed in the wings upside-down to facilitate the fit. The problem was addressed in later modifications. Evaluations from pilots confirmed the experience with prototypes. Controls were light and very sensitive, abrupt maneuvers resulted in spins, and spin behavior was excellent. An aileron roll could be performed in under 1.5 seconds (roll rate over 240 degrees/second). The machine guns were fired via a cable and the required effort, coupled with sensitive controls, made precision aiming difficult. The rear weight bias made the I-16 easy to handle on unprepared airfields because the aircraft was rather unlikely to flip over the nose even if the front wheels dug in.

The I-16 was a difficult fighter to fly. The pilots had poor visibility, [8] the canopy tended to become fouled with engine oil, and the moving portion was prone to slamming shut during hard maneuvers, which caused many pilots to fix it in the open position. The front section of the fuselage, with the engine, was too close to the centre of gravity, and the pilot's cockpit too far to the rear. The Polikarpov had insufficient longitudinal stability and it was impossible to fly the aircraft 'hands off'. [9]

Spanish Republican Air Force in the Spanish Civil War

Spanish Civil War

At the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Republican forces pleaded for fighter aircraft. After receiving payment in gold, Joseph Stalin dispatched around 475 [10] I-16 Type 5s and Type 6s. The first I-16s appeared in Spanish skies in November 1936. [11] The Polikarpov monoplanes had their baptism of fire on 13 November 1936, when twelve I-16s intercepted a Nationalist bombing raid on Madrid. Soviet pilots claimed four air victories and two German Heinkel He 51 pilots were killed. But the Soviets suffered losses too; the group commander collided with an enemy aircraft and another I-16 pilot crash landed. [12]

The Polikarpovs immediately began dominating the enemy Heinkel He 51 and Arado Ar 68 biplanes and remained unchallenged until the introduction of the Messerschmitt Bf 109. The arrival of the newest Bf 109Bs and the overwhelming numerical superiority of Nationalist fighters were the primary cause of the heavy I-15 and I-16 combat losses suffered throughout 1937. [13] A number of aviation publications called the new Soviet fighter a 'Boeing' due to the incorrect assumption that it was based on the Boeing P-26's design. The Nationalists nicknamed the stubby fighter Rata (Rat), while the Republicans affectionately called it Mosca (Fly).

Combat experience showed that the I-16 had deficiencies; several aircraft were lost after structural failure of the wings which was quickly remedied by reinforced structures. Heavy machine gun bullets could sometimes penetrate the armored backrest and fuel tanks occasionally caught fire in spite of being protected. The hot Spanish summers required the addition of oil radiators, and dust adversely affected the life of the engines. Although some aircraft accumulated up to 400 hours of flying time, the average life of an I-16 was 87 days, of which one sixth was spent on maintenance. The biggest complaint in service was the light armament of only two 7.62 mm (0.30 in) machine guns. This was urgently addressed with the Type 6 which added a third ShKAS in the bottom of the fuselage. The four-gun Type 10 was nicknamed 'Super Mosca' or simply 'Super'. The total number of I-16s delivered to Spain from 1936 to 1938 amounted to 276. When the war ended on 1 April 1939, 187 Ratas had been lost in Spain: 112 lost in combat, one shot down by anti-aircraft fire, eleven destroyed on the ground, one force-landed and 62 lost in accidents. [14]

The Far East and battles at Khalkhin Gol

The Far East and battles at Khalkhin Gol

Another 250 I-16 Type 10s were supplied to China. This model added a second set of 7.62 mm (0.30 in) ShKAS machine guns, armor behind the pilot, and had a slightly upgraded 560 kW (750 hp) M-25 engine. In 1939, of the 500 I-16s [15] deployed to the fighting at Nomonhan, approximately 112 were lost during the battles of Khalkhin Gol, of which 88 were destroyed in aerial combat, primarily against the all-metal Nakajima Ki-27 Japanese fighters. [16] During test trials in Russia of a captured Ki-27, the aircraft proved superior to the Soviet I-152 (I-15bis), I-153, and the I-16 in aerial combat, as well as having a faster take-off and lower landing speed, requiring shorter airstrips than the I-16, which needed 270 meters to stop and 380 meters for take-off. [17]

Further attempts were made to upgrade the firepower of the aircraft using 20 mm (0.79 in) ShVAK cannons, making the I-16 one of the most heavily armed fighters of the period, [18] able to fire 28 rounds of ammunition in three seconds. Pilots loved the results, but the cannons were in short supply, and only a small number of the I-16 Type 12, 17, 27, and 28 were built. The cannons adversely affected performance, with 360° turn time increasing from fifteen seconds in the Type 5 to eighteen seconds. The Type 24 replaced the skid with a tailwheel and featured the much more powerful 670 kW (900 hp) Shvetsov M-63 engine. The Type 29 replaced two of the ShKAS guns with a single 12.7 mm (.50 in) UBS. Ten Type 17 fighters were supplied to the Chinese Air Force where on 20 May 1940, they effectively shot down a C5M scout-attack plane and three G3M bombers during the Battle of Chonqing. [19] [20]

Types 18, 24, 27, 28, and 29 could be fitted to carry RS-82 unguided rockets. The first successful use of air-to-air missiles in air combat was on August 20, 1939. A Ki-27 was hit by an RS-82 rocket launched from a distance of about a kilometer. The shot was fired by Captain N. Zvonarev. [21]

A 1939 government study found the I-16 had exhausted its performance potential. The addition of armor, radio, battery, and flaps during the aircraft's evolution exacerbated the rear weight distribution problems to the point where the aircraft required considerable forward pressure on the stick to maintain level flight and at the same time developed a tendency to enter uncontrolled dives. Extension and retraction of the landing flaps caused a dramatic change in the aircraft's attitude. Accurate gunfire was difficult.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The pilots nicknamed the aircraft Ishak (Russian: Ишак, Donkey/Hinny) because it was similar to the Russian pronunciation of 'I-16' ('ee-shestnadtset'). When Operation Barbarossa erupted on 22 June 1941, 1,635 of 4,226 VVS aircraft were I-16s of all variants, fielded by 57 fighter regiments in frontier areas. [22] The main assault delivered by the Luftwaffe's Luftflotte 2 (in support of Wehrmacht Army Group Centre) was directed against the Soviet Western Special Military District, that deployed 361 (424 according to other sources) I-16s. [23]

