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Messerschmitt Bf 109K List

0 Jagdwaffe Vol 5 Section 3 Defending the Reich 1943 44 pages 220 1 0 Line Drawing Bf 109K Technical Data Large Format 01 0 Line Drawing Bf 109K Technical Data Large Format 02 0 Line Drawing Bf 109K Technical Data Large Format 03 1 Bf 109 K4 abandoned Germany 1945 01 1 Bf 109K4 Black 11 8 WNr 5750 1945 01
1 Bf 109 K4 Tail section 01 1 Bf 109K4 White 8 Mary Lt Walker 1944 45 01

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Messerschmitt Bf 109K-4 'Kurfurst' Karl

The Bf 109K 'Kurfurst' were the last of the series to see operational duty and the last in the Bf 109 evolutionary line. The K series was a response to the bewildering array of series, models, modification kits and factory conversions for the Bf 109, which made production and maintenance complicated and costly - something Germany could ill-afford late in the war. The RLM ordered Messerschmitt to rationalise production of the Bf 109, consolidating parts, types, and so on, to produce a uniform, standard model with better interchangeability of parts and equipment. At the same time, the existing flaws of the design were to be remedied. Work on the new version began in the spring of 1943, and the prototype was ready by the autumn of that year. Series production started in August 1944 with the K-4 model, due to changes in the design and delays with the new DB 605D powerplant. The K-4 was the only version to be mass produced.

Externally the K series could be identified by changes in the locations of the radio equipment hatch which was moved forward and to a higher position between frames four and five, and the filler point for the fuselage fuel tank, which was moved forward to a location between frames two and three. In addition, the D/F loop was moved aft to sit between frames three and four on the top fuselage spine and a small circular plate above the footstep on the port side of the fuselage was deleted. The rudder was fitted as standard with a Flettner tab and two fixed tabs although some rare examples were not fitted with the fixed tabs. All K-4s were to be fitted with a long retractable tailwheel (350 x 135 mm/14 x 5 in) with two small clamshell doors covering the recess when the tail-wheel was retracted.

The wings featured the large rectangular fairings for the large 660 x 190 mm (26 x 7 in) main wheels. Small wheel well doors, originally planned for the G series, were fitted to the outer ends of the wheel bays, covering the outer wheels when retracted. These doors were often removed by front-line units. The ailerons were fitted with small, adjustable trim tabs. The radio equipment was the FuG 16ZY with an antenna mast fitted under the port outer wing and FuG 25a IFF as well as the FuG 125 Hermine D/F equipment. Internally, the oxygen bottles were relocated from the rear fuselage to the right wing. Flettner tabs for the ailerons were also to be fitted to serial production aircraft to reduce control forces, but are only seen on photos of later production aircraft.

Armament of the K-4 consisted of a 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 engine-mounted cannon (Motorkanone) with 65 rounds, and two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131s in the nose with 300 rpg although some K-4s were fitted with the MG 151/20 as the Motorkanone. Additional Rustsatze, or equipment kits, such as a 300 L (80 US gal) drop tank (R III), bombs up to the size of 500 kg/1,100 lb (R I), underwing 20 mm Mauser MG 151/20 cannon gondola pods (R IV) or 21 cm (8 in) Wfr.Gr. 21 rockets (as on the Gustav models) could be carried after minimal preparations; the latter two however were rarely used, but there is evidence that III./JG 26 were almost completely equipped with K-4s which were fitted with R IV. In addition there were problems with the 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 Motorkanone:

The 30mm cannon were extremely potent weapons, but they had a tendency to jam, and apparently all of the K-4s supplied to III./JG 26 were also equipped with 20mm-guns in the hated underwing tubs. Uffz. Georg Genth's regular aircraft was a G-10, but on occasion he flew a K-4. He preferred the G-10 as a dogfighter, as the K-4's bulky armament sharply reduced its manouevrability.

