Arteork Defence Bands Reichsverteidigung 0A Arteork Jagdwaffe Vol 5 Section 3 Defending the Reich 1943 44 pages 220 1 Artwork Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 (B4+I) 0A Artwork Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 III.SG1 Gerhard Wolff WNr 211000 crash site 1945 0A Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 (4 + abandoned Germany 1945 01 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 2.JG26 provided airfield cover for NAG6 Me 262s Rheine 1945 01
Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 2.JG26 provided airfield cover for NAG6 Me 262s Rheine 1945 02 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 2.JG26 provided airfield cover for NAG6 Me 262s Rheine 1945 03 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 7.JG26 Reinsehlen conversion aircraft Nov 1944 01 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 Black 1 01 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 Color 01 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 III.SG1 Gerhard Wolff Luftwaffe pilots license 01
Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 III.SG1 Gerhard Wolff WNr 211000 crash site 1946 01 Focke Wulf Fw 190D9 III.SG1 Gerhard Wolff WNr 211000 crash site 1946 02

Focke-Wulf Fw 190D Dora

The Fw-190D (nicknamed the Dora; or Long-Nose Dora, Langnasen-Dora) was intended to improve on the high-altitude performance of the A-series enough to make it useful against the American heavy bombers of the era. In the event the D series was rarely used against the heavy bomber raids as the circumstances of the war in late-1944 meant that fighter versus fighter combat and ground attack missions took priority. A total of 1,805 D-9s were produced. Production started in August 1944 and it entered service with Luftwaffe in September 1944, with III./JG54.

The liquid-cooled 1,750 PS (1,726 hp, 1,287 kW) Jumo 213A could produce 2,100 PS (2,071 hp, 1,545 kW) of emergency power with MW 50 injection, improving performance to 426 mph (686 km/h) at 21,650 feet (6,600 m). Early D-9s reached service without the MW 50 installation, but in the meantime Junkers produced a kit to increase manifold pressure (Ladedrucksteigerungs-Rustsatz) that increased engine output by 150 PS to 1900 PS, and was effective up to 5000 m altitude. It was fitted immediately to D-9s delivered to the units from September, or retrofitted in the field by TAM. By the end of December, all operational Doras, 183 in total, were converted. From November 1944, a simplified MW-50 system (Oldenburg) was fitted, that boosted output to 2100 PS. By the end of 1944, 60 were delivered with the simplified MW 50 system or were at the point of entering service. The 115 liter tank of the Oldenburg system would hold the MW 50 booster liquid was single purpose, while later systems were to be dual purpose, either holding MW 50 or additional fuel.

Donald Caldwell:

The new airplane lacked the high turn rate and incredible rate of roll of its close-coupled radial-engined predecessor. It was a bit faster, however, with a maximum speed of 680 km/h (422 mph) at 6,600 meters (21,650 ft). Its 2240 horespower with methanol-water injection (MW 50) gave it an excellent acceleration in combat situations. It also climbed and dived more rapidly than the Fw-190A, and so proved well suited to the dive-and-zoom ambush tactics favored by the Schlageter pilots. Many of the early models were not equipped with tanks for methanol, which was in very short supply in any event. At low altitude, the top speed and acceleration of these examples were inferior to those of Allied fighters. Hans Hartigs recalled that only one of the first batch of Dora-9s received by the First Gruppe had methanol-water injection, and the rest had a top speed of only 590 km/h (360 mph).

Due to the multiple attempts to create an effective next generation 190, as well as the comments of some Luftwaffe pilots, expectations of the Dora project were low. These impressions were not helped by the fact that Tank made it very clear that he intended the D-9 to be a stop-gap until the Ta 152 arrived. These negative opinions existed for some time until positive pilot feedback began arriving at Focke-Wulf and the Luftwaffe command structure. Sporting excellent handling and performance characteristics, it became very clear that the D-9 was nearly the perfect response to the Luftwaffe's need for an effective medium altitude, high-speed interceptor, although its performance still fell away at altitudes above about 20,000 feet (6,100 m). When flown by capable pilots, the Fw-190D proved to be a match for P-51s and Mk. XIV Spitfires. Lt. Karl-Heinz Ossenkopf, a fighter pilot of JG26 with five months of frontline service, commented on the aircraft:

The FW 190D-9 was quickly adopted by the pilots, after some initial reservations. They felt that it was equal to or better than the equipment of the opposition. Its servicability was not so good, owing to the circumstances. I felt that the aircraft built at Sorau had the best fit and finish. They could be recognised by their dark green camouflage. I hit 600 km/h with my own green aircraft, Black 8, with full power and MW 50 methanol injection, clean, 20-30 meters above the ground.

Compared with the FW 190A-8, the Dora-9: 1. With 40 hp (30 kW) to 50 hp (37 kW) more power, had a greater level speed, climb rate, and ceiling; 2. Had much better visibility to the rear, owing to its bubble canopy; 3. Was much quieter - the Jumo 213A vibrated much less than the BMW 801; 4. Handled better in steep climbs and turning, owing probably to its greater shaft horsepower at full throttle; 5. Had less torque effect on takeoff and landing; and 6. Had slightly greater endurance.