During the early phase of the campaign the I-16 bases were the main targets for the German aircraft and after 48 hours of combat, of the 1,635 Polikarpov monoplanes in service on 21 June 1941, only 937 were left. [24] By 30 June the number of I-16s in western front line units had dropped to 873, including 99 that required repairs. [25] To stem the Luftwaffe aerial assault several I-16 pilots adopted the taran tactic and sacrificed their lives, ramming German aircraft. [25]

Its main opponent in the sky in 1941 was the German Messerschmitt Bf 109. [26] The I-16 was slightly more maneuverable than the early Bf 109s and could fight the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, or Emil, on equal terms in turns. Skilled Soviet pilots took advantage of the Polikarpov's superior horizontal maneuverability and liked it enough to resist the switch to more modern fighters. The German aircraft, however, outclassed its Soviet opponent in service ceiling, rate of climb, acceleration and, crucially, in horizontal and diving speed, due to better aerodynamics and a more powerful engine. The main versions of the I-16 had a maximum speed of 450-470 km/h (279-291 mph), while the Bf 109E had a maximum speed of 560-570 km/h (347-353 mph), the more streamlined Bf 109F Friedrich could hit 615-630 km/h (372-390plus mph). So German pilots held the initiative and could decide if they wanted to chase their opponents, could attack them from above and behind and then gain altitude for a new attack. Meanwhile, Polikarpovs could only defend each other by forming a defensive circle or via horizontal maneuverability. [26]

Moreover, in terms of armament, Messerschmitts had a slight edge on the I-16. The Emil carried two wing-mounted 20mm MG FF cannons and two synchronized 7.92 mm MG-17s with a weight of a one-second salvo of 2.37 kg, while the most common version of the I-16 - armed with just two synchronized and two wing-mounted 7.62 ShKAS - could deliver 1.43 kg of bullets each second. [27] Finally, the ammunition storage on a Messerschmitt exceeded that of the I-16, carrying 1,000 rounds for each machine gun (plus sixty drum-housed rounds for each cannon), while the Polikarpov carried just 450 rounds for each ShKAS gun. [28]

The Luftwaffe was known to have captured some I-16 and UTI-4 two-seat trainers (two of which were marked with the Stammkennzeichen codes DM+HC and DM+HD) and flown from the Erprobungstelle Rechlin central Luftwaffe test facility by Kampfgeschwader 200 (KG 200). [29] The Luftwaffe was not the only air force able to test its fighters against the I-16; the Japanese captured a few I-16s as well, [3] and the Romanian Air Force also got one when a Soviet pilot defected. [30] The Finnish Air Force (FAF) captured some I-16s (along with several other Soviet types). During the Winter War and the Continuation War, the Finns captured six I-16s and one I-16UTI. Two of the captured I-16s and I-16UTIs were put back into flying condition and flight tested. [31]



There is considerable disagreement in literature on features of particular I-16 variants. This list is based on the following references. [32] [33] [34]


First prototype, M-22 engine, 336 kW (450 hp), two unsynchronized ShKAS machine guns in the wings with 900 rpg.


Second prototype, Wright SGR-1820-F-3 Cyclone engine, 533 kW (715 hp)

TsKB-12P (I-16P)

Prototype armed with two ShVAK cannon in the wings, 150 rpg.


Ground attack prototype with M-22 engine and armored cockpit. Armed with four ShKAS or PV-1 machine guns and 100 kg (220 lb) of bombs. Two additional Type 5s were fitted with six ShKAS machine guns of which four could decline to 20° for ground strafing.

TsKB-29 (SPB)

Pneumatically-operated landing gear and flaps, Wright Cyclone engine, armament of two ShKAS machine guns, used as a high-speed dive bomber in the Zveno project

I-16 Type 1

Pre-production series, M-22 engine with 358 kW (480 hp).

I-16 Type 4

First production version, M-22 engine.

I-16 Type 5

Type 4 with a streamlined and tapered engine cowling, Shvetsov M-25 engine with 522 kW (700 hp). 2 prototypes tested with M-62 engine as well. Mass-produced.

I-16 Type 6

Shvetsov M-25B engine, 545 kW (730 hp). Weight reduction down to 1383 kg.

I-16 Type 10

Four ShKAS machine guns (two synchronized in the fuselage and two in the wings), windscreen replaced the sliding canopy, could be fitted with retractable skis for winter operations, M-25B engine with 560 kW (750 hp). Hispano-Suiza-built aircraft were powered by the Wright Cyclone R-1820-F-54 engine.

I-16 Type 12

Version of I-16 Type 5 with 2 ShKAS machine guns and 2 ShVAK cannons.

I-16 Type 16

Type 10 with synchronized ShVAK 12.7mm prototypes. Only three were built, all in January 1939, with serial numbers 16211-16213. They passed factory trials and were delivered to the VVS for military trials. [35]

I-16 Type 17

Type 10 with two ShKAS machine guns and two ShVAK cannon, rubber tail wheel, M-25V engine with 560 kW (750 hp). Some aircraft were fitted with an additional 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Berezin UB machine gun for strafing.

I-16 Type 18

Type 10 with Shvetsov M-62 engine producing 620 kW (830 hp), with a two-speed supercharger and a variable-pitch propeller. Capable of carrying two 100 l (26 US gal) underwing fuel tanks.

I-16 Type 19

Identical to the Type 10, except for the replacement of their wing-mounted ShKAS machine guns with Savin-Norov machine guns; the propeller-synchronized ShKAS were not replaced. Only three aircraft were built in this configuration, all in January 1939. They had serial numbers 19211-19213. They were first used as test platform for the new gun and then delivered to the VVS as I-16SN. They saw action during the Winter War. [35] [36]

I-16 Type 20

This designation was first applied to four prototypes built in February 1939 at Factory 21 and armed with Savin-Norov (SN) machine guns synchronized to fire through the propeller. This type was however rejected in August 1939, and then the designation reused for the first I-16 version (otherwise the same as the type 10) capable of carrying drop tanks. These 93 l (25 US gal) tanks were designated PSB-21. Eighty aircraft of this specific type were delivered. Additionally, all I-16 types built after January 1940 could use these drop tanks. [35]

I-16 Type 21 and Type 22

These were planned to have four synchronized machine guns all firing through the propeller. Type 21 was to use only ShKAS, while type 22 was supposed to use a mixture of ShKAS and SN machine guns. Both types however existed only on paper; no aircraft of these types went into service. [35]

I-16 Type 23

Type 10 additionally armed with RS-82 rockets; 35 were built starting in May 1939. Further production of this type was cancelled in August 1939. [35]

I-16 Type 24

Four ShKAS, landing flaps replaced drooping ailerons, tailwheel added, second cockpit door added on the starboard side, Shvetsov M-63 engine with 670 kW (900 hp).