Power was provided by a Daimler-Benz DB 605DM (early models) of 1,800 PS output and later the DB 605DB/DC powerplant with 1,850/2,000 PS output. A wide-chord, three bladed VDM 9-12159 propeller of 3 m diameter was used, as on the G-6/AS, G-14/AS and G-10.

Deliveries began in mid-October 1944. 534 examples had been delivered by the Messerschmitt A.G., Regensburg by the end of November 1944, and 856 by the end of the year. Regensburg delivered a total of 1593 by the end of March 1945, after which production figures are missing. With such a high rate of production, despite continuous heavy fighting, by the end of January 1945 314 K-4s - about every fourth 109 - were listed on hand with the 1st line Luftwaffe units. Ultimately it was intended to equip all Bf 109 units with the 109K, which marked the final stage of 109 development before the jet age.

The Bf 109 K-4 was the fastest 109 of World War II, reaching 715 km/h (445 mph) at 7,500 m (24,610 ft) altitude; improved propellers were being developed when the war ended which would boost the speed to 727 km/h (452 mph), and 741 km/h (460 mph) was expected with a swept-back propeller design. Rate of climb was outstanding, up to 4,820 ft (1,470 m)/min at 1.98 atm and 4,525 ft (1,380 m)/min at 1.8 atm. The standard Revi 16C reflector sight was fitted, which was to be replaced later by the EZ 42 Gyro gunsight. With such improvements in performance, the Bf 109 remained comparable to opposing fighters until the end of the war. However, the deteriorating ability of the thousands of novice Luftwaffe pilots by this stage of the war meant the 109's strengths were of little value against the numerous and well-trained Allied fighter pilots.

Other Bf 109K projects and prototypes
Several other versions were projected based on the 109K airframe - K-6, K-8, K-10 and K-14. In the proposed K-6 the armament would have been two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 above the engine, along with a 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 Motorkanone and an internally-mounted MK 108 in each wing, with 45 rpg. Alternatively, the wing MK 108s could be substituted by 20 mm MG 151/20s, with 100 rpg. Armour weight was increased to 200 lb (91 kg). Take-off weight was 7,986 lb (3,622 kg). Some K-6 prototypes were built and tested at the Tarnewitz weapons-testing centre.

Project drawings of the K-10 show an K-series airframe powered by the two-stage DB 605L high altitude engine, a high-velocity 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 103mot Motorkanone, and two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons in the wings; the cowl 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131s were dispensed with.

Some sources point to limited use of the K-14, intended as high-altitude heavy fighter. Two airframes are listed as delivered to II/JG52 under Major Wilhelm Batz in late spring of 1945, these being armed with only one 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon, but the type's existence cannot be positively confirmed. The K-14 was powered by the DB 605L, with a rumoured use of a four bladed propeller, 460 mph (740 km/h) and an operational altitude of 38,000 ft (12,000 m) was projected. Armour and armament were otherwise similar to the K-6.

Common Rustsatz kits, Bf 109K
* R I ETC 501/IX b or Schlo? 503belly bomb rack, fusing equipment for fitting a 250 kg (550 lb) or 500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb
* R III Schlo? 503A-1 rack for one fuselage drop tank (300 L/80 US gal).
* R IV two 20 mm Mauser MG 151/20 underwing gunpods with 135 rpg.
* R VI BSK 16 gun-camera in the left wing between nose ribs 3 and 4.

