Karl Johan Park

To the south of the Norrköping railroad station lies the Karl Johan Park, with a fine collection of cacti. In the park is a monument (by Schwanthaler, 1846) to King Carl XIV Johan (Bernadotte). Facing the park stands the Town House. Near the station is the neo-Gothic St Matthew's Church (1892).

Statue of Karl XIV Johan in Norrköping

Charles XIV & III John (Swedish: Karl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later renamed Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. He was also the first Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, Italy.

French by birth, Bernadotte served a long career in the French Army. He was appointed as a Marshal of France by Napoleon I, though the two had a turbulent relationship. His service to France ended in 1810, when he was elected the heir to the Swedish throne: the Swedish royal family was dying out because both the legitimate children of King Charles XIII had died in infancy.

Early life and family
He was born in Pau, France, as the son of Jean Henri Bernadotte (Pau, Béarn, 14 October 1711 - Pau, 31 March 1780), procurator at Pau, and wife (married at Boëil-Bezing, 20 February 1754) Jeanne de Saint-Vincent (Pau, 1 April 1728 - Pau, 8 January 1809). His Christian names were Jean-Baptiste - he added Jules later, from Julius Caesar, in the classicizing spirit of the French Revolution. The family name was originally de Pouey, but was changed to Bernadotte - a surname of a woman ancestor - at the beginning of the 17th century. He had a brother named Jean Bernadotte (Pau, 1754 - Pau, 8 August 1813) who was made 1st Baron Bernadotte and married Marie Anne Charlotte de Saint-Paul.

Ancestry
Their paternal grandparents were Jean Bernadotte (Pau, 29 September 1683 - Pau, 3 October 1760) and wife (m. Pau, 1 May 1707) Marie du Pucheu dite de La Place (Pau, 6 February 1686 - Pau, 5 October 1773), daughter of Jacques du Pucheu dit de La Place and wife Françoise de Labasseur. Their maternal grandparents were Jean de Saint-Vincent (Boëil-Bezing, c. 1690 - Boëil-Bezing, 21 May 1762) and wife (m. Assat, 30 May 1719) Marie d'Abbadie de Sireix (Sireix, 25 March 1694 - Boëil-Bezing, 16 October 1752), daughter of Doumengé Habas d'Arrens and wife Marie d'Abbadie, Lay Abbess of Sireix. Finally, they were the great-grandsons of Jean Bernadotte (Pau, 7 November 1649 - Pau, 14 July 1689) and wife (m. Pau, 18 June 1674) Marie de la Barrère-Bertandot; he was in turn the son of Pierre Bernadotte and wife Margalide Barraquer and paternal grandson of Joandou du Poey, born in 1590, and wife Germaine de Bernadotte.

Marriage
At Sceaux on 16 August 1798 he married Eugénie Bernhardine Désirée Clary, the daughter of a Marseille silk merchant, and sister of Joseph Bonaparte's wife Julie Clary - Eugenie had previously been engaged to Napoleon. Bernadotte and Eugénie had an only son, Oscar I of Sweden and Norway.

Line of descendants
Following only the lines of the thrones of Sweden, Charles is the male-line ancestor to the heirs of that nation.

* Charles XIV John, King of Sweden
* Oscar I, King of Sweden
* Charles XV, King of Sweden
* Oscar II, King of Sweden (brother of Charles XV)
* Gustaf V, King of Sweden
* Gustaf VI Adolf, King of Sweden
* Prince Gustav Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten (killed in a plane crash before succeeding to the throne)
* Charles XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden
* Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden (first female regent of the Royal House of Bernadotte)

Military career
Bernadotte joined the army as a private in the Régiment de Royal-Marine on 3 September 1780, and first served in the newly-conquered territory of Corsica.He was for a long time stationed in Collioure in the South of France and was after eight years promoted to sergeant. Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion. He was promoted to colonel in 1792 and by 1794 was a brigadier attached to the army of the Sambre et Meuse. After Jourdan's victory at Fleurus (26 June 1794) he became a general of division. At the Battle of Theiningen (1796), Bernadotte contributed, more than anyone else, to the successful retreat of the French army over the Rhine after its defeat by the Archduke Charles of Austria. In 1797 he brought reinforcements from the Rhine to Bonaparte's army in Italy, distinguishing himself greatly at the passage of the Tagliamento, and in 1798 served as ambassador to Vienna, but had to quit his post owing to the disturbances caused by his hoisting the tricolour over the embassy.

