II. Gruppe Jagdgeschwader 3 'Udet' - II./JG3
4 Staffel II. Gruppe Jagdgeschwader 3 'Udet' - 4./JG3
Messerschmitt Bf 109F 4./JG3 (White 7+-) unknown pilot belly landed
Profile 00: Messerschmitt Bf 109F 4./JG3 (White 7+-) unknown pilot belly landed on a German airfield
5 Staffel II. Gruppe Jagdgeschwader 3 'Udet' - 5./JG3
Messerschmitt Bf 109F 5./JG3 (B6+-) Gordon Gollob Russia 1941
Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-4 5./JG3 (Black 6+-) Alfred Heckmann Russia 1942
6 Staffel II. Gruppe Jagdgeschwader 3 'Udet' - 6./JG3
Messerschmitt Bf 109F 6./JG3 (Y1+-) Heinrich Sannemann Mariupol 00
Profile 00: Messerschmitt Bf 109F-2 'Yellow 1' flown by Oblt. Heinrich Sannemann, Staffelkapitan of 6./JG3. The completely Green 70 spinner on this machine lacks the one-third white segment specified in Luftwaffe painting instructions, but this aircraft is otherwise typical of the appearance of Luftwaffe fighters immediately prior to 'Barbarossa' and during the opening months of that campaign. The camouflage scheme consists of the then standard 74/75/76 finish with the fuselage mottled in 02, 74 and 75. The yellow engine cowling is also typical of the period, although the Luftwaffe High Command would soon issue an order stating that only the undersurface of the cowling was to be yellow. The black area over the wing root was intended to hide exhaust staining and also to make it easier to clean off carbon deposits. Originally applied at unit level, this area tended to become larger and, particularly once the Fw 190 entered service, so highly stylized that it began to compromise the camouflage finish. Note that this aircraft was later fitted with an armoured windscreen.
Messerschmitt Bf 109F 6./JG3 (Y1+-) Heinrich Sannemann France 01
Photo 01: This Bf 109F-2 coded 'Yellow 1' was photographed at Monchy Breton in France in May 1941. It was flown by Oblt. Heinrich Sannemann, the Staffelkapitan of 6./JG3, and is shown here with an all-yellow engine cowling shortly before the unit transferred to the East. Prior to 'Barbarossa' Oblt. Sannemann, who led 6./JG3 from 23 November 1940, claimed three victories, principally while with the Stab of II./JG3 where, with Franz von Werra, he formed the 'Max and Moritz' team.
Messerschmitt Bf 109F JG3.6 (Y1+-) Heinrich Sannemann Mariupol 01-02
Photo's 01-02: Two further photographs showing Sannemann's 'Yellow 1' at Mariupol on 12 July 1941, where it is seen after returning from a sortie in which his aircraft was hit by the defensive fire from a Russian bomber. Fortunately, the aircraft had been recently modified with an armoured windscreen, and this saved Sannemann's life. Note also that by this time the upper and side surfaces of the engine cowling had been camouflaged. Sannemann, who claimed his eleventh victory on 8 August, a few days before this incident, was thus more fortunate than his colleague Oblt. Karl Faust, Staffelkapitan of 4./JG3 with 14 victories, who made an emergency landing at Chernyakhosk in enemy-held territory on 12 July and was shot by Russian soldiers.
Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-4 6./JG3 (Yellow 3+-) belly landed Russia 1942
Messerschmitt Bf 109F 5./JG3 (Y11+-) unknown pilot Russia 1941 00
Profile 00: Messerschmitt Bf 109F 5.JG3 (Black 11+) unknown pilot Russia 1941
Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-4 6./JG3 (Yellow 3+-) belly landed Russia 1942
Gordon M. Gollob
During the Second World War, only nine jagdwaffe pilots were awarded the Ritterkreuz mit Eichenlaub, Schwerten und Brillanten, (1) one of Germany's most prestigious decorations: Generalleutnant Adolf Galland, Oberst Gordon M. Gollob, Oberst Hermann Gr.u, Hauptmann Erich Hartmann, Oberst Helmut Lent, Hauptmann Hans-Joachim Marseille, Oberst Werner Molders, Major Walter Nowotny and Major Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer. Yet in spite of an exceptional career, Oberst Gordon M. Gollob was not as well publicised by German propaganda and today remains far less well-known than many of his contemporaries.
