Church of Panaghia Kapnikarea

Greek (Εκκλησία της Παναγίας Καπνικαρέας) or just Kapnikarea (Greek: Καπνικαρέα)

The Church of Panaghia Kapnikarea is a Greek Orthodox church one of the oldest churches in


It is estimated that the church was built some time in the 11th century, perhaps around 1050. As it was common with the early Christian churches, this was built over an ancient Greek pagan temple dedicated to the worship of a goddess, possibly Athena or Demeter.


The church is located in the downtown of the modern city of Athens, right in the middle of the high-traffic shopping area of Ermou street, at the edge of the Plaka district.

The Greek Orthodox Church

The Greek Orthodox Church (Monotonic Greek: Ελληνορθόδοξη Εκκλησία, Polytonic: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, IPA:) is the body of several churches[1][2][3] within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity sharing a common cultural tradition whose liturgy is also traditionally conducted in Koine Greek,[4] the original language of the New Testament.[5][6] The church's current territorial areas include Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus, Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Albania, Ethiopia, and Italy.


The churches where the Greek Orthodox term is applicable are:
The four ancient Patriarchates:
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople,[7] headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the "first among equals" of the Eastern Orthodox Communion
The four eparchies of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople:
# The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain[8]
# The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta[9]
# The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America[10]
# The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia[11] The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria[12]
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch[13]
The Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem[14]
Two national autocephalous churches:
o The Church of Greece[15]
o The Church of Cyprus[16][17][18]
The Orthodox Church of Mount Sinai[19].

Another autocephalous church which can be described as Greek Orthodox is the Orthodox Church of Albania.[20][21][22][23] Led since the collapse of the former Stalinist régime by Archbishop Anastasios, a Greek national, the Church conducts its liturgy in Koine Greek in Northern Epirus (Southern Albania) which populated by the ethnic Greek minority.

History of the term

Historically, the term Greek Orthodox has also been used to describe all Eastern Orthodox Churches, since "Greek" in "Greek Orthodox" can refer to the Greek heritage of the Byzantine Empire.[24][25][26] During eight centuries of Christian history most major intellectual, cultural, and social developments in the Christian church took place within the Empire or in the sphere of its influence,[26][27][28] thus most parts of the liturgy, traditions, and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all, and still provide the basic patterns of contemporary Orthodoxy.[29][30][31] However, the appellation "Greek" was abandoned by Slavic and other national orthodox churches in connection with their peoples' national awakenings, from as early as the 10th century A.D.[32][33][34]

References for Athens:

  1. Demetrios J. Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church, Holy Cross Orthodox Press 3rd edition (March 28, 2005)
  2. L. Rushton, Doves and magpies: village women in the Greek Orthodox Church Women's religious experience, Croom Helm, 1983
  3. Paul Yuzyk, The Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church of Canada, 1918-1951, University of Ottawa Press, 1981
  4. Demetrios J. Constantelos, The Greek Orthodox Church: faith, history, and practice, Seabury Press, 1967
  5. Daniel B. Wallace: "Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, page 12,".,M1. Zondervan, 1997.
  6. Robert H. Stein: "The method and message of Jesus' teachings, page 4,". Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
  7. "Ecumenical Patriarchate". Retrieved 2009-03-09.
  8. "Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain - Home". Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  9. "The Holy Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta".
  10. The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America should not be confused with the Orthodox Church in America, whose autocephaly – granted by the Russian Orthodox Church – is not recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and many other churches of the Eastern Orthodox Communion.
  11. "Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia". Retrieved 2010-01-14.
  12. "The official web site of Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa".
  13. "Greek Orthodox Church Of Antioch And All The East".
  14. "Jerusalem Patriarchate". Retrieved 2009-03-09.
  15. "Ecclesia - The Web Site of the Church of Greece".
  16. "Church of Cyprus" (in Greek). Retrieved 2009-03-09.
  17. "About Cyprus - Towns and Population". Government Web Portal - Areas of Interest. Government of Cyprus. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  18. "Cyprus". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  19. "The Holy Monastery of the God-trodden Mount Sinai, Saint Catherine's Monastery".
  20. Roudometof, Victor (2002). Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict. Greenwood Press. p. 179. "the only remaining issues between the two sides concern the extent to which minority members should have equal rights with the rest of the Albanian citizens as well as issues of property and ecclesiastical autonomy for the Greek Orthodox Church of Albania."
  21. Presveia (U.S.). Grapheio Typou kai Plerophorion, Published by Foto Olympic, 1995
  22. Assembly of Captive European Nations 1956, ACEN (Organization), 1956
  23. The National encyclopedia, Volume 1, Henry Suzzallo, William Waite Beardsley P.F. Collier & Son Co. 1932
  24. Byzantium in Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing Vol. 1, Kelly Boyd (ed.), Fitzroy Dearborn publishers, 1999 ISBN 9781884964336
  25. Edwin Pears, The destruction of the Greek Empire and the story of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, Haskell House, 1968
  26. Millar, Fergus (2006). A Greek Roman Empire : power and belief under Theodosius II (408-450). University of California Press. p. 279 pages. ISBN 0520247035.
  27. Tanner, Norman P. The Councils of the Church, ISBN 0824519043
  28. The Byzantine legacy in the Orthodox Church by John Meyendorff - 1982
  29. Hugh Wybrew, The Orthodox liturgy: the development of the eucharistic liturgy in the Byzantine rite - 1990
  30. The Christian Churches of the East, Vol. II: Churches Not in Communion with Rome by Donald Attwater - 1962
  31. J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (1987)
  32. Joan Mervyn Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, 1990
  33. A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom - 1970
  34. Andreĭ Lazarov Pantev, Bŭlgarska istorii︠a︡ v evropeĭski kontekst - 2000

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This webpage was updated 27th January 2020