Compared with the Spitfire, the Dora-9: 1. Had greater level, climbing and diving speeds; 2. Was inferior in turns, especially in steep climbing turns typical of combat.

Compared with the Tempest, the Dora-9: 1. Was better in the climb and in turns; 2. Had the same or lower level speed, depending on its fit and finish; and 3. Had a lower diving speed.

Compared with the Thunderbolt, the Dora-9: 1. Had a greater level and climbing speed; 2. Had a better turning ability; and 3. Was inferior past all hope in diving speed.

In order to fit the new engine in the Fw-190Fuselage while maintaining proper balance and weight distribution, both the nose and the tail of the aircraft were lengthened, adding nearly 1.52 meters to the fuselage, bringing the overall length to 10.192 meters versus the 9.10 meters of the late war A-9 series. The lengthened tail required that an extra, straight sided bay, 30 cm in length, was spliced in forward of the rear angled joint and tail assembly of the fuselage. To further aid balance the pilot's oxygen bottles were moved aft and located in the new bay. This gave the rear fuselage a much skinnier appearance.
An Fw-190D-9, W.Nr. 210, one of the first production aircraft at the Cottbus plant. Note the early canopy and redesigned, simplified centreline rack carrying a 300 l drop-tank.

Furthermore, the move to an inline engine required more components to be factored into the design, most significantly the need for coolant radiators (radial engines are air-cooled). To keep the design as simple and as aerodynamic as possible, Tank used an annular radiator (the AJA 180 L) installed at the front of the engine, similar to the configuration used in the Jumo powered versions of the Junkers Ju 88. The annular radiator with its adjustable cooling gills resembled a radial engine installation, although the row of six short exhausts stacks on either side of the elongated engine cowling showed that Jumo 213 was an inverted vee-12 engine. While the first few Doras were fitted with the flat-top canopy, these were later replaced with the newer rounded top blown canopy first used on the A-8 model. With the canopy changes, the shoulder and head armour plating design was also changed. Some late model Doras were also fitted with the Ta 152 vertical stabilizer and rudder, often called Big Tails by the Luftwaffe ground crews and pilots as seen on W.Nr. 500647 Brown 4 from 7./JG26 and W.Nr. 500645 Black 6 from JG2). The centre-line weapons rack was changed to an ETC 504 with a simplified and much smaller mounting and fairing.

As it was used in the anti-fighter role, armament in the D was generally lighter compared to that of the earlier aircraft - usually the outer wing cannon were dropped so that the armament consisted of two 13 mm MG 131 machine guns and two 20 mm MG 151/20 E wing root cannon. What little it lost in roll rate, it gained in turn rate, climb, dive and horizontal speed. The Dora still featured the same wing as the A-8, however, and was capable of carrying outer wing cannons as well, as demonstrated by the D-11 variant, with a three-stage supercharger and four wing cannon (two MG 151s and two MK 108s).

The first Fw-190D-9s started entering service in September 1944 with III./JG54. It was quickly followed by many, including I./JG26, starting 16 November to convert to the new fighter from the A-8. Lt Theo Nibel's W.Nr.210079 Black 12 of 10./JG54 was downed by a partridge which holed his radiator near the British airfield of Grimbergen during Unternehmen Bodenplatte. This aircraft was the first relatively intact D-9 to be captured, 1 January 1945.

Some Fw-190Ds served as fighter cover for Me 262 airfields as the jet fighters were very vulnerable on takeoff and landing. These special units were known as Platzsicherungstaffel (airfield defence squadron). One unit in particular was created by Leutnant Heinz Sachsenberg at the behest of Adolf Galland, had the entire aircraft underside painted in narrow red and broad white stripes. The unique colour scheme helped anti-aircraft artillery protecting the airfields quickly identify friendly aircraft, and may have been based on the D-Day invasion stripes used by the Allied air forces. The unit, known as Wurger-Staffel, guarded the airfield of JV 44, operational late in the war, from about March 1945 to May 1945, and was used only to defend landing Me 262s and as such prohibited from chasing Allied aircraft.

Fw-190D-11

17 Fw-190D-11s were known to have been manufactured. This version was fitted with the uprated Jumo 213E series engine which was also used in the Ta-152 H series. Changes over the D-9 were the enlarged supercharger air-intake on the starboard side cowling and the use of a wooden, broad-bladed VS 9 or 10 propeller unit utilizing three 9-27012 C-1 blades with a diameter of 3.6 meters. The 13 mm fuselage guns were removed, and the cowling redesigned and by omitting the gun troughs was changed to a flat profile. Two 30 mm MK 108 cannons were installed in the outer wings to complement the 20 mm MG 151s in the inboard positions. Of the 17 Dora-11s delivered, three can be accounted for. One, the best-known, was Rote 4 (red 4) of JV 44's Platzschutz unit. Another, white chevron, was found at Munchen-Riem, and may have served with JV 44 after serving at the Verbandsfuhrerschule General der Jagdflieger (Training School for Unit Leaders) at Bad Worishofen; it is not known if it was actually used operationally. A third, white <61, was also found after the war at the Verbandsfuehrerschule General der Jagdflieger.