Gordon Gollob was born on 16 June 1912, a time when the Austro-Hungarian empire was still intact. Both his parents came from Graz, his mother, nee Reininghau-Karajan, being related to the famous Karajan family of musicians. Travelling to various cities to paint and sell their work, they were staying in Vienna when their son was born and, to the surprise of many, the Gollobs gave him the names Gordon Mac in honour of a Scottish friend.
Gordon's father, Heinrich Gollob, did not live for long after the birth of his son and died in 1917. Gordon grew up in Graz and soon showed a talent for music, but although he could play the violin well, his dream was to fly and, in 1930, when he was still only 14 years of age, he statted to build his own glider. He soon became an expert at sports gliding at Graz and, although he quickly progressed to become an instructor, Gordon wanted to improve his experience. As a result of the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye,Austria was then an independent state with a small army and, in 1933, Gollob enlisted and joined an artillery unit of the 6sterreichische Bundesheer. Soon afterwards, he transferred to the flying branch of the Army and it was probably at that time that he abbreviated his middle name to the initial letter only and became simply Gordon M. Gollob. While the name 'Mac' was tolerated in the artistic circles of Vienna, it was perhaps less easily accepted by his army comrades.
Gordon M. Gollob began flying powered aircraft in 1934 and spent three years at the Wiener-Neustadt Th(!resianische Militiirakademie where he soon gained an excellent reputation as an officer and pilot and where he was awarded his A-2 flying certificate. On 1 October 1936 he became the leader of the Austrian Fighter Training Unit where he was responsible for all fighter training. In the 'Anschluss of March 1938, Austria was annexed to Germany and became part of the Third Reich; the Austrian Air Force was taken over by the German Air Force and on 1 July 1938, Gordon Gollob became an Oberleutnant in the Luftwaffe. When his training as a fighter pilot ended, he was posted in March 1939 to 3,/Zerstorergeschwader 76 equipped with the Bf-110 heavy fighter, or 'destroyer'.
Six months later, when his unit was hasedat Ohlau, Gollob took part in the invasion of Poland. Most of his missions were ground strafing operations, during which he destroyed several aircraft on the ground, but on 5 September 1939 he intercepted and shot down a Polish PZL-24 fighter the first of his numerous aerial victories. With the conclusion of the campaign, I./ZG76 was recalled to the Reich where its main task was to protect the German Bight. On 18 December, Gollob and his comrades took part to the famous 'Battle of the German Bight' during which a number of RAF Wellington bombers were destroyed. On that day Oblt. Gollob, took off from Jever leading a Schwarm from 3,/ZG76 reinforced with Bf109Es from 6./JG77. This mixed formation claimed six victories, but only three were confirmed, one claimed by Gollob remaining unconfirmed.
On 8 April 1940, after a quiet Winter, Gollob took over the 3,/ZG76 at that time based in Westerland. The next day 'Operation Weserubung was launched and eight Bf-110s 3./ZG76 were ordered to attack the Norwegian airfield of Stavanger/Sola. However, due to poor weather, the Staffel was forced to break off its mission and two of the unit's Bf110s failed to return. After the country was captured, I./ZG76 transferred to Norway and was still there on 10 May when the pilots heard about the start of the Westfeldzug. On 13 June, aircraft from the Royal Navy's aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal carried out a gallant but futile bombing attack on the battle-cruiser Scharnhorst. Only one bomb hit the ship causing little damage, but of the 14 Fleet Air Arm aircraft involved in the mission, eight failed to return. One of these a Blackburn Skua, was shot down near Trondheim by Oblt. Gollob.