I-16 Type 27

Type 17 with an M-62 engine.

I-16 Type 28

Type 24 with two ShKAS and two ShVAK.

I-16 Type 29

Two synchronized ShKAS in the nose and a single 12.7 mm (0.50 in) UBS in the bottom of the fuselage; it had no guns in wings which were reserved for ground attack weapons. Three rocket racks were mounted in each wing. Additionally, starting in 1941, the external fuel tank hardpoint was changed so that it became multipurpose: it could carry the new type of drop tank, PLBG-100, or a FAB-100 bomb. Wartime photographs from the summer of 1941 show two configurations: one with 6 RS-82 rockets and two FAB-100 bombs and another with four RS-132 rockets. [37]

I-16 Type 30

Re-entered production in 1941-42, M-63 engine.


Type 10 with a turbocharger for improved high-altitude performance, reached 494 km/h (307 mph) at 8,600 m ( 28,200 ft), did not enter production.


Two-seat trainer version of Type 1.


Improved UTI-1 with fixed landing gear.

UTI-4 (I-16UTI) also known as I-16 Type 15

Two-seat trainer version of Type 5, most with fixed landing gear. This model was built in significant numbers, approximately 3,400 were produced. [38]




Chinese Nationalist Air Force

Nazi Germany

Luftwaffe operated captured aircraft


Finnish Air Force operated captured aircraft.


Mongolian People's Army Aviation operated one I-16 used for training


Polish Air Force operated one I-16 (1 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego) and two UTI-4 aircraft (15 Samodzielny Zapasowy Pułk Lotniczy and the Techniczna Szkoła Lotnicza. [39]


Royal Romanian Air Force one captured aircraft, one I-16 was captured near Dorohoi in 1941.

Soviet Union

Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Naval Aviation
NKVD Air Forces

Spanish Republic

Spanish Republican Air Force


Spanish Nationalist Air Force operated I-16 and UTI-4 aircraft captured from the Spanish Republican Air Force, returned by French government and 30 built in Jerez de la Frontera. I-16s were still operated in 1952.
Group 1-W
26th Group
Morón Fighter School

Surviving aircraft

Surviving aircraft


Unknown - I-16 on static display at the Chinese Aviation Museum in Datangshang. [43] It is believed to be a replica incorporating original parts.


UT-1 - I-16 UTI-4 on static display at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa, Uusimaa. [44]


2421319 - I-16 Type 24 airworthy with a private owner in Germany as D-EPRN. [45]

New Zealand

Commencing in 1993, New Zealand pilot and entrepreneur Sir Tim Wallis' Alpine Fighter Collection organised the restoration of six I-16s and three I-153s, found in Russia, to an airworthy condition by the Soviet Aeronautical Research Institute (Sibnia) in Novosibirsk. [40] [41] [42]
The flight of the first restored aircraft (I-16 9) took place in October 1995.
Once restored the aircraft were transported by rail to Vladivostok and from there shipped via Hong Kong to New Zealand.
This project was completed in 1999 when the third and final I-153 arrived in New Zealand.
In addition a seventh I-16 was later restored for American collector Jerry Yagen.


2421234 - I-16 Type 24 airworthy with a private owner in Russia as RA-1561G. [46]
2821395 - I-16 on static display at the Central Naval Museum in Saint Petersburg. [47] [48]
Replica - I-16 on static display at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Moscow. [49]
Unknown - I-16 on static display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino. [50]


2421039 - I-16 Type 24 airworthy at the Fundación Infante de Orleans in Madrid as EC-JRK. [51] [52] [53]
Replica - I-16 on static display at the Museo del Aire in Madrid. [54] [55]

United States

2421014 - I-16 Type 24 airworthy at the Flying Heritage Collection in Everett, Washington as N7459. [56] [57]
2421028 - I-16 Type 24 airworthy at the Military Aviation Museum in Virginia Beach, Virginia as N1639P. [58] [59] [60]
2421645 - I-16 Type 24 to be restored to airworthy status by Kermit Weeks, [61] at Fantasy of Flight as N30425. [62] [63]

Specifications (I-16 Type 24)

Data from Istoriia konstruktskii samoletov v SSSR do 1938 [33]

General characteristics

    Crew: One
    Length: 6.13 m (20 ft 1 in)
    Wingspan: 9 m (29 ft 6 in)
    Height: 3.25 m (10 ft 8 in)
    Wing area: 14.5 m2 (156 sq ft)
    Airfoil: TsAGI R-II (16% at root) [64]
    Empty weight: 1,490 kg (3,285 lb)
    Gross weight: 1,941 kg (4,279 lb)
    Powerplant: 1 × Shvetsov M-63 9-cylinder supercharged air-cooled radial engine, 820 kW (1,100 hp)
    Propellers: 2-bladed variable-pitch propeller


    Maximum speed: 489 km/h (304 mph, 264 kn) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
    Range: 700 km (430 mi, 380 nmi) with drop tanks
    Service ceiling: 9,700 m (31,800 ft)
    Rate of climb: 14.7 m/s (2,890 ft/min)
    Time to altitude: 5,000 m (16,000 ft) in 5 minutes 48 seconds
    Wing loading: 134 kg/m2 (27 lb/sq ft)
    Power/mass: 0.43 kW/kg (0.26 hp/lb)


    2 × fixed forward-firing 7.62 mm (0.300 in) ShKAS machine guns in upper cowling
    2 × fixed forward-firing 20 mm (0.787 in) ShVAK cannons in the wings
    6 × unguided RS-82 rockets or up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of bombs

Polikarpov I-16 type 24 72SAP Northern Fleet White 11 Boris Safonov cn 2821z95 Murmansk Aug 1941