From 2 July to 14 September he was Minister of War, in which capacity he displayed great ability. He declined to help Napoleon Bonaparte stage his coup d'état of November 1799, but nevertheless accepted employment from the Consulate, and from April 1800 to 18 August 1801 commanded the army in the Vendée.

Marshal Bernadotte
On the introduction of the French Empire, Bernadotte became one of the Marshals of France and, from June 1804 to September 1805, served as governor of Hanover. During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte with an army corps from Hanover, co-operated in the great movement which resulted in the shutting off of Mack in Ulm. As a reward for his services at Austerlitz (2 December 1805) he became Marshal of the French Imperial Army and the 1st Sovereign Prince of Ponte Corvo (5 June 1806), but during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt, though close at hand. In 1808, as governor of the Hanseatic towns, he was to have directed the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent. In the war against Austria, Bernadotte led the Saxon contingent at the Battle of Wagram (6 July 1809), on which occasion, on his own initiative, he issued an Order of the Day attributing the victory principally to the valour of his Saxons, which order Napoleon at once disavowed. It was during the middle of that battle that Marshal Bernadotte was stripped of his command after retreating contrary to Napoleon's orders.

Offer of the Swedish throne
Bernadotte, considerably piqued, thereupon returned to Paris, where the council of ministers entrusted him with the defence of the Netherlands against the British expedition in Walcheren. In 1810, he was about to enter upon his new post as governor of Rome when he was unexpectedly elected the heir to King Charles XIII of Sweden, partly because a large part of the Swedish Army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because Bernadotte was also very popular in Sweden, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners during the recent war with Denmark. The matter was decided by one of the Swedish courtiers, Baron Karl Otto Mörner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte. Bernadotte communicated Mörner's offer to Napoleon, who treated the whole affair as an absurdity. Bernadotte thereupon informed Mörner that he would not refuse the honor if he were duly elected. Although the Swedish government, amazed at Mörner's effrontery, at once placed him under arrest on his return to Sweden, the candidature of Bernadotte gradually gained favor there, and, on 21 August 1810, he was selected and elected the Crown Prince and made the Generalissimus of the Swedish Armed Forces. In that year he renounced the title of Prince of Ponte Corvo.

Crown Prince and Regent
Coronation of Karl III Johan as King of Norway

On 2 November Bernadotte made his solemn entry into Stockholm, and on 5 November he received the homage of the Riksdag of the Estates, and he was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of ‘Charles John’ (Carl Johan). The new Crown Prince was very soon the most popular and most powerful man in Sweden. The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign affairs, entirely in his hands. The keynote of his whole policy was the acquisition of Norway and Bernadotte proved anything but a puppet of France. In 1813, he allied Sweden with Napoleon's enemies, Great Britain and Prussia, of the Sixth Coalition, in order to secure this. After the defeats at Lützen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (21 May 1813), it was the Swedish Crown Prince who put fresh fighting spirit into the Allies; and at the conference of Trachenberg he drew up the general plan for the campaign which began after the expiration of the Truce of Plaswitz. Charles John, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September at the Battles of Grossbeeren and Dennewitz; but after the Battle of Leipzig he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and to secure Norway, defeating the Danes at Bornhöved in December.

As the union King, Charles XIV John, who succeeded to that title on 5 February 1818 following the death of Charles XIII, was initially popular in both countries. Upon his accession he converted from Roman Catholicism to the Lutheranism of the Swedish court. He would never learn to speak Swedish or Norwegian, though this did not pose a serious obstacle to his rule, since French was widely spoken by all of the aristocracy of the time.