Known variants
* K-0 Pre-production aircraft, powered by a DB 605DM engine
* K-2 proposed version without pressurized cockpit
* K-4 only serial production version without pressurized cockpit, powered by a DB 605DM, DB or DC engine
* K-6 proposed heavy fighter version, as K-4 with reinforced wings holding two additional 30 mm MK 108 cannons and additional armour
* K-8 proposed reconnaissance version, equipment similar to G-8
* K-10 proposed version, similar to K-6, MK 103mot engine cannon instead of MK 108
* K-12 proposed version, dual-seat trainer similar to G-12
* K-14 proposed version, similar to K-6, powered by a DB 605L engine

Further Information

Most of the Bf 109K "Kurfürst" series saw duty. This series was the last evolution of the Bf 109. The K series was a response to the bewildering array of series, models, modification kits and factory conversions for the Bf 109, which made production and maintenance complicated and costly — something Germany could ill-afford late in the war. The RLM ordered Messerschmitt to rationalise production of the Bf 109, consolidating parts, types etc to produce a uniform, standard model with better interchangeability of parts and equipment. This was to have started in the later models of the G series, but things went in quite the opposite direction. The RLM told Messerschmitt, in effect, to try harder, and the K series was born. Work on the new version began in 1943, and the prototype was ready by the autumn of that year. Series production started in August 1944 due to delays with continuous changes and the new DB605D powerplant. Operational service began in October 1944, and large numbers — approximately 200 — were delivered to frontline units by the end of the month. By the end of January 1945, despite continuous heavy fighting, over 300 K-4s — about every fourth 109 — were listed on hand with the 1st line Luftwaffe units.

In the proposed K-6, K-8, K-10 and the K-14 the armament would have seen some changes. They retained the two MG 131 above its engine and added a built-in MK 108 in each wing and a MK 108 Motorkanone engine mounted cannon. The K-14 would have had the special performance DB605L and four bladed propeller.

Only the K-4 saw action in numbers, with approximately 1,700 being delivered by factories before the end of hostilities. K-4s with quasi-DB605Ls, a DB605 with the two-stage super-charger but not other improvements, and the standard three-bladed propellers, were assembled. Armament of the K-4 consisted of a 30 mm MK 108 engine-mounted cannon with 65 rounds and two 13 mm MG 131 in the nose with 300 rounds each, and there was the capacity to carry additional equipment such as a droptank, bombs up to 500 kg, underwing 20 mm cannon gondola pods or 210 mm Wfr. Gr. 21 rockets (as on the Gustav models); the latter two however were rarely used due to marauding Allied fighters necessitating maintaining high speed capability.

The Bf 109 K-4 was the fastest 109 of world War II reaching ~715 km/h (445 mph) at 7,500 m altitude; improved propellers were being developed when the war ended which would boost the speed to 727 km/h (452 mph), or even 741 km/h (460 mph). Rate of climb was outstanding, up to 5,800 ft (1,770 m)/min at 1.98 ata, and 5,500 ft (1,680 m)/min at 1.8 ata. With such improvements in performance, the Bf 109 remained comparable if not superior to the highest performance Allied or Soviet fighters until the end of the war. However, the deteriorating ability of the thousands of novice Luftwaffe pilots by this stage of the war meant the 109's strengths were of little value against the numerous and well-trained Allied fighter pilots.

Web Reference:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/farinihouseoflove/2209839419/in/photostream
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109
http://airu.ru/

Истребитель

Появление последней серийной версии Bf.109 явилось результатом политики "рационализма" "истребительного штаба", пытавшегося сократить число модификаций и подмодификаций истребителя. В результате появился Bf.109K (литеру "I" министерство авиации не использовало, а "J" была присвоена модификации истребителя с двигателем "Испано-Сюиза"), который представлял собой модифицированный вариант Bf.109G-10, получивший ряд использовавшихся на самолетах серии G "наборов заводской установки" и некоторые аэродинамические улучшения.

Первый предсерийный Bf.109K-0 появился сентябре 1944 г и отличался от последний модификации серии G увеличенной высотой капота, удлиненным коком и двумя триммерами на руле направления. Hа самолет ставился так называемый фонарь "Галланд", деревянный киль, убираемое хвостовое колесо на удлиненной стойке.Вооружение состояло из двигательной 30-мм пушки MK 108 и двух 15-мм пушек MG 151 на фюзеляже, причем на половину открытых. Если предсерийные Bf.109K-0 были оснащены двигателями DB 605DB с форсажем GM 1, то серийные получали DB 605ASCM или DB 605DCM - последний с GM 1. Первые самолеты сошли со сборочной линии в октябре 1944 г. Это были модели Bf.109K-2 и К-4, отличавшиеся только герметизацией кабины на последнем. Одними из первых их получили II/JG 11, II и III/JG 27 и II/JG 53, которые приняли участие в операции "Боденплятте" - налете на аэродромы союзников 1 января 1945 г.