While the D-11 was under manufacture, work started on the Fw-190D-12 and D-13 models. The D-12 and D-13s were based on the D-11 design, however the D-12 and D-13 were fitted with Motorkanone nose cannons firing through the propeller hub (the D-12 would be fitted with a MK 108 30 mm cannon and the D-13 would be fitted with a MG 151/20 20 mm cannon). There were three test aircraft built for the D-12 line, V63, V64 and V65 but no production aircraft were built.

Fw-190D-13

The Fw-190D-13 started with the construction of two prototypes (W.Nr 732053 and W.Nr 7322054), and the MG 151/20 20 mm cannon was found to be quite suited for the aircraft and was already well known to be effective against allied bombers, as well as an effective ground support weapon. Thus the Fw-190D-13/R11 was selected to enter production. The D-13/R11 was fitted with all weather flying equipment including the PKS12 and K-23 systems for steering and autopilot. The FuG 125 radio system, known as Hermine was fitted to the aircraft, as well as a heated windscreen. Pilots reported that due to the large amounts of torque produced by the engine, they usually used the steering system during the take-off run as it helped with the rudder movements. The D-13 also introduced a hydraulic boost system for the ailerons, which was later used on the Ta 152.

In all the RLM called for 820 D-11 airframes to be built by Focke-Wulf Sorau, stating in early 1945, Fieseler Kassel was tasked to build 1420 D-12's starting in the same time frame and the manufacture of the D-13 was passed to Arbeitsgruppe Roland tasked with the construction of 1,060 airframes starting again in early 1945. For some yet unknown reason, production of the D-12 was cancelled in favour of the D-13 model. From evidence from the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe General Quartiermeister document Nr. 2766/45 of April 1945, it was known that 17 D-13s were more than likely built, but only two were known to be in service. A D-13 (Wk. Nr 836017) flown by the Geschwaderkommodore of JG26, Franz Gotz, an ace with 63 kills, was captured intact by U.S. army personnel in May 1945. This aircraft is still in existence, painted in its original colour scheme as Yellow 10, is thought to be airworthy and is currently located in the Flying Heritage Collection at Paine Field, Washington. This aircraft is one of the few existing Fw-190s with a history that can be traced back from its manufacture to the current date.

In mock combat

Shortly after World War II the British became interested in the performance and evaluation of the advanced German Fw-190D-13. While at Flensburg the British Disarmament Wing wanted to see how this fighter would perform against one of their best, a Hawker Tempest. Squadron Leader Evans approached Major Heinz Lange and asked him to fly a mock combat against one of their pilots. Lange accepted, even though he had only ten flights in a D-9.

The mock dogfight was conducted at an altitude of 10,000 feet (3,000 m), with only enough fuel for the flight and no ammunition. In the end the machines were evenly matched. Major Lange assessed that the outcome of such a contest greatly depended on the skills of the individual pilot. At the time Lange was not aware that he was flying a D-13 but rather a D-9. Interestingly the same Yellow 10 (Wk. Nr. 836017) that was previously assigned to Geschwaderkommodore Franz Gotz was used in this evaluation. Yellow 10 was further subjected to mock combat when on 25 June 1945 Oberleutnant Gunther Josten was asked to fly a comparison flight against another Tempest.

Attack versions

While nearly all variants of the Fw-190 could carry bombs and other air-to-ground ordnance, there were two dedicated attack versions of the Fw-190. The Luftwaffe was looking for aircraft to replace the Henschel Hs 123 biplane, which were seriously outmatched in 1942, as well as the slow and heavy Junkers Ju 87. The excellent low-level performance and reasonably high power of the Fw-190 suggested it would be a natural in this role. Two versions of the Fw-190 were eventually built, customized for this mission.

Fw-190F

The Fw-190F was started as a Fw-190A-0/U4. Early testing started in May 1942. This A-0 was outfitted with centre-line and wing mounted ETC 50 bomb racks. The early testing was quite good, and Focke-Wulf began engineering the attack version of the Fw-190. New armor was added to the bottom of the fuselage protecting the fuel tanks and pilot, the engine cowling, and the landing gear mechanisms and outer wing mounted armament. Finally the Umrust-Bausatze kit 3 was fitted to the aircraft by means of a ETC 501 or ER4 centre-line mounted bomb rack and up to a SC250 bomb under each wing. This aircraft was designated the Fw-190F-1. The first 30 Fw-190F-1s were renamed Fw-190A-4/U3s; however, Focke-Wulf quickly began assembling the aircraft on the line as Fw-190F-1s as their own model with 18 more F-1s built before switching to the F-2. The Fw-190F-2s were renamed Fw-190A-5/U3s, which again were soon assembled as Fw-190F-2s on the production line. There were 270 Fw-190F-2s built according to Focke-Wulf production logs and RLM acceptance reports.

The Fw-190F-3 was based on the Fw-190A-5/U17, which was outfitted with a centre-line mounted ETC 501 bomb rack, and two double ETC 50 bomb racks under each wing. 432 Fw-190F-3s were built.

Due to difficulties creating an effective strafing Fw-190F able to take out the Russian T-34 tank, the F-4 through F-7 models were abandoned, and all attempts focused on conversion of the Fw-190A-8.

