Nachtjager aircraft list

0 Bucker Bu 131 Jungmann II.JG54 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 0A 1 Bucker Bu 131 Jungmann II.JG54 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 01 1 Bucker Bu 131 Jungmann II.JG54 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 02 1 Bucker Bu 131 Jungmann II.JG54 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 03

Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann II./JG 54 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 00

Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann of 1./JG54 As appropriate for its original training role, this aircraft was originally painted in Light Grey L40/52 overall. Later, perhaps when first assigned to JG54 as a liaison aircraft, it was repainted in a standard Green 70/71 uppersurface scheme with Blue 65 undersurfaces. At this time, the swastika was masked off, leaving a surrounding square of the original L40/52. Because of the more complicated masking involved, it would seem the fuselage cross and code letters were overpainted during respraying and, when reapplied, were incorrectly positioned, being higher than normal and not parallel with the aircraft centreline. Later, the uppersurfaces were again repainted with a temporary white snow camouflage which was applied unevenly and left areas of the green scheme showing through. This time, while the major part of the airframe was spray-painted, the white areas around the code letters were brushed on, leaving a green border which resulted in the slightly distorted appearance of the lettering. The name "Lilli-Marlen" (as opposed to the famous, and still popular, wartime song 'Lili Marlene') appeared in red under the cockpits, and the badge of 2./JG54 on a white disc was painted on the yellow engine cowling.

Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann JG54.2 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 01

Photo’s 01-02: The Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann was designed as a sports, aerobatics and training aircraft and first entered service with the Luftwaffe in 1935.This example, coded KG+GB, served with 2./JG54 in late 1941 and although at least one source states that it later became a personal courier aircraft used by Oblt. Hans Phillip, who became the Kommandeur of I./JG54 on 15 February 1942, the display of Abschussbalken on the rudder is believed to represent 2.Staffel's tally rather than Oblt. Phillip's own victories. The machine has received an overspray of white and the name "Lilli-Marlen" appears on the fuselage.

Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann JG54.2 (KG+GB) Russia 1941 03

Photo 03: When photographed again in early 1942, the yellow cowling had been overpainted white and the badge of I./JG54 had been added to its fuselage. This machine, one of at least two Bucker 131s operated by JG54, is known to have survived until 1943.

Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann

Bü 131 Jungmann
Role: Basic trainer
Manufacturer: Bücker Flugzeugbau
Designed by: Carl Bücker
First flight: 27 April 1934
Introduced: 1935 (Luftwaffe)
Retired: 1968 (Spanish Air Force)
Primary users: Luftwaffe
Spanish Air Force
Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
Variants: Bü 133 Jungmeister

The German Bücker Bü 131 "Jungmann" (Young man) was a 1930s basic training aircraft which was used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.


After serving in the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I, Carl Bücker moved to Sweden where he became managing director of Svenska Aero AB (SAAB). He later returned to Germany with Anders Anderson, a young designer from SAAB. Bücker Flugzeugbau GmbH was founded in Berlin-Johannistahl, in 1932, with the first aircraft to see production being the Bü 131 Jungmann.

Bücker Flugzeugbau's first production type, the Bü 131A was the last biplane built in Germany. It had two open cockpits in tandem and fixed landing gear. The fuselage was steel tube, covered in fabric and metal, the wings wood and fabric. It first flew on the 80 hp (60 kW) Hirth HM60R.

In 1936, it was followed by the Bü 131B, with a 105 hp (78 kW) Hirth 504A-2.

Most wartime production for the Luftwaffe was by Aero in Prague.

Operational History

Sturdy and agile, the Bü 131A was first delivered to the Deutscher Luftsportverband (DLV). The Bü 131B was selected as the primary basic trainer for the German Luftwaffe, and it served with "virtually all" the Luftwaffe's primary flying schools during the war, as well as with night harassment units such as Nachtschlacht Gruppen (NSGr) 2, 11, and 12. Yugoslavia was the main prewar export customer; "as many as 400 may have found their way" there. She was joined by Bulgaria with 15 and Rumania with 40.

Production licenses were granted to Switzerland (using 94, 88 built under licence to Dornier), Spain (building about 530), Hungary (which operated 315), Czechoslovakia (10, as the Tatra T 131, before war began), and Japan, the last of which built 1,037 for Army with Hatsukaze power as the Kokusai Ki-86 and 339 for the Navy Air Services as the Kyūshū K9W. In Spain, production continued at CASA until the early 1960s. The Jungmann was retained as the Spanish Air Force's primary basic trainer until 1968.