While on patrol off the Norwegian coast on 9 July, Gollob intercepted and shot down a four-engined Short Sunderland flying boat (2) and later took part in the disastrous raid on 15 August when Luftflotte 5 launched 134 aircraft from different airfields in Norway and Denmark to attack targets in north-east England. A total of 23 German aircraft was lost, including six Bf110s from ZG76. Nevertheless, Gollob was credited with shooting down a Spitfire but, with a seriously wounded gunner aboard, his aircraft was one of three which were badly damaged and Gollob barely succeeded in reaching the Norwegian coast.
At the beginning of September 1940, I./ZG76 left Norway and transferred to Deelen where the unit was renamed II./NJG1 and its personnel were to be retrained as night-fighters. Simultaneously, however Oblt. Gollob requested a transfer and was soon posted to Stab II./JG3 based in France.
On 12 October 1940, Gollob took command of 4,fJG3 and saw action during the last missions of the year against England. Previously, he had proposed several modifications to the Bf 110, and again his constant interest in technical improvements resulted in several suggestions regarding the Bf-109. For example, at that time, the Luftwaffe was flying missions to England at high altitude and several instances were reported of armament stoppages. Oblt. Gollob decided to help find a solution to this problem, and after climbing to approximately 10,000 metres in his Bf-109, flew for several minutes at this altitude before diving vertically back to his airfield in order that technicians waiting on the ground could examine the guns without delay. This trial revealed that the stoppages were due to the oil in the guns crystallizing due to the cold at altitude.
Before leaving France, Gollob claimed his sixth victory, a Spitfire, on 7 May 1941, after which the unit moved eastwards to take part in 'Barbarossa'. It immediately became clear that Gollob would be very successful in this new theatre of operations and on 22 June he destroyed an 1-16 followed by two DB-3s on the 25th. But for Luftwaffe fighter pilots, conditions on the Eastern Front were far from easy and on 26 June, the Kommandeur of II./JG3, Hptm. Lothar Keller, was killed. The next day, Gollob was appointed his successor and almost simultaneously promoted to Hauptmann. On 2 July, the new Kommandeur was credited with three Luftsiege. A series of further victories followed, many of them being multiple kills achieved on the same day or during the same mission and, by the end of the month, he had been awarded the Ehrenpokal. (3)
At almost the same time, however, Gollob learned that he had to hand over his Gruppe to Hptm. Karl-Heinz Krahl, formerly of JG2, and take up a new position at the Luftwaffe's Test Centre at Rechlin. Although probably an unwelcome transfer, at Rechlin, Gollob's attention to technical matters was appreciated and he is known, for example, to have written a detailed study in which he compared all the known advantages and disadvantages between the Bf109F-4 and FW190A-2. In spite of the qualities he showed at Rechlin, he wished to return to the front and succeeded in being transferred to Stab/JG54 where he was to learn the duties and responsibilities of a Kommodore. While with JG54, Gollob claimed three more Abschusse until, on 16 May 1942, he was appointed Kommodore of JG77 as successor to the well-known Gotthard Handrick.
Over the Crimea, Major Gordon M. Gollob was heavily involved in the fighting over Sevastopol and quickly gained the respect of his pilots. On 16 May he claimed three LaGG-3s and the next day shot down three R-5s and a LaGG-3. On the 20th, Gollob shot down a DB-3 as his 100th victory and, on 23 June, received the Schwerte although he was not the only great ace of his unit; on the 19th, the Konunandeur of I. Gruppe, Hptm. Heinz Bar, had already reached 103 victories after shooting down four I-16s in a single combat.
At the end of June, JG77 was dispersed when I./JG77 was sent to Sicily to operate against Malta and, at the same time, II.I.JG77 was sent to the Voronezh sector in Central Russia. Gollob therefore remained only in direct command of his III. Gruppe but events at the front were occurring quickly. On 22 July; Major Herbert lhlefeld, Kommodore of JG52, was seriously wounded while taking off from Taganrog in a Fi-156 and Gollob was therefore required to take temporary command of JG52 while at the same time remaining Kommodore of JG77.