Boris F. Safonov was the first pilot serving with the Soviet Navy awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War (Sept. 16, 1941). Although this aircraft was on many occasions depicted in various books, it remains a mystery. The left side is quite clear, but the right side has been described to varying degrees. We offer you two versions of the right side slogan. However, the corresponding left side slogan, in this case, is perhaps a simple and erroneous eyewitness flashback. In our mind, there was nothing on the right side except the red star on the fuselage and the number 11 on the rudder. The mysterious slogan “SMERT FASIZMU” was actually painted on the left side of another aircraft, No. 10, which is also noted to have been flown by Safonov. There was also a third aircraft with a patriotic slogan, No. 13 “ZASSSR!” So with that, some of the interpretation will have to be up to you.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8149.pdf and https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8468.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 24 4GvIAP Red 21 pilot GD Tsokolaev sn 2423321 at Novaya Ladoga airfield 1941-42

Captain Genadij Tsokolayev is another Navy ace with 17 individual and 11 shared victories. He was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union on June 14, 1942. It is not certain, if the Guards badge was in reality painted on both sides of the fuselage. Also, the blue bottom surfaces are not definitely ascertained; it is possible the aircraft was light gray overall. Note missing undercarriage doors.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8149.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 29 254IAP White 27 and 1 Vladimir M Gubich Budogoschi AF Belarus 1942

254. IAP (Fighter Aviation Regiment) was an unit of the 8. SAD (Mixed Air Division), based at Budogosh airfield in the fortified Leningrad area in 1942. The aircraft was painted in a two-tone, pre-war VVS scheme, common in the early Great Patriotic War months, with AII Green upper surfaces and AII Blue lower surfaces. The propeller blades were heavily weathered. Note missing undercarriage doors.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8149.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 29 9GvIAP 69IAP White 3 Lev L Shestakov at Odessa 1941

69. IAP (Fighter Aviation Regiment), later renamed 9. GIAP (Guard Fighter Aviation Regiment), was commanded by a Spanish Civil War veteran, Lev Shestakov, in the summer of 1941. The regiment took part in the protection of the important south Ukrainian port of Odessa against advancing German and Rumanian troops. Lev Shestakov was an ace with 7 individual and 8 shared victories, with another three (2+1), achieved in Spain. The 9.GIAP gained notoriety later in the war, after re-equipping with P-39 Airacobras, during the Battle of Kuban, under the command ofthe legendary, three-time Hero of the Soviet Union, A. I. Pokrishkin.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8149.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 18 286IAP VVS Yellow 61 Leningrad area spring 1942

This I-16 Type 18 served with the 286.IAP (FighterAir Regiment) in the Leningrad area in the spring of 1942. The aircraft was flown by 2nd LieutenantAlexey Gerasimovith Tatarchuk. A.G.Tatarchuk was an ace with 9 kills (7+2 shared). He was later a member of the 11.GIAP (Guard Fighter Air Regiment), when the 286.IAP was withdrawn from the list of the VVS units for heavy loses.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8465.pdf - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

ROC Polikarpov I-16 type 10 ROC Sinkiang Aviation Unit White 33 Dihua AF China 1941-42


Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8469.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Nationalist 26th Grupo de Caza IW30 Tablada AB Sevilla Spain 1944-45

This aircraft wears the newer national insignia that was seen on Spanish aircraft up to that time. The older Nationalist black disc still appears on the fuselage. The green camo was partially overpainted with aluminium. The 26th Fighter Group used captured I-16s as well as newly built I-16s in Jerez de la Frontera.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Nationalist C8 25 Moron Fighter School Moron AB Spain 1949

Polikarpov I-16s received two different names during the Spanish Civil War – Mosca (Homefly) and Rata (Rat). The Republicans who flew them and got them from thein Soviet comrades used the name ‘Mosca’, while General Franco´s Nationalists who fought them used the name ‘Rata’. Besides the 22 captured I-16s, the Nationalist Air Force used 30 I-16s manufactured from spare parts in Jerez de la Frontera.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Nationalist IW6 Moron Fighter School Moron AB Spain 1940-41

This interesting camouflage scheme was created by overpanting the original Soviet scheme with sand-yellow colour and leaving green splotches. The Nationalist marking ‘1W’ was dedicated to captured aircraft. This marking appeared on former Republican Moscas, as the Nationalists considered these airplanes to be captured equipment. This Mosca belonged to the Fighter School located at the newly constructed Morón airbase. Currently, Morón is the home of the Spanish Eurofighters.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Nationalist Reus AB Spain 1940s

This aircraft belonged to the Fighter School that used the airfield near Reus town. The St. Andrew cross on the fin and upper wings is the temporary national insignia. The black fuselage disc has been decorated with artwork and ‘No somos naide’ inscription, including the typing error in the word ‘nadie’. This old Spanish saying expresses a feeling of destiny ...‘We are nothing…’.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Republican 1st Escuadrilla CM158 Liria AB Spain April 1938

The 1st Escuadrilla chose Betty Boop - very popular pre-war cartoon character - as the unit badge. This aircraft wears a typical camouflage scheme of Republican I-16s. Original Soviet colours were topped up with a red band on the fuselage, red wingtips and the tricolour on the fin.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Republican 3rd Escuadrilla CM193 Vilajuiga AB Spain Feb 1939

The aircraft coded CM-193 was flown by the 3rd Escuadrilla CO Jose-Maria Bravo, who is credited with 23 individual aerial kills. He spent WW2 in Soviet Union and returned to Spain in 1960. The next user of this A/C was another unit CO, Francisco Tarazona. This pilot lived in Mexico after the war and published his memoirs and noted eight individual kills, seven shared and four damaged enemy aircraft. Both pilots learned to fly in the Soviet Union. The domino on the tail is a unit badge of the 3rd Escadrilla. This aircraft is the only known I-16 that wore an all-white fuselage code.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Republican 4th Escuadrilla CM170 flown by Pedro Rueda Spain 1938

Comics and cartoon characters were very popular across Europe. Some of the characters fell into oblivion, some not. Popeye, who is still popular, was the chosen badge of the 4th Escuadrilla of the Republican Air Force. The fin sports Republican colours taken from the flag of the so-called ‘Spanish Second Republic’, the former Spanish national insignia.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Republican 7th Escuadrilla CM225 Pachs AB Spain 1938