The Fw-190F-8 differed from the A-8 model with a slightly modified injector on the compressor which allowed for increased performance at lower altitudes for several minutes. The F-8 was also outfitted with the improved FuG 16 ZS radio unit which provided much better communication with ground combat units. Armament on the Fw-190F-8 was two MG 151/20 20 mm cannon in the wing roots and two MG 131 machine guns above the engine. According to RLM acceptance reports at least 3,400 F-8s were built, probably several hundreds more in December 1944 and from February to May 1945 (data for these months is missing and probably lost).

Dozens of F-8s served as various testbeds for anti-tank armament, including the WGr.28 280 mm ground-to-ground missile, 88 mm Panzerschreck 2 rockets, Panzerblitz 1 and R4M rockets.

There were also several Umrust-Bausatze kits developed for the F-8, which included: The Fw-190F-8/U1 long range JaBo, outfitted with underwing V.Mtt-Schlo? shackles to hold two 300-liter fuel tanks. ETC 503 bomb racks were also fitted, allowing the Fw-190F-8/U1 to carry one SC 250 bomb under each wing and one SC 250 bomb on the centre-line.

The Fw-190F-8/U2 torpedo bomber, outfitted with an ETC 503 bomb rack under each wing and a centre-line mounted ETC 504. The U2 was also equipped with the TSA 2 A weapons sighting system that improved the U2's ability to attack seaborne targets.

The Fw-190F-8/U3 heavy torpedo bomber was outfitted with an ETC 502, which allowed it to carry one BT-1400 heavy torpedo. Due to the size of the torpedo, the U3's tail gear needed to be lengthened. The U3 also was fitted with the 2,000 PS BMW 801S engine, and the tail from the Ta 152.

The Fw-190F-8/U4 created as a night fighter, was equipped with flame dampers on the exhaust and various electrical systems such as the FuG 101 radio altimeter, the PKS 12 automatic pilot, and the TSA 2 A sighting system. Weapons fitted ranged from torpedoes to bombs; however, the U4 was outfitted only with two MG 151/20 cannon as fixed armament.

The Fw-190F-9 was based on the Fw-190A-9 but with the new Ta 152 tail unit, a new bulged canopy as fitted to late-build A-9s, and four ETC 50 or ETC 70 bomb racks under the wings. According to RLM acceptance reports 147 F-9 were built in January 1945, probably several hundreds more from February to May 1945 (data for these months is missing and probably lost).

Fw-190G

The Fw-190G was built as a long range attack aircraft (JaBo Rei, or Jagdbomber mit vergrosserter Reichweite). Following the success of the Fw-190F as a Schlachtflugzeug (close support aircraft), both the Luftwaffe and Focke-Wulf began investigating ways of extending the range of the Fw-190F. From these needs and tests, the Fw-190G was born.

There were four distinct versions of the Fw-190G: The Fw-190G-1: The first Fw-190Gs were based on the Fw-190A-4/U8 JaBo Rei's. Initial testing found that if all but two wing root mounted MG 151 cannons (with reduced ammo load) were removed, the Fw-190G-1 as it was now called, could carry a 250 kg or 500 kg bomb on the centre-line and, via an ETC 250 rack, up to a 250 kg bomb under each wing. Typically the G-1s flew with underwing fuel tanks, fitted via the VTr-Ju 87 rack. The FuG 25a IFF (identification friend/foe) was fitted on occasion as well as one of the various radio direction finders available at the time. With the removal of the fuselage mounted MG 17s, an additional oil tank was added to support the BMW 801 D-2 engine's longer run times.

The Fw-190G-2: The G-2 was based on the Fw-190A-5/U8 aircraft. The G-2s were similarly equipped to the G-1s, however due to wartime conditions, the underwing drop tank racks were replaced with the much simpler V.Mtt-Schlo? fittings, to allow for a number of underwing configurations. Some G-2s were also fitted with the additional oil tank in place of the MG 17s, however not all were outfitted with the oil tank. Some G-2s were fitted with exhaust dampers and landing lights in the left wing leading edge for night operations.

The Fw-190G-3: The G-3 was based on Fw-190A-6. Like the earlier G models, all but the two wing root mounted MG 151 cannons were removed. The new V.Fw. Trg bombracks however, allowed the G-3 to simultaneously carry fuel tanks and bomb loads. Because of the range added by two additional fuel tanks, the G-3's duration increased to two hours, 30 minutes. Due to this extra flight duration, a PKS 11 autopilot was fitted. Some G-3s built in late 1943 were also fitted with the a modified 801 D-2 engine which allowed for increased low-altitude performance for short periods of time. The G-3 had two primary Rustsatze kits. The R1 replaced the V.Fw. Trg racks with WB 151/20 cannon pods. This gave the G-3/R1 a total of 6 20 mm cannons. When fitted with the R1 kit, the G model's addition armor was typically not used, and the PKS11 removed. The G-3/R1 was used in both ground strafing and anti-bomber roles. The R5 was similar to the R1, but the V.Fw. Trg racks were removed, and two ETC 50 racks per wing were added. As with the R1, the additional armor from the base G model were removed, as was the additional oil tank. In some instances, the fuselage mounted MG 17s were refitted.

