High resolution photographs of Tallinn
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn built in 1894-1900.
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is an orthodox cathedral in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia. It was built to a design by Mikhail Preobrazhensky in a typical Russian Revival style between 1894 and 1900, during the period when the country was part of the Russian Empire. The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is Tallinn's largest and grandest orthodox cupola cathedral. It is dedicated to Saint Alexander Nevsky who in 1242 won the Battle of the Ice on Lake Peipus, in the territorial waters of present-day Estonia. The late Russian patriarch, Alexis II, started his priestly ministry in the church.
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral crowns the hill of Toompea where the Estonian folk hero Kalevipoeg is said to have been buried according to a legend. (There are many such legendary burial places of him in Estonia.) The cathedral was built during the period of late 19th century Russification and was so disliked by many Estonians as a symbol of oppression that the Estonian authorities scheduled the cathedral for demolition in 1924, but the decision was never implemented due to lack of funds and the building's massive construction. As the USSR was officially non-religious, many churches including this cathedral were left to decline. The church has been meticulously restored since Estonia regained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre and Drama School
Lavakunstikool Toom-Kooli 4, Tallinn, Harjumaa, Estonia College Arts Building
Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre and Drama School of Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre Unit, which offers theater training. 1938th was founded by the Tallinn Conservatory Theatre School , graduating in one flight actors 1941st year. Tallinn State Conservatory of Performing Arts Department started under the name of the 1957th The work on Toompea Toom-4 school located in the right wing of the building upstairs. Theatre School runs throughout the house and renovated wing õuepealses 1992 . year. The same year it bore the name of Drama.
"According to the final decision of 20 October 2005, the Estonian Academy of Music and renamed the Estonian Music and Theatre Academy , "said Law, promulgated on 7th President of the Republic No decision of November 2005, the 916th The school has since been renamed the Higher Theatre School of the Arts instead of the Estonian Music and Theatre Academy Drama School.
Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lavakunstikool on Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia üksus, mis pakub teatrikoolitust. 1938. aastal asutati Tallinna Konservatooriumi juurde Lavakunstikool, mille lõpetas üks lend näitlejaid 1941. aastal. Tallinna Riikliku Konservatooriumi lavakunstikateedri nime all alustati 1957. aastal tööd Toompeal Toom-Kooli 4 asuva hoone parema tiiva ülakorrusel. Lavakunstikool töötab kogu renoveeritud majas ja õuepealses tiibhoones 1992. aastast. Samast aastast kandis see lavakunstikooli nime. "Vastavalt Riigikogu otsusele 20. oktoobrist 2005 on Eesti Muusikaakadeemia ümber nimetatud Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemiaks," ütles seadus, mis kuulutati välja Vabariigi Presidendi 7. novembri 2005 otsusega nr 916. Kooli nimeks on sellest ajast Kõrgema Lavakunstikooli asemel Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lavakunstikool.
Lennusadam Seaplane Harbour 17 Kuti Street Tallinn Estonia Icebreaker Tallinn
Lennusadam Seaplane Harbour 17 Kuti Street Tallinn Estonia Patrol Boats
Lennusadam Seaplane Harbour 17 Kuti Street Tallinn Estonia Submarine Lembit
Kiek in de Kök
Kiek in de Kök (low German Peep into the Kitchen) is an old German language nickname for towers, mainly those that formed parts of town fortifications. They gained the name from the ability of tower occupants to see into kitchens of nearby houses. Due to the history of the Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Order, also towers far outside modern Germany bear this name, like in Gdańsk and Tallinn.
The tower in Tallinn is an artillery tower built in 1475. It is 38 m high and has walls 4 m thick. Cannon balls dating back to 1577 are still embedded in its outer walls. Throughout its working life, the tower was extensively remodeled. Work in the 16th and 17th centuries saw the two lowest floors become hidden by earth works and the upper floors receive new gun openings and the uppermost floor a new outer wall and ceiling. By 1760, the tower had become obsolete. At this time it became a repository for archives and some floors were converted to apartments. 20th century restoration work saw the tower and surrounding area returned to a more historical look. The tower now serves as a museum and photographic gallery.