Последние самолеты серии К-4 получили вместо двигательной MK 108 30-мм пушку МК 103, но 65-мм чехол, покрывавший ствол пушки, делал замену последнего в полевых условиях нетревиальной задачей. Пушка МК 103 также ставилась на Bf.109K-6, главной задачей которого была борьба с бомбардировщиками, для чего он нес еще две 30-мм МК 103 в подкрыльевых гондолах, правда, фюзеляжные пушки MG 151 были вновь заменены на 13-мм пулеметы MG 131. Поставки Bf.109K-6 в истребительные группы начались в январе 1945 г, но до краха "третьего рейха" туда поступило только несколько таких машин - учитывая, что его взлетный вес - 3600 кг делал его на столько плохо управляемым, это на самом деле было счастьем для пилотов люфтваффе в условиях полного превосходства союзников в воздухе.

Еще меньше попало в боевые части самолетов серии Bf.109K-14 - их поставки начались всего за две недели до конца войны. Их успел получить лишь штаб II/JG 52. Bf.109K-14 получил таки долгожданный двигатель DB 603L с двухступенчатым нагнетателем. Одна удачная бомба за год до того вывела из строя камеру для испытания DB 605L в разряженной атмосфере, что оказалось главной причиной задержки поставок двигателя для Bf.109K. DB 605L работал на 96-октановом бензине С3 и использовал форсаж MW 50, что обеспечивало на взлете 1700 л.с. и 1725 л.с. на высоте 1500 м.

Hа высоте 9500 м мощность доходила до 1350 л.с. на боевом режиме и 1150 л.с. при наборе высоты. Если Bf.109K-4 развивал на высоте 6000 м скорость 723 км/ч, то Bf.109K-14 мог поддерживать такую скорость на высоте 11500 м. Столь высокие летные данные сочетались с достаточно мощным вооружением из 30-мм пушки (MK 103 или МК 108) и двух 13-мм пулеметов.

Оборудование истребителей серии К было в целом сходным и включало прицел "Реви" 16В, радиостанцию FuG 16zy и ответчик FuG 25a, антенну пеленгатора за кабиной и дополнительную антенну под левым крылом. С июля 1945 г радиостанцию FuG 16zy планировалось заменять на FuG 15, но сборочные линии, которые еще продолжали выпускать Bf.109, уже были близки к остановке.

Когда союзники форсировали Рейн, число Bf.109 в составе частей люфтваффе было еще довольно большим - около 800 машин поровну серий G и К, из которых 80% были боеспособными. Hо реально боеспособность частей была еще ниже из-за нехватки топлива и смены аэродромов.

Тактико-технические характеристики Bf.109K:
Год принятия на вооружение - 1944
Размах крыла - 10,0 м
Длина - 8,85 м
Высота - 2,5 м
Площадь крыла - 16,1 кв.м
Масса, кг
- нормальная взлетная - 3100
- максимальная взлетная - 3400
Тип двигателя - 1 ПД Daimler-Benz DB 605ASCM
Мощность - 2000 л.с.
Максимальная скорость , км/ч
- у земли - 605
- на высоте 8700 м - 695
Практическая дальность - 570 км
Максимальная скороподъемность - 1470 м/мин
Практический потолок - 12000 м
Экипаж - 1 чел
Вооружение: 1 30-мм пушка МК 103 или 108 с 60 снарядами и 2 15-мм пушки MG 151 с 220 снарядами на ствол.

This webpage was updated November 30, 2011

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