About 200 Jungmanns survive to this day, many having been fitted with modern engines. In 1994, the Bü 131 was restored to production briefly using CASA jigs by Bücker Prado in Spain, with 21 aircraft constructed as the BP 131, while SSH Janusz Karasiewicz in Poland also started production of a version of the Jungmann based on Czech plans in 1994


* Bü 131A : Two-seat primary trainer biplane. Initial production version.
* Bü 131B : Improved version, powered by the more powerful Hirth HM 504A-2 piston engine.
* Bü 131C : Experimental version, fitted with 67 kW (90 hp) Cirrus Minor piston engine. One built.
* Ki-86A : Japanese production version for the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service.
* K9W1 : Japanese production version for the Imperial Japanese Navy.
* Tatra T-131 : Czechoslovakia, pre-war licence production in Tatra Koprivnice.
* Aero C-4 : Mass-produced in Aero factory in occupied Czechoslovakia during wartime under original Bücker Bü 131B designation, used postwar with original Hirth engine.
* Aero C-104 : Czechoslovakia, postwar development with a Walter Minor 4-III engine, 260 aircraft built.
* CASA 1.131 : Spanish license-built versions
* BP 131 : modern license-built version
* SSH T-131P : Pre-production modern Polish version, powered by 78 kW (105 hp) Walter Minor 4-III engine. Four built from 1994.
* SSH T-131PA :Main Polish production version, with 103 kW (138 hp) LOM M332AK engine. First flew 1995.


* Czechoslovak Air Force operated this type post war.
Independent State of Croatia
* Zrakoplovstvo Nezavisne Države Hrvatske
* Finnish Air Force
* Luftwaffe
* Royal Hungarian Air Force
* Imperial Japanese Army Air Service operated this type as Kokusai Ki-86.
* Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service operated this type as Kyūshū K9W1.
* Royal Netherlands Air Force
* Royal Romanian Air Force
South Africa
* South African Air Force
* Spanish Air Force
* Swiss Air Force operated this type from 1936 to 1971.

General characteristics

* Crew: Two (student and instructor)
* Length: 6.62 m (21 ft 8 in)
* Wingspan: 7.40 m (24 ft 3 in)
* Height: 2.35 m (7 ft 6 in)
* Wing area: 13.5 m² (145 ft²)
* Empty weight: 380 kg (840 lb)
* Loaded weight: 670 kg (1,500 lb)
* Powerplant: 1× Hirth HM 504 four-cylinder inverted inline engine, 70 kW (100 hp)


* Maximum speed: 183 km/h (99 kn, 115 mph)
* Cruise speed: 170 km/h (92 kn, 110 mph)
* Range: 628 km (339 nm, 390 mi)
* Service ceiling: 4,050 m (13,300 ft)
* Rate of climb: 2.8 m/s (6,600 ft)
* Wing loading: 46.3 kg/m² (9.49 lb/ft²)
* Power/mass: 100 W/kg (0.064 hp/lb)


* Bridgeman, Leonard. “The Bücker Bü 131B “Jungmann”.” Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0.
* Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
* Ketley, Barry, and Mark Rolfe. Luftwaffe Fledglings 1935-1945: Luftwaffe Training Units and their Aircraft. Aldershot, GB: Hikoki Publications, 1996. ISBN 0-951-9899-2-8.
* König, Erwin. Bücker Bü 131 "Jungmann"(Flugzeug Profile 27) (in German). D-86669 Stengelheim, Germany: Unitec Medienvertrieb e.K.,
* König, Erwin. Die Bücker-Flugzeuge (The Bücker Aircraft) (bilingual German/English). Martinsried, Germany: Nara Verlag, 1987. ISBN 3-925671-00-5.
* König, Erwin. Die Bückers, Die Geschichte der ehemaligen Bücker-Flugzeugbau-GmbH und ihrer Flugzeuge (in German). (1979)
* Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Chancellor Press Ltd, 2006. ISBN 1-85152-966-7.
* Sarjeant, L.F. Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann (Aircraft in Profile 222). Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1971.
* Smith, J. Richard and Antony L. Kay. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam and Company Ltd., 3rd impression 1978, pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-370-00024-2.
* Wietstruk, Siegfried. Bücker-Flugzeugbau, Die Geschichte eines Flugzeugwerkes (in German). D-82041 Oberhaching, Germany: Aviatik Verlag, 1999. ISBN 3-925505-28-8.
* Wood, Tony and Bill Gunston. Hitler's Luftwaffe: A Pictorial History and Technical Encyclopedia of Hitler's Air Power in World War II. London: Salamander Books Ltd., 1977, p. 139. ISBN 0-86101-005-1.

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