Charles XIV John's reign witnessed the completion of the southern Göta Canal, begun 22 years earlier, to link Lake Vänern to the sea at Söderköping 180 miles to the east. Though his ultra-conservative views were unpopular, particularly from 1823 onwards, his dynasty never faced serious danger. Swedes and Norwegians alike were proud of a monarch with a good European reputation. Though the Riksdag of the Estates of 1840 meditated compelling him to supposedly abdicate, he survived that controversy, and his silver jubilee was celebrated with great enthusiasm in 1843.

Charles XIV John was the 909th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain and the 28th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.

Charles XIV John died in Stockholm on 8 March 1844. His reign was one of uninterrupted peace, during which his kingdoms experienced great material development. He was succeeded by his son, Oscar I of Sweden and Norway. Oscar's mother was Désirée Clary, Napoleon Bonaparte's first fiancée. Her sister, Julie Clary, was married to Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Désirée chose Napoleon to be prince Oscar's godfather.

The main street of Oslo, Karl Johans gate is named for him, while the Fortress of Karlsborg (Karlsborgs fästning) located in Karlsborg Municipality (Karlsborgs kommun) in Västra Götaland, was named by him after Charles XIII, his adoptive father.

During the French Revolution, Bernadotte belonged for a time to the Jacobin Club, a radical political organization. According to a popular myth, after his death a tattoo was supposedly found on his body that read Mort aux rois! (‘Death to kings!’), presumably a legacy of his Jacobin days. However, no evidence has been found to confirm this.

Note on the name Charles XIV John
The Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560-68) and Charles IX (1604-1611) took their numbers after studying a highly fictitious history of Sweden. Counting only historically known kings, Charles XIV John should have been called Charles VIII John.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Statyn_av_Karl_XIV_Johan_Norrk%C3%B6ping_april_2006.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Karl_XIV_Johan,_king_of_Sweden_and_Norway,_painted_by_Fredric_Westin.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_XIV_John_of_Sweden

Norrköping

Norrköping Sweden

Coat of Arms Norrköping Sweden

Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County. The city has a population of 83,561 inhabitants in 2005, out of a municipal total of 127,059, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality.

The city is situated by the mouth of the river Motala ström, at Bråviken, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Water power from the Motala ström and the good harbour were factors that facilitated the rapid growth of this once industrial city, known for its textile industry. It has several nicknames such as: ‘Sweden's Manchester’ , ‘Peking’ and ‘Surbullestan’ (Surbulle was a local nickname for the textileworkers, and stan´ is short for Staden, which means The City or The Town in Swedish)

History
The city has medieval foundations by settlers around the Norrköping twin city with Linköping Motala stream estuary, who used the falls and rapids to power their mills. The stream was also full of fish such as salmon. Exact dates are uncertain, but there are mentions of a church in the 12th century. It was dedicated to Saint Olaf, Norway's patron.

The first trace of the city's name is from 1283, when Sofia of Denmark - wife of Valdemar I of Sweden - donated her rights of salmon fishing to the Skänninge monastery. The town is estimated to have received city status in the early 14th century, although no written documents exist prior to a document from 1384. This document, signed by Albrekt of Sweden is stored in the city archive today.

The city was the location of several battles in the ensuing centuries. As a consequence, nothing of the medieval Norrköping remains today. During the Northern Seven Years' War (1563-1570), the entire southern part of Norrköping was burnt. It was rebuilt by John III of Sweden ,who designed the current street pattern.

In 1618, a weapon industry was established by supervision of Gustavus Adolphus. The harbour also attracted ships due to its proximity to the industries of Finspång. In addition to the weapon industry, a large scale industry of textile was also initiated. An important benefactor was the industrial man Louis De Geer (1587-1652). At De Geer's death, Norrköpings had 6,000 inhabitants and was Sweden's second largest city.

The city again burnt in 1655, and again in 1719 during the Great Northern War when the Russians burnt it to the ground. Stones from the Johannisborg castle were used to build new houses, and today only a few stones remain.

During the 18th century it was rebuilt and several industries soon got a stronghold: In the 1740s, Norrköping boosted three sugar refineries; in the 1750s the large scale influential snuff industry was established. From this time stems the city churches of Saint Olof and Saint Hedvig, and several other old houses. Motala ström runs through Norrköping

Norrköping's importance again flourished. In 1769 the Swedish Riksdag assembled there. In 1800 the king Gustav IV of Sweden was crowned in the Church of Saint Olof.