This Mosca from the 7th Escuadrilla had survived the war and Republican pilot Salvaredo fled to France with it in February, 1939. The pilot was interned in France and the aircraft was returned to Spain. Typical red Republican marking is accompanied by a red tail, the nose wears a non-standard black color. The windsceen was not painted with the green camouflage colour after repairs and remained in natural metal.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/1160.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 24 4GvIAP KBF Red 34 flown by Lt Guryakov 1942 0A

I-16 Type 24 of Naval 4. GIAP KBF (4. Guard Fighter Air Regiment, Baltic Fleet, Soviet Navy), Winter 1941/1942. It is believed it was flown by Lt. Guryakov, who was photographed

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/9/4/9/138949-20-instructions.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 22IAP Yellow 5 White 1 KBF Red 34 flown by 2ndLt Katalov at Nomonhan Mongolia 1939 0A

The 22nd IAP was despatched to the Nomonham plains in late May 1939. It was equipped with I-16s delivered directly from the manufacturing plant. These aircraft wore the original camouflage of overall Light-Grey paint. This camouflage scheme was very similar to the Japanese one and the similarity led to many fatal misunderstandings during aerial fights. This is the reason why the unit HQ asked for repainting of uppersurfaces in Green. Only the Light-Grey fuselage band was left during this process and I-16s used by 22nd IAP are easily recognizable thanks to this band. The I-16 No. 51 was flown by 2nd Lt. Katalov who crashlanded her during the combat deployment in Nomonhan.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8146.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 4GvIAP KBF Air Force Baltic Fleet Silver 43 Finnish front July 1941 0B

This I-16 Type 17 was photographed in summer 1941 near Leningrad. Big white numbers appeared on the fuselage sides of fighter airplanes shortly after the war outbreak. The exact user of this I-16 remains unknown.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8146.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 191IAP 54IAD Red 8 pilot 1Lt Gennadiy S Zhuikov Leningrad Front Sep 1941

This mount was flown by 1st Lt. Gennadiy S. Zhuikov, member of 191st IAP (Fighter Air Regiment). We couldn´t exclude that it was used by other pilots of this air unit. The airplane wore typical manufaturer camouflage scheme which consists of Green on uppersides and Light Blue on undersides. The fuselage was partially repainted with lighter Green. Note the lack of the spinner. Forward side of propeller blades are camouflaged with dark colour dots, probably Green ones. Front part of cowling seems to be darker than the rest of fuselage on b/w photos and could be painted in Red. Gennadiy Sergeyevitch Zhuikov is credited with 17 victories in total (including 4 shared). At least seven of them he achieved in September 1941 while defending Leningrad city. He survived war and flown following fighters during his WWII career: Polikarpov I-16, Hawker Hurricane, BellAiracobra and Lavochkin La-5.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8146.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 84IAP White 02 pilot Capt AA Khudiakov Caucasus Soviet Union 1942

This I-16 Type 17 wore an interesting camouflage scheme including white or light grey snakelines on the standard green upperside camouflage colour. The light snakelines are seen just on the rear fuselage. It is believed this aircraft was flown byAlexandrAnisimovitch Khudiakov, member of 84th IAP in the South Caucasus area in 1942. He is credited with 10 kills (including 7 shared). The patriotic inscription on the fuselage Red Star means 'For the native country'. The pronounciation is 'Za rohdinu'. There were two 84th IAPs in the VVS. The first one was equipped with I-153 Tchaika biplanes and was disbanded in December, 1942. The second one was established later and was renamed 101st GIAP on July 17, 1943. The second one used various versions of I-16 up to 1943.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8146.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 84GvIAP White 28 pilot Mikhail Ya Vasiliev Soviet Union 1942 0A

This I-16 Type 17 wore standard 1942/43 two-tone camouflage scheme on uppersides. It is assumed that this aircraft was flown by 2nd Lt. Mikhail Yakovlevitch Vasiliev, a member of 4th GIAP KBF (Guards FighterAir Regiment of Baltic Fleet) in spring 1942. Vasiliev is credited with 24 victories (4 + 20 shared) and awarded with Hero of Soviet Union title (the higher Soviet distiction) on June 14, 1942 for the bravery and fighting spirit. He was killed in an aerial combat with Fw 190 fighters on May 5, 1943.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8146.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 156IAP Yellow 45 was flown by A Pavlovskiy winter 1941 0A

'Yellow 45' served with 156.IAP (Fighter Air Regiment) in the winter of 1941. The aircraft wears a nice example of field applied winter camouflage. The original dark green/light blue standard camouflage was augmented by a white pattern applied with MK-7 white dispersion paint. The white paint is particularly opaque; the bottom green bleeds through. The aircraft has the early type of front cowling, with a single squared bottom right-side oil cooler air intake. It is assumed that 'Yellow 45' was flown by A.Pavlovskiy, a pilot of 156.IAP in winter 1941/42.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8152.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 17 16IAP Red 9 at Moscow 1941

It is believed this 'Red Nine' served with 16 IAP at Moscow in the tough days of fall, 1941, when the German offensive on Moscow was revved-up. The aircraft wears the standard early war (1941-1943) camouflage pattern with dark green/black upper surfaces and light blue lower surfaces. The spinner, as well as the tail tip, was painted red, and the inscription ('Death to Invaders!') was most probably yellow. No significant weathering is seen on this aircraft. The aircraft has the early type of front cowling, with the single squared bottom right-side oil cooler air intake.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8152.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 29 317IAD with Sgts S Slesarchuk, S Gozin and A Perevera Moscow defense 0A

'White 1' served with 7.IAK PVO (Fighter Air Corps, Air Defense) with the air defense forces of Moscow in the spring of 1942. Three pilots are known to have flown this kite, Sergeants Slesarchuk, Gazin and Perevera. It seems the black pattern was a field application over the original dark green surface. The tail is estimated to be blue, however, another color is possible. The letters on the side of the fuselage surely make up the Russian word 'Za' ('for'), most probably the first word of a typical Soviet inscription such as 'Za Stalina' or 'Za Rodinu' ('Za CCCP' etc.). The aircraft has the late type front cowling with two right-side front oval openings of the oil cooler air intake. Four RS 132 rocket rails were mounted under the wing, two under each half.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8152.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 29 Rumanian Air Force 19th Observation escadrile 1941