The Fw-190G-8: The G-8 was based on the Fw-190A-8. The G-8 used the same bubble canopy of the F-8, and was fitted with underwing ETC 503 racks that could carry either bombs or drop tanks. Two primary Rustsatze kits were also seen on the F-8. The R4, which was a planned refit for the GM 1 engine boost system, but never made it into production, and the R5 which replaced the ETC 503's with two ETC 50 or 71 racks. Due to the similarities with the F-8, the G-8 was only in production for a short amount of time.

Some Gs were field modified to carry 1,000 kg, 1,600 kg and 1,800 kg bombs. When this was done the landing gear was slightly improved by enhancing the oleo struts and using reinforced tires.

Approximately 1300 Fw-190Gs of all variants were new built. Due to war conditions, the manufacturing environment and the use of special workshops during the later years of the war, the accurate number of G models built is next to impossible to determine. During the later years of the war, use of composite aircraft, for example, wings from a fuselage-damaged aircraft, and the fuselage from a wing-damaged aircraft were often reassembled and listed as a Fw-190G with a new serial number. The Fw-190G-1 currently at the National Air and Space Museum is one of these composite planes, built from the fuselage of a Fw-190A-7.

Trainer versions
Fw-190 S-8 (rebuilt from an F-8/U1), Wk Nr 584219, Black 30 on display at RAF Hendon. This particular machine was attached to Jagdfliegerschule 103.
Side view of Wk Nr 584219, Black 38

As the Luftwaffe phased out older aircraft such as the Ju 87, and replaced them with the Fw-190, many pilots required flight training to make the transition as quickly and smoothly as possible. Thus was born the Schulflugzeug (literally school airplane) training version of the Fw-190. Several old Fw-190A-5s, and later in 1944, A-8s, were converted by replacing the MW 50 tank with a second cockpit. The canopy was modified, replaced with a new three section unit, which opened to the side, similar to the Bf-109. The rear portion of the fuselage was closed off with sheet metal. Originally designated Fw-190A8-U1, they were later given the Fw-190 S-5 and S-8 designation. There were an estimated 58 Fw-190 S-5 and S-8 models converted or built.

Late war and the Focke-Wulf Ta 152

After the D, later variants of the 190 were named Ta, after Kurt Tank, when the RLM changed their naming to reflect the chief designer instead of the company he represented. This was a singularly rare honorific, Tank was the first engineer to be so honoured. The aircraft developed into something much different than earlier Fw-190 models. The most promising design was the Ta 152H; the H model used the liquid-cooled Jumo 213E engine and possessed a much greater wing area for better high-altitude performance - to attack the expected B-29s. It was capable of speeds in excess of 700 km/h (435 mph) and had a service ceiling of around 15,000 m (49,200 ft). Armed with a single engine-mounted, or Motorkanone, 30 mm MK 108 cannon and two MG 151/20E guns, it was highly promising, but manufacturing problems, materials shortages and the disruption towards the end of the war resulted in very few Ta 152s of all types being built (no more than 150 in total). Effort was also diverted into further prototype work, the lower-altitude Ta 152 C with a DB 603 engine and five cannon this possessed the noticeably shorter wing. However as the last days of the war dawned, the rushed construction of the Ta 152 H and its engines became its undoing as failures and lack of spare parts affected the aircraft seriously enough to ground all H models, leaving only the two constructed C models flying at the end of the war.

Fw-190As were also used to launch and control the unmanned Mistel guided bombs during the last days of the Western Front in the Second World War. Most of the Mistels used in combat were launched from Fw-190 motherships.

Operators

France:French Air Force ordered 64 aircraft postwar from the SNCA aircraft company. The Fw-190A-5/A-6 model that was chosen carried the designation NC 900. The aircraft were used operationally for a short period and withdrawn due to problems with the BMW 801 engine.

Germany:Luftwaffe

Hungary:Royal Hungarian Air Force received 72 Fw-190F-8s and F-9s for training and defensive purposes.

Spain:Spanish Air Force operated Fw-190A-2,3,4 among Fw-190A-8 and Gs with volunteers of Escuadrilla Azul (15? Spanische Staffel,/JG51 Molders VIII Fliegerkorps,belonged in LuftFlotte 4) in Eastern Front (from Orel during sept 1942 to Bobruisk,during July 1943) and Defense of the Reich over Germany.

Romania:Royal Romanian Air Force received from Germany a number of Fw-190A-8s used for defensive purposes in metropolitan areas. Following the 23 August 1944 coup by King Michael, which resulted in Romania leaving the Axis powers, Romania interned 22 Luftwaffe Fw-190F-8s which were operating from Romanian bases, using them for operations against German forces. Nine servicable Fw-190s were later confiscated by the Soviet Union.

Turkey:Turkish Air Force, beginning in mid-1942, received 72 examples of the Fw-190A-3a (export model of A-3, a stood for auslandisch - foreign) from Germany to modernize their air force. These aircraft were basically Fw-190A-3s, with BMW 801 D-2 engines and FuG VIIa radios and an armament fit of four MG 17s, with the option of installing two MG-FF/M cannon in the outer wing positions. The export order was completed between October 1942 and March 1943. The Fw-190 remained in service until 1948-1949.