The city again suffered fires in 1822 and 1826. Thereafter wooden houses were banned. In 1841 a ship industry was initiated as a branch of Motala Verkstad in Motala. In 1850 the industry had over 600 employees making it Sweden's largest ship industry at the time. During the remaining 19th century, the industries kept expanding. The area by the Motala Stream was developed further with the construction of a cotton refinery, and a paper mill was constructed in 1854, specializing in newspaper, and is still today exporting to customers around the world.

The industry, including textile manufacturers, also expanded into the 20th century. In 1950 a total of 54 factories had 6,600 employees in town. By 1956, however, 18 of them had been closed due to competition from countries abroad with lower wages, such as Italy and Japan. In 1970 only 10 factories and 1,200 employees remained. In that year, the renowned Holmen paper mill, with its 350 years long history, announced closure, and another 900 people were let go. To counter the effects, several governmental authorities were relocated to Norrköping from Stockholm. See also Braviken Paper Mill.

As of 2002, Norrköping is now seeing a revival, as a center of culture and education. The Norrköping symbol represents the ‘new’ Norrköping.

Tourism
There are a lot of things within and around Norrköping that is worth seeing. Within the centre of Norrköping, there are a lot of stores, restaurants and cafes.

Within a stone’s throw from the shops, there is a nice parade alongside Strömmen, the so called river that flows through the city. In connection to this nice parade is the industrial landscape. This is the place where the old textile industries once where situated.

In the summer, there is a cactus plantation in Carl Johans Park. 25 000 cactuses are planted there every summer.

What is really worth visiting is Kolmårdens Djurpark. That is a zoo located 30 km north of Norrköping. Almost all animals can be seen there. In connection to the big outdoor zoo, there is also Tropicariet an aquarium, where for example snakes, crocodiles and sharks can be seen.

The archipelago 50 km away from Norrköping is worth a visit. There are the opportunities to bath, rent a kayak or go by the ferries between the different islands, such as S:t Anna or Gryt.

If you are visiting Norrköping in the winter, Yxbacken offers downhill skiing.

Notable natives
* Hannes Alfvén - Physicist, Nobel Prize Winner
* Moa Martinson - Author
* Michael B Tretow - World famous producer and audio engineer.
* Ture Nerman
* Peter Harryson - Actor, entertainer
* Pernilla Wiberg - Alpine skier, double Olympic gold medalist
* Slagsmålsklubben - Electronic popgroup
* Malin Baryard - horse rider
* Helena Lundbäck - horse rider
* Eldkvarn - music group
* Spånka NKPG - House music collective
* Marduk (band) - music group
* Amy Diamond - singer
* 23 Till - music group
* Zarko Runic - local icon and celebrity
* Måns Stenberg - gymnast of the Swedish national team
* Anna Öhman - Elfwood artist, girl in the hot dog suit

Sports
* IFK Norrköping (Association football)
* Norrköping Dolphins (Basket)
* HC Vita Hästen (Icehockey)
* Vargarna (Speedway)
* Norrköpings KK (Swimming)

Twin cities: Esslingen, Germany; Klaksvík, Faroe Islands; Kópavogur, Iceland; Linz, Austria; Odense, Denmark; Riga, Latvia; Tampere, Finland; Trondheim, Norway; New York, USA

Web References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norrköping

Östergötland

Norrköping Sweden

Coat of Arms Östergötland Sweden

Östergötland is a one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden. It borders Småland, Västergötland, Närke, Södermanland, and the Baltic Sea. In older English literature one may also encounter the Latinized version Ostrogothia.

Administration
The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative functions. However, the corresponding administrative county, Östergötland County covers the entire province and parts of neighbouring provinces.

Heraldry
From 1560 Östergötland was represented with two separate arms until 1884 when the current one was granted. The arms is represented with a dukal coronet. Blazon: ‘Gules a Griffin with Dragon Wings, Tail and Tongue rampant Or armed, beaked, langued and membered Azure between four Roses Argent.’