In August 1942 Major Gollob claimed 40 more victories, further evidence - if any was needed - that he was not merely content with an administrative position but also wanted to continue playing his part in the fighting. Thus, on 29 August he claimed his I 50th victory; becoming the first pilot to reach such a figure. This, however, was to be his last, for the next day, as the third member of the Wehrmacht after Molders and Galland, he was awarded the Brillanten and, at the same time, was ordered to fly no more operational missions. On 30 September 1942, the Austrian officer was removed from the front, a departure which coincided with the removal of the rest ofJG77, this unit progressively transferring to the Mediterranean in order to replace JG27.
On 1 October 1942, Gordon M. Gollob was ordered to the Stab of Jagdfliegeifuhrer 3 where he became la, or Intelligence Officer, responsible for co-ordinating the fighter units on the Channel. He remained in this position until May 1944 when he joined the Staff of the General del' Jagdflieger. At that time, he became the father of a young son.
For Gollob, this was the beginning of a difficult period, due not only to the general situation of the war but, more particularly, to the fact that his relationship with Galland was not the best, perhaps due to Gollob's character which rarely allowed him to make concessions. Apparently, it was Gollob who was one of the first members of the Staff of the General del' Jagdflieger to recognise the potential of the Me 262 and pushed for its maximum development, especially in its use solely as a fighter. He also played an important role in the development of the Me 163 Kraftei, the Me 263 and the He 162, being one of the few senior officers who had personally test-flown these advanced but highly dangerous aircraft.
The tensions between Gollob and his immediate superior, together with the deterioration of the general situation, eventually led to Oberst Gollob being posted back to Rechlin. His final influence on events at the front in 1944 were connected with his work as co-ordinator of the Jagdgeschwader engaged in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 and the famous Operation 'Bodenplatte', launched on 1 January 1945.
On 31 January 1945, following General Galland's fall from grace and dismissal, Gollob was appointed his successor as General del' Jagdflieger. Although his rank was never higher than Oberst, Gollob would have held this position until the end of the war had he not had to undergo surgery on his throat. Thus, at the time of the final surrender on 8 May 1945, Gollob was in a Luftwaffe military hospital in Kitzbuhel, in his native Austria. Apart from replacing his uniform with civilian clothes, the former Oberst did nothing to avoid capture but lived quietly in Kitzbiihel which, at that time was in the French zone. Eventually, however, in view of his important position, the Allies made serious efforts to trace him and he was eventually captured by the US Army and detained for over a year, during which time he was frequently interrogated by senior Allied officials who wanted information on the Luftwaffe's tactics, equipment and advanced aeronautical projects.
Eventually freed, Gollob had to begin a new life in a civilian occupation, a difficult challenge for a man who had known only a military career. However, thanks to his personal abilities, he secured a position in a factory as an engineer and settled down to family life, eventually with three children. In 1947, he wrote several works on aviation and his experiences in the Luftwaffe, and was always proud of the fact that not only was JG77 the most successful unit with minimal losses, but that in all his missions, he 'never lost a single wingman and they nearly all later became great aces themselves with high awards.'
Gordon M. Gollob passed away on 7 September 1987 at the age of 75. In view of his achievements and prestigious career, it might be thought strange that this man has been neglected in the specialised post-war literature dealing with Second World War aviation but, as someone close to him explained to the author of this short biography, he was:
1. Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds.
Gordon Gollob was born on 16 June 1912 at Wien in Austria. He joined the Austrian Bundesheer in 1933 as an officer cadet. In 1934 he completed his flying training. By 1936 he was an instructor and commanded the Schulstaffel A. With the German annexation of Austria in 1938, Gollob joined the Luftwaffe with the rank of Oberleutnant. On 15 March 1939, Gollob joined ZG76 flying Bf 110 Zerstörer twin-engined fighters. He was assigned to 3./ZG 76. He gained his initial victories over Poland and, later, during the Battle of the Heligoland Bight. Gollob was appointed Staffelkapitän of 3./ZG76 on 8 April 1940. He was successful during the invasion of Norway gaining two victories, including a RAF Sunderland four-engined flying boat. He gained a further victory, a RAF Spitfire fighter, during the Battle of Britain.