This early I-16 Type 29 (with bottom right-side single squared oil cooler air intake) was captured by advancing Rumanian forces in Moldavia in the summer of 1941, and flown by 19th Observation Escadrille personnel (Capt.Popescu-Ciocanel) for training of observation IAR-39 crews in early July, 1941. Later in August and September, it was employed for trial fights with the IAR-80 fighter. It is not certain if the aircraft wears the original VVS dark green/light blue camouflage, or if it was overpainted. Rumanian national markings are in six positions. Note the yellow Eastern Front identification marks, made up of the fuselage band, wing tips and spinner.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8152.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 18 72SAP VVS Northern Fleet White 13 summer 1941

There were a couple of I-16s with interesting fuselage inscriptions within 72.SAP (MixedAir Regiment) service in the summer of 1941. The 72.SAP protected the northern sea route to the USSR, which was extremely important for future British and US lend-lease supplements to the country. The 72.SAP was commanded by famous Soviet naval ace Boris F. Safonov. It is often written, that this aircraft was flown by Lieutenant or Sergeant S. G. Surzhenko, but no pilot with this name has yet been identified.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

ROC Polikarpov I-16 type 10 ROC Sinkiang Aviation Unit White 94 Dihua AF China 1941-45

Another Chinese I-16 wore the markings of the forces of Sheng Shin-tsai, a warlord and Soviet follower in the Eearly forties. His forces operated in Hsinkiang province, close to the Kazakh border.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

ROC Polikarpov I-16 type 10 ROC Sinkiang Aviation Unit White 33 Dihua AF China 1941-45

Another Chinese I-16 wore the markings of the forces of Sheng Shin-tsai, a warlord and Soviet follower in the Eearly forties. His forces operated in Hsinkiang province, close to the Kazakh border.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

ROC Polikarpov I-16 type 10 ROC Chinese Air Force White 71 China 1939

Another country, to which the I-16 was supplied, was China. The USSR supplied a lot of military material to China in the late thirties. Along with such war material, the Soviets also supplied army and air force specialists, and as such, many Chinese I-16s were flown by Russians.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Nationalist Reus AB Spain Feb 1939

The I-16 Type 10 served with the Republican Air Force for a short period of time, amounting to a couple of months. A much longer career was made in the services of the Nationalist, and later Spanish, Air Force - Ejercito del Aire. This example was captured as early as in February, 1939, a month before the end of the civil war. Originally, it belonged to the 3rd Escadrille of the RepublicanAir Force based at Vilajuiga. The red Republican marking stripes were repainted in green, and the Nationalist insignia was added. The tail tricolor band was replaced by Spanish national insignia, used up to the present day.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 type 10 Republican Air Force Spain 1938-1940

Although this I-16 wore Republican markings, we suspect it belonged to the Fighter School in Moron long after the civil war, in the late forties, and it was used to portray enemy aircraft in a movie about the civil war. The aircraft wears the sand camouflage with green spots on the upper surfaces and undercarriage covers, blue on the bottom surfaces. The red fuselage stripe is of a non-standard dimension, and no service number is seen.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

SCW Polikarpov I-16 Republican 4th Escuadrilla CM274 Spain 1938

The I-16 became famous thanks mainly due to its important contribution in Spanish Republican service during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. First I-16 Types 5s, so-called Moscas, were supplied from the USSR as early as 1937. More modern and heavier armed Type 10s were received in late 1938. CM-274 was assigned to the 4th Escadrille. The aircraft wears the typical Republican camouflage and markings of Russian green, with red stripes and tricolor bands on the rudder.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 10 flown by General Major Lakeev Ivan Alekseevich June 1941

IvanAlexeyevitch Lakeyev was member of the first group of the Soviet pilots, arriving to Spain in November 1936. Flying I-16 type 5, he became one of the highest scoring aces in Spanish Civil War, when 10 individual kills are reported on his score. However, some sources say about 12 individual and 16 group kills in Spain. Leaving Spain inAugust 1937, he was awarded by Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. He scored again over Chalkin-Gol, shooting down at least one Japanese aircraft. Again, some sources (PKR 44/95) know about four kills. Another three individual and four group victories are mentioned during Great Patriotic War, once again it is unsure, as just one kill is reported in other sources. Lakeyev’s I-16 type 10 is nice example of high rank officer aircraft, in typical early 40’s camouflage withAII Green on upper surface andAII Blue on the lower surface with distinctive red nose, highly polished steel cowling band and an ideological slogan on the fuselage. It is not know if the description was on both sides of the fuselage – most probably not. This aircraft was based with 46th IAP at Vasilkov airfield. Note this was a VIP aircraft, very carefully maintained, kept clean and polished, in perfect condition. It should be a disappointment for heavy weathering lowers, but be careful with pre-shading and other weathering tricks, guys

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 10 VVS unknown unit Red 4 Leningrad area 1944

Some I-16 survived amazingly long time, like this red four. This is a bit enigmatic aircraft, not so much is know about its curriculum vitae or its pilot. It is know what it served as a squadron hack with unknown unit somewhere on the north sector of the front. The aircraft wore typical early GPW camouflage scheme with AII Green and AII Black (AMT-6) on upper surface and AII Blue on lower surface. The marking is sometimes reported as yellow strip and yellow bordered red stars. It is possible, but uncertain. More likely the strip was somewhat faded white, as well as the star border.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.scalemates.com/products/img/0/4/1/558041-79-instructions.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 10 Red Five Aerobatics Team Major Mikhail N Yakushin 1939

The Red Five, Krasnaya Pyaterka, was the Soviet Air Force (VVS-Voyenno Vozduschniye Sili) aerobatic team in the 1939-1940 timeframe. Three of the five members are known, the team leader major Mikhail Nesterovitch Yakushin, podpolkovnik (Lt.Col.) V. Klevtsov, and kapitan J.Shishkin. Mikhail Yakushin (alias Rodrigo Mateu) was a Spanish Civil War ace with five personal kills (three CR-32s and two Ju 52s), and one shared, to his credit. He spent six months in Spain in 1937 (31.5.37-15.11.37), flying the I-15. He was also in China in 1938. Later during the Great Patriotic War, he served in several command positions, ending the war as commander of the 215th IAD (Fighter Division), with the rank of Colonel. The aircraft of the Red Five were fully equipped fighters with all four machine guns and gun sight, always combat ready. The marking scheme represents the pre-war light grey (AEh-9, or a bit darkerAEh-8 grey) overall, with a black nose (AEh-11). Special display team markings were added a thin, white bordered black stripe on the fuselage (with overlap on the elevator leading edge), and a bright red tail.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8148.pdf