Geography
From west to east, in the middle parts, extends the Östgöta Plain (Östgöta-slätten). It is largely agricultural. In the southern part of the province, the terrain becomes marked by the south-Swedish highlands, with hills and countless lakes. The northern parts are also hilly, and are otherwise dominated by forests.

Outside the eastern shore of Östergötland lies an archipelago, the islands and islets of which cover an area of 118 km². The Bråviken bay continues further into the country. Some of the more notable islands are Korsö, Gränsö, Arkö, Djursö, Yxnö, Finnö, Emtö, Fångö and Stora Ålö.

Traditionally, the region is divided into two halves, east and west of the river Stångån, which flows from the south into lake Roxen at Linköping.

The eastern part of Göta Canal traverses the province from the Baltic sea at Mem to lake Vättern at Motala.

* Highest mountain: Stenabohöjden 327 meters
* Largest lake: Vättern (Second largest lake of Sweden)

Towns
Cities and the year of their now defunct royal charter.
* Linköping (1287)
* Mjölby (1922)
* Motala (1881)
* Norrköping (1384)
* Skänninge (approximately 1200)
* Söderköping (approximately 1200)
* Vadstena (approximately 1400)

Today, the largest city in the province is Linköping, with Norrköping second. Skänninge is of virtually no importance; Mjölby is also small. An additional town without a royal charter that has emerged in the 20th century is Finspång.

History
The earliest mention of Östergötland (the Ostrogoths of Scandza) appears in the Getica by the Goth scholar Jordanes.

The traditions of Östergötland date back into the viking age, the undocumented Iron Age, and earlier, when this region had its own laws and kings (see Geatish kings and Wulfings). The region kept its own laws, the Östgötalagen, into the Middle Ages. Östergötland belonged to the Christian heartland of late Iron Age and early medieval Sweden. The Sverker and Bjälbo dynasties played pivotal roles in the consolidation of Sweden.

The province has about 50,000 ancient remains of different kinds. 1,749 are for instance grave fields.

Industry was formerly most significant in the cities of Norrköping (industries include Ericsson), Linköping (where SAAB have air craft industries where the Gripen fighter is produced) Finspång (metal works), and Motala (mechanical industries) .

Dukes of Östergötland

Swedish Princes have been created Dukes of various provinces. In English, the title ‘Duke of Östergötland’ is sometimes given as Duke of Ostrogothia. This is solely a nominal title.

* Prince Magnus
* Prince Johan (from 1609 until his death in 1618)
* Prince Fredrik Adolf (from 1772 until his death in 1803)
* Prince Oscar (from his birth in 1829 until he became King in 1872)
* Prince Carl Jr (from his birth in 1911 until his loss of succession rights in 1937)

Local accents
Formerly the östgöta dialect spectrum were considered true göta dialects, but is nowadays considered being a transition area between true göta dialects and svea dialects. The dialects are still used in rural areas, but in the cities, the Standard Swedish is spoken with a certain östgöta accent. The accent Östgötska can be distinguished from Standard Swedish just by accent and pronunciation of vowels ad sje- and tje- sounds, which makes Östgöta accent an eastern variety of the Götaland accent. In some parts bordering to Södermanland, a variety of the Svealand accent is spoken.

Sights
Ekenäs Castle, one of the best preserved renaissance castles in Sweden, has belonged to the families Sture and Banér. Löfstad Castle has its origin in the early 17th century having belonged to the von Fersen family. Vadstena Castle, built by the Vasa dynasty 1545–1620, is combined fortress and renaissance castle.

Vreta Abbey was the first convent to be established in Sweden, dating from the early 12th century, while Vadstena Abbey was the dominant convent in Medieval Sweden. Notable is also the ruins of the Alvastra Abbey near Omberg and Tåkern.

The cathedral in Linköping is the second largest church in Sweden and is very well-preserved from the Middle Age.

The Göta Canal crosses the province with several locks and the Kinda Canal connects the lakes in the southern parts of the province with the central plains.

Övralid Manor was the last home of Nobel Prize laureate Verner von Heidenstam 1925-1940.

There are several museums in all parts of the province, for example the Swedish Broadcasting Museum and the Motala Motor Museum.

Web References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Östergötland


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