Fw-190And Ki-61

During the war, Germany sent one Fw-190A-8 to Japan for technical evaluation. The analysis of the Fw-190Assisted in the development of the radial-engined Kawasaki Ki-100 from the inline-engined Ki-61 Hien Tony, specifically, the successful mating of a wide engine to a narrow airframe. The Ki-61 itself was influenced by German engineering in that it was powered by a Japanese version of the early Bf-109's Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine.

Survivors
Focke-Wulf Fw-190D-13/R11, Yellow 10, Wk. Nr. 836017 from the Champlin Fighter Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, c. 1995.

At least 28 Fw-190s exist in museums, collections and in storage worldwide, with 15 displayed in the United States. The NASM stores a rare Ta 152 H-0/R-11 at the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration and Storage Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Other survirors that are currently known:

* Werk. Nr. 5476, a Fw-190A-2 from JG5, owned by Wade S. Hayes and currently located in Texas USA. It is thought to be one of the oldest Fw-190s still in existence.
* Werk. Nr. 2219, a Fw-190A-3 from IV./JG5, currently being rebuilt for the Norwegian Air Force Museum
* Werk. Nr. 1227, a Fw-190A-5 from IV/JG54, currently being rebuilt in the UK for the Flying Heratige Collection out of Seattle, Washington USA.
* Werk. Nr. 550214, a Fw-190A-6 possibly flown by III./NJG11 as it was fitted with a FuG 217 Neptun radar system. Formerly displayed in the UK but shipped to South Africa where it is now on display at the South African National Museum of Military History.
* Werk. Nr. 550470, a Fw-190A-6 from I./JG26, Owned by Malcolm Lang and located in Lubbock Texas, USA.
* Werk. Nr. 170393, a Fw-190A-8 from 6./JG1, mostly a replica built from original parts, located at the Luftfahrtmuseum, Hanover Germany.
* Werk. Nr. 174056, a Fw-190A-8 unknown history, owned by Malcolm Lang and located in Chandler Arizona USA where it is under restoration.
* Werk. Nr. 173889, a Fw-190A-8 from 7./JG1, owned by Mark Timken, currently under restoration.
* Werk. Nr. 350177, a Fw-190A-8 from 12./JG5, owned by Jon W. Houston and located at the Texas Air Museum in Rio Hondo, Texas, USA.
* Werk. Nr. 730923, a Fw-190A-8 as a NC 900, located in the Musee de L'Air in Paris France.
* Werk. Nr. 732183, a Fw-190A-8 from 12./JG5 as flown by Rudi Linz, a German ace with 79 victories, this aircraft was shot down over Norway by a British Mustang, owned by John W. Houston and currently under restoration at the Texas Air Museum.
* Werk. Nr. 733685, a Fw-190A-8 that had formerly been part of a Mistel S-3B composite aircraft, located at the Imperial War Museum in London, England.
* Werk. Nr. 210968, a Fw-190D-9 from 2./JG26, under restoration for the Luftwaffe Museum in Berlin, Germany.
* Werk. Nr. 601088, a Fw-190D-9 from IV (Sturm)./JG3 Udet Geschwader, captured by the US intact and labeled FE-120 and used in testing following the war. Located at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio, USA. The aircraft is on display in the Museum's Air Power gallery. It is on long term loan from the National Air and Space Museum.
* Werk. Nr. 836017, a Fw-190D-13 from 1./JG26 as flown by Oberstleutnant Heinz Lange. After capture labelled FE-117 and later donated to the Georgia Technical University, and then fell into disrepair. Later restored in Germany by William Flugzeuge and returned to the Champlain Figher Museum in Mesa, Arizona. This aircraft is believed to be airworthy.
* Werk. Nr. 670071, a Fw-190F-3 from 1./SchG 1. Under restoration for the Flugplatz Museum of Cottbus, Germany.
* Werk. Nr. 5415, a Fw-190F-8, thought to be under restoration in New Zealand.
* Werk. Nr. 930838, a Fw-190F-8, currently in storage at the Yugoslave Aeronautical Museum in Belgrade.
* Werk. Nr. 931862, a Fw-190F-8 from 9./JG5, the White 1 as flown by Unteroffizier Heinz Orlowski. Shot down by P-51's over Norway. Under restoration in Kissimmee, Florida, USA and is expected to be returned to airworthy status.
* Werk. Nr. 931884, a Fw-190F-8 from I./SG 2, built by Arado as an A-4 with Wk. Nr. 640069, but later rebuilt by Fieseler as an F-8. Captured intact by the US and marked as FE-117. Flown for a number of years and later restored by NASM where it is now located.
* Werk. Nr. 584219, a Fw-190F-8/U1 converted into a 2 seat unit as a VIP transport for Jagdfliegerschule 103. Captured by the RAF in Norway and later flown for testing purposes. Currently located in the Bomber Command Hall at the RAF Museum in Hendon, England. It is the only known 2 seat Fw-190 in existence.

Other surviving Fw-190s are known to exist in Russia and Brazil.