Pärnu maantee area Tallinn Harju Estonia
Pikk Hermann or Tall Hermann
Pikk Hermann or Tall Hermann (German: Langer Hermann) is a tower of the Toompea Castle, on Toompea hill in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The first part was built 1360-70. It was rebuilt (height brought to 45,6 m) in the 16th century. A staircase with 215 steps leads to the top of the tower. The tower consists of ten internal floors and a viewing platform at the top.
Pikk Hermann tower is situated next to the Estonian Parliament building and the flag on the top of the tower at 95 metres  above sea level is one of the symbols of the government in force.
The national flag, measuring 191 cm by 300 cm, is raised and the national anthem is played at the time of sunrise (but not earlier than 7 am) and lowered at the time of sunset (but not later than 10 pm). While it is lowered, the song "Mu isamaa on minu arm" (My Fatherland is My Love) is heard.
Stenbock House seat of the Estonian Government
The much-rebuilt Toompea Castle – consisting of the czarist era governor's palace, walls and towers of the medieval fortress, the expressionist parliament building dating from 1922, plus a few other buildings – now houses the Estonian Parliament. The facade of the classicist governor's palace dominates Lossi plats ("Castle square"), where the Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral overtops it. The cathedral, nowadays the main church of the Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate, has become for tourists somewhat of a symbol of Tallinn due to its exotic look, while the opinion of Estonians about it is rather ambiguous. The Lutheran Cathedral (Toomkirik) from which the name Toompea was originally derived, is now the seat of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church and has perhaps best retained a medieval look among the buildings of Toompea. Most of the buildings in Toompea date from the 18th and 19th centuries. While the Small Castle has generally preserved its shape, nothing but a few fragments remain of the Great Castle's walls and towers.
Other notable sites in Toompea include the building of the Government of Estonia also known as 'The Stenbock House' and the building of the Estonian Knighthood, which from the early 1990s until 2005 housed the Estonian Art Museum and since 2009 is temporarily used by the Estonian Academy of Arts. The Estonian Academy of Sciences is also seated in Toompea, in the Ungern-Sternberg palace (seat of the local German cultural self-government in the interwar period). Toompea is also the location of several foreign embassies to Estonia, namely those of Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the office of the embassy of Canada.
There are several viewing platforms in Toompea, which offer good views of the surrounding city and are popular among tourists visiting Tallinn.
Suur Kloostri street area Tallinn Estonia
Tallinn Architecture Jaani kirik Vabaduse väljak 1 10142 Tallinn Estonia
Toompea Castle (also Latin: Castrum Danorum, Estonian: Toompea loss; (previously probably) Taani loss, literally "The Danish castle") is a castle on the limestone hill of Toompea in the central part of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, which for a time was also one of the names for the whole settlement of Tallinn during the times of Danish Estonia in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Toompea Castle History
The first wooden castle (in some Finnic sources referred to as Kesoniemi), it is believed to have been built on the hill in either the 10th or 11th century by residents of the ancient Estonian county of Rävala (Revalia). It was probably one of the first inhabited areas of what later became Tallinn.
In 1219, the castle was taken over by Danish crusaders - led by Valdemar II. According to a legend very popular among Danes, the very first flag of Denmark (Dannebrog) fell from the sky during a critical stage of the Battle of Lyndanisse, fought near the castle, resulting in Danish victory over Estonians. The Danes then started to refer to Lyndanisse as Castrum Danorum ("Castle of the Danes"). According to one hypothesis, the name then translated into the old Estonian language as Taani(n) linna, and later abbreviated into "Tallinn".
The much-rebuilt Toompea Castle, topped by the Pikk Hermann tower, still dominates Toompea today. It houses the Parliament of Estonia. Other sights in the vicinity of Toompea Castle include the Russian Orthodox cathedral dedicated to Alexander Nevsky, which was completed in 1900 and now partially overtops the castle.
War of Independence Victory Column
For soldiers and civilians killed in action during the Estonian War of Independence between 1918 to 1920.