After undergoing night-fighter training and spending a short spell at the Erprobungsstelle Rechlin, Gollob was transferred to II./JG3 based on the Channel front on 7 September 1940. On 9 October, he was appointed Staffelkapitän of 4./JG3. He led the unit during the invasion of Russia. On 27 June 1941, Hauptmann Gollob was appointed Gruppenkommandeur of II./JG3. He claimed 18 victories in August. He was awarded the Ritterkreuz for 42 victories on 18 September. He achieved 37 victories in October, including nine Russian aircraft shot down covering operations over the Perekop Isthmus on 18 October. He followed up this feat by shooting down six enemy aircraft in the same area on 22 October. He was awarded the Eichenlaub (Nr 38) on 26 October for 85 victories. He was to lead II./JG3 until 20 November. In December 1941, Gollob was removed from operations and transferred on a temporary assignment to Erprobungstelle Rechlin to assist in the further development of the Bf-109, for which he suggested many innovative improvements. Following a brief attachment to the Stabsschwarm of JG54 from 13 March 1942, Major Gollob returned to southern Russia as Kommodore of JG77 on 16 May. He achieved his 100th victory on 20 May. He was awarded the Schwertern (Nr 13) on 23 June after 107 victories. He became the Jagdwaffe's highest scoring fighter pilot in August when he recorded his 150th victory. He was awarded and received the Brillanten (Nr 3) from Adolf Hitler personally on 29 August. He recorded 40 victories during August. On 1 October 1942, Gollob was transferred to the Stab of Jagdfliegerführer 3 on the Channel front. On 15 October, he was appointed Jagdführer 5 at Deauville in France, being responsible for the tactical fighter command of northwestern France. In April 1944, he was transferred to the personal staff of the General der Jagdflieger to represent him on the Jägerstab regarding development of jet aircraft projects. But here he fell out with Adolf Galland (104 victories, RK-Br) and was transferred to the Kommando der Eprobungstellen. In November, Oberst Gollob was appointed leader of the Jäger-Sonderstab for the Ardennes offensive. His final wartime appointment came when Adolf Galland was removed as General der Jadgflieger and Gollob was appointed in his place in January 1945. Gollob died on 7 September 1987 at Sulingen.
Gordon Gollob was credited with 150 victories achieved in 340 missions. He recorded 144 victories over the Eastern front.
List of 150 aerial victories for Gordon Gollob
Victories : 150
Asisbiz Database of 160 aerial victories for Gordon Gollob
Alfred 'Fred' Heckmann
Alfred "Fred" Heckmann was born on 25 June 1914 at Bochum-Langendreer. On 5 February 1940, Heckmann was posted to JG3. Unteroffizier Heckmann was assigned to 5./JG3. He gained his first victory on 6 June 1940, when he shot down a French Morane fighter near Abbeville. He added two RAF Spitfire fighters during the Battle of Britain. Feldwebel Heckmann participated in the invasion of Russia with JG3 and gained 24 victories between June and October 1941, including his 10th victory on 2 July and his 20th on 12 September, before being withdrawn to Germany for rest and reequipment in late October. Following re-equipment with new Bf 109 F-4trop fighters, II./JG3 and Heckmann were relocated to Sicily at the beginning of January 1942. Heckmann flew a number of missions over Malta without adding to his victory total. II./JG3 were withdrawn from the Mediterranean theatre in April 1942 in preparation for a return to the Eastern front. The unit arrived back on the Eastern front in June 1942. Oberfeldwebel Heckmann added 17 Russian aircraft to his victory total in July 1942, including four Boston twin-engine bombers shot down on 10 July to record his 35th through 38th victories. He was awarded the Ritterkreuz for 50 victories on 19 September 1942. In October 1942, Heckmann was transferred to 1./JG26 operating over the Western front. In winter 1943, he transferred with I./JG26 back to the Eastern front in an exchange with JG54 who were transferring to the west. In the three and and a half months the Gruppe was based in Russia, it achieved 127 victories. Oberfeldwebel Heckmann claimed four victories during this period, all Il-2 Stormovik ground-attack aircraft. On 28 February 1943, Heckmann left 1./JG26 to take up instructing duties with Erganzung-Jagdgruppe Ost. He returned to JG26 in July being re-assigned to 1.Staffel.