Polikarpov I-16 type 10 VVS unknown unit Ukraine 1941

Among other aircraft types, many I-16s were captured by advancing German troops in the summer of 1941. This well known aircraft is one of these 'Barbarossa' victims. Aircraft wore an unusual camouflage, which seems to be brush painted AII Green over AEh-9 grey overall. It is assumed that this camouflage was applied at unit level shortly after the German surprise attack on June 22, 1941. The VVS RKKAbadge painted on the fin was quite a popular marking applied during the early years of the Great Patriotic War.

Source: Eduard models - https://www.eduard.com/out/media/8148.pdf

 Flight Simulators

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   DCS World - has no 3D model



 Moscow Russia Map


    Polikarpov I-16 Citations

  1. Maslov 2008, p. 76
  2. Green, William. 'Polikarpov's Little Hawk.' Flying Review, November 1969.
  3. Liss 1966, p. 10.
  4. Abanshin and Gut 1994, p. 38.
  5. Léonard 1981, pp. 18-22.
  6. Animation of the I-16's maingear retraction cycle
  7. Animation of the I-16's lower mainwheel door mechanics during retraction
  8. Jackson 2003 p. 148.
  9. Jackson 2003, p. 147.
  10. Gunston 2003, p. 85.
  11. Maslov 2010, p. 25.
  12. Maslov 2010, p. 26.
  13. Maslov 2010, p. 30.
  14. Maslov 2010, p. 32.
  15. Kotelnikov p. 109
  16. Nedialkov 2011, p. 141.
  17. Nedialkov p. 24, 25, 148
  18. Price 1975, p. 78.
  19. 红岩春秋, 唐学锋 (17 January 2019). '当年设施简陋的梁山机场,没想到却是中国空军保卫重庆的第一道空中防线! - 上游新闻·汇聚向上的力量'. www.cqcb.com.
  20. Cheung, 2015, pp. 67-68. The 24th PS/4th PG received a small number of the ShVAK 20mm cannon-armed I-16 Type 17 fighters from the Soviets, and were used to good effect intercepting 24 G3Ms and a Ki-15 (C5M) on 20 May 1940
  21. NASA Technical Translation. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1959.
  22. Maslov 2010, p. 68.
  23. Maslov 2010, pp. 68-69.
  24. Maslov 2010, p. 69.
  25. Maslov 2010, p. 72.
  26. Drabkin 2007, p. 142.
  27. Drabkin 2007, pp. 142-43.
  28. Drabkin 2007, p. 143.
  29. Thomas 2004, p. 80.
  30. Stapfer 1996, p. 46.
  31. Perttula, Pentti. 'FAF in Color.'[permanent dead link] saunalahti.fi.
  32. Liss 1966, p. 8.
  33. Shavrov 1985
  34. Green 2001, pp. 473-475.
  35. Маслов М. А. (2008). Истребитель И-16. Норовистый 'ишак' сталинских соколов (in Russian). Яуза / Коллекция / ЭКСМО. pp. 55-57. ISBN 978-5-699-25660-0.
  36. С.В. Иванов (2001). И-16: Боевой 'Ишак' сталинских соколов. Часть 2. Война в воздухе (in Russian). 43. ООО 'АРС'. Раньше чем начались испытательные стрельбы ультраШКАСа, два инженера, Савин и Норов, представили в 1935 г. на испытания еще один авиационный пулемет СН скорострельностью 2800-3000 выстрелов в минуту. В 1936 г. пулемет успешно прошел стрельбовые испытания, а в 1937 г. был рекомендован к серийному производству. Пулеметами СН немедленно вооружили истребители И-16; И-16 с пулеметами СН получили обозначение тип 19, несмотря на то, что кроме вооружения самолет ничем не отличался от И-16 тип 10. Пулеметами СН заменили крыльевые ШКАСы, синхронные пулеметы остались прежними - ШКАСы. В начале 1939 г. завод № 21 изготовил три И-16 тип 19 (заводские номера 192111, 19212 и 19213). С 17 по 26 марта самолеты испытывал заводской летчик-испытатель Томас Сузи. По результатам испытаний было рекомендовано построить партию таких самолетов. Но массовое производство посчитали нецелесообразным. Под обозначением И-16СН истребители передали в ВВС. Весной 1939 г. на вооружение ВВС РККА был принят авиационный пулемет ультраШКАС. Истребители, вооруженные ультраШКАСАми и СН, приняли участие в войне с Финляндией зимой 1939-1940 г.г.
  37. Маслов М. А. (2008). Истребитель И-16. Норовистый 'ишак' сталинских соколов (in Russian). Яуза / Коллекция / ЭКСМО. pp. 144-145. ISBN 978-5-699-25660-0.
  38. Маслов М. А. (2008). Истребитель И-16. Норовистый 'ишак' сталинских соколов (in Russian). Яуза / Коллекция / ЭКСМО. p. 76. ISBN 978-5-699-25660-0.
  39. Stapfer 1996, p. 50.
  40. Peat. Pages 219 to 224.
  41. 'Polikarpov I-16 'Ishak' ('Rata')'. Kiwi Aircraft Images. Phillip Treweek.
  42. Morss, Dave. 'Flying the Polikarpov'. Myriad Research. Myriad Research.
  43. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  44. 'POLIKARPOV UTI-4 ( I-16 UTI)'. Ilmailumuseo Flygmuseum (in Finnish). Suomen ilmailumuseo.
  45. 'Aircraft D-EPRN Data'. Airport-Data.com. Airport-Data.com.
  46. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16-24 Rata, c/n 2421234, c/r RA-1561G'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  47. '[Untitled]'. Aviation of World War II. AirPages.
  48. '[Untitled]'. Aвиация Второй мировой (in Russian). AirPages.
  49. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16, s/n 61 white VVS'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  50. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  51. 'Policarpov I-16 Mosca/Rata'. Fundación Infante de Orleans (in Spanish). Fundación Infante de Orleans.
  52. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16-24 Rata, s/n 39 Russian AF, c/n 2421039, c/r EC-JRK'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  53. 'REGISTRO DE MATRÍCULA DE AERONAVES CIVILES' (PDF). Agencia Estatal de Seguridad Aérea. 1 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016.
  54. 'Hangar 3 del Museo de Aeronáutica y Astronáutica' (in Spanish). Ejército del Aire. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016.
  55. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16 Rata (Replica)'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  56. 'POLIKARPOV I-16 TYPE 24 (RATA)'. Flying Heritage Collection. Friends of Flying Heritage. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015.
  57. 'FAA REGISTRY [N7459]'. Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation.
  58. 'WWII - Aircraft'. Military Aviation Museum. Military Aviation Museum. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013.
  59. 'Polikarpov I-16 'Rata' Fighter Factory'. Fighter Factory. Fighter Factory. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011.
  60. 'FAA REGISTRY [N1639P]'. Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation.
  61. Kermit Weeks (20 March 2019), Polikarpov I-16 Soviet Fighter - New Acquisition ???,
  62. 'Airframe Dossier - Polikarpov I-16-24 Rata, c/n 2421645, c/r N30425'. Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca.
  63. 'FAA REGISTRY [N30425]'. Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation.
  64. Lednicer, David. 'The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage'. m-selig.ae.illinois.edu.