Airframe salvage and recovery
The Fw-190A-3, photographed just after being salvaged.

On 1 November 2006, a Fw-190A-3 was salvaged from the depths off the island of Sotra, near Bergen, Norway. Its pilot had made an emergency landing in December 1943 and had scrambled to safety and was rescued soon after, but his aircraft had sunk to the bottom of the sea. After its retrieval from its 60 m deep watery grave, the Fw-190, Yellow 16, from IV/JG5, appears to be in remarkably good condition, only missing its canopy and the fabric-covered wing and tail surfaces.
Modern Fw-190

Starting in 1997, a small German company, Flug Werk GmbH, began work on a new Fw-190A-8. These Fw-190A-8s are new builds from the ground up, using many original dies, plans and other information from the war. Werk numbers continued from where the German war machine left off with the new Fw-190A-8 labeled FW-190A-8/N (N for Nachbau (English: new build). Some of these new Fw-190s are known to be fitted with the original tail wheel units from the Second World War; a small cache of tail gear having been discovered. In November 2005, the first flights were completed. Ironically, since the BMW 801 engines are no longer available, a Chinese licensed Russian engine, the ASh-82FN 14-cylinder twin-row radial engine, which powered some of the Fw-190s opposition: the La-5 and La-7, powers the new FW-190A-8/N. Flugwerk was also instrumental in the restoration of perhaps the only Fw-190A-9 in existence. The aircraft is currently being restored in Duxford, England for a US owner.

Work has also been recently started on a Fw-190D-9, and, again in a bit of irony, will be powered by a modified Allison V-1710 V-12, the powerplant of the P-39 Airacobra, another foe of the Fw-190 often flown by Russian forces in the Second World War. Recently this aircraft, known as Black 12, arrived in Kissimmee, FL, and on 12 December 2007, had its first engine run.

The FW-190A-8/N participated in the Finnish war movie Tali-Ihantala 1944, painted in the same markings as Oberst Erich Rudorffer's aircraft in 1944. The movie was released in December 2007.

The White 1 Foundation, primarily involved in the restoration to airworthiness of an original Fw-190F (the White 1, last flown by Unteroffizier Heinz Orlowski in World War II) that served with the Arctic Ocean Fighter Wing of the Luftwaffe, JG5 Eismeer, also has a pair of vintage Junkers Jumo 213 engines in its collection, complete with original annular radiators, possibly as vintage Kraftei power-egg unitized engine installations, and apparently plans an Fw-190D-9 reproduction aircraft project of its own based on one of the engines.

In Dijon France, another Flug Werk-built Fw-190 (A-8 F-AZZJ) is being constructed. It was assigned the production number 990013, and is expected to begin powerplant tests soon.

Specifications (Fw-190A-8)

Data from Fw-190A8

General characteristics
* Crew: One
* Length: 9.00 m (29 ft 0 in)
* Wingspan: 10.51 m (34 ft 5 in)
* Height: 3.95 m (12 ft 12 in)
* Wing area: 18,30 m (196.99 ft)
* Empty weight: 3,200 kg (7,060 lb)
* Loaded weight: 4,417 kg (9,735 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb)
* Powerplant: 1? BMW 801 D-2 radial engine, 1,272 kW (1,730 hp); 1,471 kW (2,000 hp) with boost

Performance
* Maximum speed: 656 km/h at 4,800 m, 685 km/h with boost (383 mph at 19,420 ft (5,920 m), 408 mph (657 km/h) with boost)
* Range: 800 km (500 miles)
* Service ceiling 11,410 m (37,430 ft)
* Rate of climb: 13 m/s (2560 feet/min)
* Wing loading: 241 kg/m (49.4 lb/ft)
* Power/mass: 0.29 - 0.33 kW/kg (0.18 - 0.21 hp/lb)

Armament
* 2? 13 mm MG 131 machine guns with 475 rounds/gun
* 4? 20 mm MG 151/20 E cannons with 250 rounds/gun in the wing root and 140 rounds/gun outboard.

Specifications (Fw-190D-9)

General characteristics
* Crew: 1
* Length: 10.20 m (33 ft 5 1/2 in)
* Wingspan: 10.50 m (34 ft 5 in)
* Height: 3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)
* Wing area: 18.30 m (196.99 ft)
* Empty weight: 3,490 kg (7,694 lb)
* Loaded weight: 4,350 kg (9,590 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 4,840 kg (10,670 lb)
* Powerplant: 1? Junkers Jumo 213 A-1 12-cylinder inverted-Vee piston engine, 1,287 kW, 1,544 kW with boost (1,750 PS / 2,100 PS)

Performance
* Maximum speed: 685 km/h at 6,600 m, 710 km/h at 11,300 m (426 mph at 21,655 ft / 440 mph at 37,000 ft (11,000 m))
* Range: 835 km (519 mi)
* Service ceiling 12,000 m (39,370 ft)
* Rate of climb: 17 m/s (3,300 feet/min)
* Wing loading: 238 kg/m (48.7 lb/ft)
* Power/mass: 0.30 - 0.35 kW/kg (0.18 - 0.21 hp/lb)