Oberleutnant Heckmann was appointed Staffelkapitan of 3./JG26 on 23 January 1944. On 21 September, I./JG26 encountered a formation of RAF C-47 Dakota twin-engine transports over s'Hertogenbosch en route to drop parachutists to reinforce the Allied aerial landings at Arnhem. Heckmann claimed four of the transports shot down (66-69). On 1 January 1945, Heckmann led 23 Fw 190 D-9s of 3./JG26 on Operation Bodenplatte, the attack on the Allied airfields in Holland and Belgium. On 27 March 1945, Heckmann was appointed Staffelkapitan of 5./JG26 following the death of Oberleutnant Wilhelm Hofmann (44 victories, RK, killed in action 26 March 1945). Heckmann's stay with 5./JG26 was short however, as he was transferred to JV 44 at Munchen-Reim on 14 April 1945. He never joined the unit getting no further than Lechfeld.
"Fred" Heckmann flew over 600 missions in claiming 71 victories. He recorded 54 victories over the Eastern front. Of his 17 victories recorded over the Western front, three were four-engine bombers.
List of aerial victories for Alfred 'Fred' Heckmann
Victories : 71
Asisbiz Database of 49 aerial victories out of 79 for Alfred "Fred" Heckmann
Units:3./JG-26 (7/38), Stab II./JG-3 (5/40), 2./JG-1 (1/41), Stfkpt 6./JG-3 (7/41), Kdr II./JG-3 (11/43)
Awards:DK-G, EP, EK 1 & 2, Fighter Operational Clasp
Known Aircraft:Bf 109E-7 in JG-3, Bf 109F-2 'Yel 1+-' (5/41), Fw 190A, Bf 109F, Bf 109G-6 WNr 18802 (lost 10/18/43)
Remarks:Flugbuch (5/37 to 1/41). One known victory, his 1st, a Morane 406 south of Peronne, 24 May, 1940. His 2nd, a Spitfire at Themsemündung on 26 August, 1940. His 3rd, a Spitfire at London on 15 September, 1940. During his tour in Russia, his armored windscreen was hit by bomber return fire, shattering it, nevertheless, he return to base in 'Yellow 1' and landed safely. His Bf 109G-6 crashed at Schokland Holland on 18 October, 1943, cause and pilot disposition unknown (DeSwart). His 21st victory, a B-17 on 22 February, 1944. His 22nd, a B-17 on 6 March, 1944, no location. His 23rd, a a B-17 at Gelnhausen on 13 April, 1944.
Asisbiz database list of 6 aerial victories for Heinrich Sannemann
Some of the most widely used Book References:
- Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase One: July-August 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 1) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Eddie J Creek (Author)
- Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Two: August-September 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 2) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
- Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Three: September-October 1940 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 3) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
- Jagdwaffe: Battle of Britain: Phase Four: November 1940-June 1941 (Luftwaffe Colours: Volume Two, Section 4) Paperback Eric Mombeek (Author), David Wadman (Author), Martin Pegg (Author)
Some of the most widely used Magazine References:
- Airfix Magazines (English) - http://www.airfix.com/
- Avions (French) - http://www.aerostories.org/~aerobiblio/rubrique10.html
- FlyPast (English) - http://www.flypast.com/
- Flugzeug Publikations GmbH (German) - http://vdmedien.com/flugzeug-publikations-gmbh-hersteller_verlag-vdm-heinz-nickel-33.html
- Flugzeug Classic (German) - http://www.flugzeugclassic.de/
- Klassiker (German) - http://shop.flugrevue.de/abo/klassiker-der-luftfahrt
- Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://boutique.editions-lariviere.fr/site/abonnement-le-fana-de-l-aviation-626-4-6.html
- Le Fana de L'Aviation (French) - http://www.pdfmagazines.org/tags/Le+Fana+De+L+Aviation/
- Osprey (English) - http://www.ospreypublishing.com/
- Revi Magazines (Czech) - http://www.revi.cz/