    Polikarpov I-16 Bibliography:

  • Abanshin, Michael E. and Nina Gut. Fighting Polikarpov: Eagles of the East No. 2. Lynnwood, WA: Aviation International, 1994. ISBN 1-884909-01-9.
  • Cheung, Raymond. OSPREY AIRCRAFT OF THE ACES 126: Aces of the Republic of China Air Force. Oxford: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2015. ISBN 978 14728 05614.
  • Drabkin, Artem. The Red Air Force at War: Barbarossa and the Retreat to Moscow - Recollections of Fighter Pilots on the Eastern Front. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Military, 2007. ISBN 1-84415-563-3.
  • Gordon, Yefim and Keith Dexter. Polikarpov's I-16 Fighter: Its Forerunners and Progeny (Red Star, vol.3). Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-85780-131-8.
  • Gordon, Yefim and Dmitri Khazanov. Soviet Combat Aircraft of the Second World War, Volume One: Single-Engined Fighters. Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-85780-083-4.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
  • Green, William & Swanborough, Gordon. 'Soviet Flies in Spanish Skies'. Air Enthusiast Quarterly, No. 1, n.d., pp. 1-16. ISSN 0143-5450
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: Soviet Air Force Fighters, Part 2. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-354-01088-3.
  • Gunston, Bill. The Illustrated Directory of Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Salamander Books Limited, 1988. ISBN 1-84065-092-3.
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  • Jackson, Robert. Aircraft of world war II - Development - Weaponry - Specifications. London, Amber Books, 2003. ISBN 978-1-85605-751-6.
  • Léonard, Herbert. Les Avions de Chasse Polikarpov (in French). Rennes, France: Editions Ouest-France, 1981. ISBN 2-85882-322-7.
  • Léonard, Herbert. Les Chasseurs Polikarpov (in French). Clichy, France: Éditions Larivière, 2004. ISBN 2-914205-07-4.
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  • Liss, Witold. The Polikarpov I-16 (Aircraft in Profile Number 122). Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile publications Ltd., 1966.
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  • Маслов, М.А. Истребитель И-16. Норовистый «ишак» сталинских соколов. Москва: Коллекция, Яуза, ЭКСМО, 2008. Maslov M.A. Istrebitel' I-16. Norovisty 'ishak' stalinskih sokolov (I-16 Fighter. A Restive 'Donkey' of Stalin’s Falcons). Moscow, Russia: Collection, Yauza, EKSMO, 2008. ISBN 978-5-699-25660-0.
  • Nedialkov, Dimitar. In The Skies of Nomonhan: Japan verses Russia, May-September 1939. London: Crecy Publishing Limited, Second edition 2011. ISBN 978-0-859791-52-6.
  • Peat, Neville (2005). Hurricane Tim : The Story of Sir Tim Wallis (Hardback). Dunedin: Longarce Press. ISBN 1-877361-17-8.
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  • Shavrov V.B. Istoriia konstruktskii samoletov v SSSR do 1938 g. (3 izd.) (in Russian). Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1985. ISBN 5-217-03112-3.
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  • Stapfer, Hans-Heiri. Polikarpov Fighters in Action, Part 2 (Aircraft in Action number 158). Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1996. ISBN 0-89747-355-8.
  • Thomas, Geoffrey J. KG 200: The Luftwaffe's Most Secret Unit. London: Hikoki Publications, 2004. ISBN 1-902109-33-3.
  • 徐 (Xú), 露梅 (Lùméi). 隕落 (Fallen): 682位空军英烈的生死档案 - 抗战空军英烈档案大解密 (A Decryption of 682 Air Force Heroes of The War of Resistance-WWII and Their Martyrdom). 东城区, 北京, 中国: 团结出版社, 2016. ISBN 978-7-5126-4433-5.

    Magazine References: +

  • Airfix Magazines (English) - http://www.airfix.com/
  • Avions (French) - http://www.aerostories.org/~aerobiblio/rubrique10.html
  • FlyPast (English) - http://www.flypast.com/
  • Flugzeug Publikations GmbH (German) - http://vdmedien.com/flugzeug-publikations-gmbh-hersteller_verlag-vdm-heinz-nickel-33.html
  • Flugzeug Classic (German) - http://www.flugzeugclassic.de/
  • Klassiker (German) - http://shop.flugrevue.de/abo/klassiker-der-luftfahrt
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://boutique.editions-lariviere.fr/site/abonnement-le-fana-de-l-aviation-626-4-6.html
  • Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://www.pdfmagazines.org/tags/Le+Fana+De+L+Aviation/
  • Osprey (English) - http://www.ospreypublishing.com/
  • Revi Magazines (Czech) - http://www.revi.cz/

    Web References: +

  • History of RAF Organisation: http://www.rafweb.org
  • Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polikarpov_I-16
  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/


This webpage was updated 24th November 2021