Armament
* 2? 13 mm MG 131 machine guns with 475 rounds/gun
* 2? 20 mm MG 151 cannons with 250 rounds/gun in the wing root
* 1? 500 kg (1,102 lb) SC 500 bomb (optional)

Related development
* Focke-Wulf Ta 152

Comparable aircraft
* Kawasaki Ki-100
* Lavochkin La-5
* Lavochkin La-7
* Nakajima Ki-84
* North American P-51 Mustang
* Polikarpov I-185
* Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
* Supermarine Spitfire
* Vought F4U Corsair

Book References:

* Andrews, C.F. and E.B. Morgan. Supermarine Aircraft since 1914. London: Putnam. Second Edition, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-800-3.
* A Butcher Bird's Tale: the Story of the Focke Wulf 190 (html about DVD). Retrieved on 3 April 2008.
* Caldwell, Donald & Muller, Richard (2007). The Luftwaffe over Germany: Defense of the Reich. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-712-0
* Caldwell, Donald L. JG26; Top Guns of the Luftwaffe. New York, 1991. Ivy Books, 1991. ISBN 0-8041-1050-6
* Caldwell, Donald L. The JG26 War Diary, Vol. 2: 1943-1945. London: Grub Street Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-8986-9786-8
* Crandall, Jerry. Yellow 10 The story of the ultra-rare Fw-190D-13. Hamilton, MT: Eagle Edition Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-9660706-3-1
* Donald, David , ed. Warplanes of the Luftwaffe. London. Aerospace Publishing. 1994. ISBN 1-874023-56-5.
* Forsyth, Robert. JV 44 The Galland Circus. Burgess Hill, Sussex, UK: Classic Publications, 1996. ISBN 0-9526867-0-8
* Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Focke-Wulf 190: Fw-190. Newton Abbot, UK: David & Charles, 1976. ISBN 0-7153-7084-7.
* Janowicz, Krzysztof. Focke-Wulf Fw-190, Volume 1. London: Kagero Publications, 2001. ISBN 83-89088-11-8.
* Jessen, Morten. Focke-Wulf 190: The Birth of the Butcher Bird 1939-1943. London: Greenhill Books, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-328-5.
* Joineau, Andre and Dominique Breffort. P-51 Mustang: From 1943 to 1945. Paris: Histoire & Collections, 2007. ISBN 2-91390-381-9.
* Kosin, Ruediger. The German Fighter Since 1915- translation of Die Entwicklung der deutschen Jagdflugzeuge. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-822-4.
* Lorant and Goyat, JG300 (two volumes translated by Neil Page). Hamilton, MT: Eagle Editions, 2006. Vol. 1: ISBN 0-9761034-0-0, Vol. 2: ISBN 0-9761034-2-7.
* Lowe, Malcolm. Production Line to Front Line #5, Focke-Wulf Fw-190. London: Osprey, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-438-8.
* Manrho, John and Ron Putz. Bodenplatte: The Luftwaffe's Last Hope-The Attack on Allied Airfields, New Year's Day 1945. Ottringham, United Kingdom: Hikoki Publications, 2004. ISBN 1-902109-40-6
* Nowarra, Heinz J. The Focke-Wulf Fw-190Fighters, Bombers, Ground Attack Aircraft. West Chester, PA: Schiffer Publications, 1991. ISBN 0-88740-354-9.
* Page, Neil. The Sturmgruppen - Bomber Destroyers 1944. Scale Aircraft Modelling. March 2001.
* Page, Neil. Focke Wulf 190: Part One-the Fw-190A-series fighter variants. Scale Aircraft Modelling, Vol 24 No 9, November 2002.
* Price, Alfred. Focke Wulf Fw-190 in Combat. London: Sutton Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-75092-548-5.
* Ramsay, Winston G. (Editor). The Blitz Then and Now: Volume 3 May 1941-May 1945. London: Battle of Britain Prints International Ltd, 1990. ISBN 0-900913-58-4.
* Rodeike, Peter. Jagdflugzeug 190. Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck, 1998. ISBN 3-923457-44-8.
* Ryle, E.B. and M. Laing. Walk Around Number 22: Focke-Wulf Fw-190A/F. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89747-374-4.
* Shacklady, Edward. Butcher Bird: Focke-Wulf Fw-190. Bristol, UK: Cerberus Publishing Ltd., 2005. ISBN 1-84145-103-7.
* Spencer, Jay P. Focke-Wulf Fw-190: Workhorse of the Luftwaffe. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1989. ISBN 0-87474-885-2.
* United States Air Force Museum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation. 1975.
* Wagner, Ray and Heinz Nowarra. German Combat Planes: A Comprehensive Survey and History of the Development of German Military Aircraft from 1914 to 1945. New York: Doubleday, 1971.
* Weal, John. Focke-Wulf Fw-190Aces of the Western Front. Oxford: Osprey, 1996. ISBN 1-85532-595-1.
* Weal, John. Focke-Wulf Fw-190Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford: Osprey, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-518-7.
* Winchester, Jim. Focke-Wulf Fw-190. Aircraft of World War II. London: Grange Books, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.

Web Reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Focke-Wulf_Fw_190


Focke-Wulf Fw 190D history and specifications

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