Designed by: Rainer Sternfeld, Andri Laidre, Kadri Kiho, Anto Savi
Estonian: "Eesti Vabadussõda 1918–1920" English: "Estonian War of Independence 1918–1920"
The War of Independence Victory Column (Estonian: Vabadussõja võidusammas) is located in Freedom Square, Tallinn, Estonia. It was opened on 23 June 2009 as a memorial for those who fell during the Estonian War of Independence, through which the people of Estonia will be able to commemorate all those who had fought for freedom and independence. The pillar is 23.5 meters high and consists of 143 glass plates. The memorial incorporates the Cross of Liberty, Estonia's most distinguished award established in 1919. The idea of creating a monument was conceived in 1919, before the end of the war. During the War of Independence in 1918–1920, 4,000 people were killed, and 14,000 wounded on the Estonian side. In 1936, a law was passed to establish a nationwide monument in commemoration of the war. Preparatory work was interrupted by the Second World War and subsequent Soviet occupation. After Estonia regained independence in 1991, the question of establishing a national monument for the commemoration of the War of Independence was raised again. In the spring of 2005, the Riigikogu decided that a column of victory in memory of the War would be erected at the Freedom Square in Tallinn. In 2006, a design competition for the monument received more than 40 entries. The winning entry "Libertas" was designed by Rainer Sternfeld, Andri Laidre, Kadri Kiho and Anto Savi. Celander Ehitus OÜ was selected as the prime constructor.
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies a surface of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) in which 404,000 inhabitants live. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki.
In 1154 a town called Qlwri or Qalaven (possible derivations of Kalevan or Kolyvan) was put on the world map of the Almoravid by cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi who described it as a small town like a large castle among the towns of Astlanda. It has been suggested that the Quwri in Astlanda may have denoted the predecessor town of today's Tallinn.
The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan (Russian: Колывань) known from East Slavic chronicles, the name possibly deriving from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev.
Up to the 13th century the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa: Lyndanisse in Danish, SALMONSENS KONVERSATIONS LEKSIKON Lindanäs in Swedish, also mentioned as Ledenets in Old East Slavic. According to some theories the named derived from mythical Linda, the wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg. who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave that formed the Toompea hill.
It has been also suggested that in the context the meaning of linda in the archaic Estonian language, that is similar to lidna in Votic, had the same meaning as linna or linn later on meaning a castle or town in English. According to the suggestion nisa would have had the same meaning as niemi (meaning peninsula in English) in an old Finnish form of the name Kesoniemi.
Other than Kesoniemi known ancient historical names of Tallinn in Finnish include Rääveli.
After the Danish conquest in 1219 the town became known in the German, Swedish and Danish languages as Reval (Latin: Revalia). The name originated from (Latin) Revelia (Estonian) Revala or Rävala, the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding Estonian county.
The origin of the name ‘Tallinn(a)’ is certain to be Estonian, although the original meaning of the name is debated. It is usually thought to be derived from ‘Taani-linn(a)’ (meaning ‘Danish-castle/town’; Latin: Castrum Danorum) after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from ‘tali-linna’ (‘winter-castle/town’), or ‘talu-linna’ (‘house/farmstead-castle/town’). The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod, originally meant ‘fortress’ but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names.
The previously used official German name Reval.ogg Reval (help·info) (Russian: Ревель) was replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918-1920. At first both forms Tallinna and Tallinn were used. The United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. The form Tallinna appearing in modern times in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam (Port of Tallinn).
Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish language and Та́ллин in Russian.
A form Tallin deriving from the Romanization of Russian spelling of the name Та́ллин was also used internationally during the era Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union.
Dannebrog falling from the sky in the 1219 Battle of Lyndanisse. Danish depiction in the national romantic tradition.
The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BC and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BC.
In 1050 the first fortress was built on Tallinn Toompea.
As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219.
In 1285 the city became the northernmost member of the Hanseatic League - a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe. The Danes sold Tallinn along with their other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Medieval Tallinn enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between Western and Northern Europe and Russia. The city, with a population of 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers.
A weather vane, the figure of an old warrior called Old Thomas, was put on top of the spire of the Tallinn's Town Hall in 1530 that became the symbol for the city.
With the start of the Protestant Reformation the German influence became even stronger as the city was converted to Lutheranism. In 1561 Tallinn politically became a dominion of Sweden.
During the Great Northern War the Swedish troops based in Tallinn capitulated to Imperial Russia in 1710, but the local self-government institutions (Magistracy of Reval and Chivalry of Estonia) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia as the Duchy of Estonia. The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialization of the city and the port kept its importance. During the last decades of the century Russification measures became stronger.
St. Olav's Church (Oleviste kirik)
On 24 February 1918, the Independence Manifesto was proclaimed in Tallinn, followed by Imperial German occupation and a war of independence with Russia. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed with Soviet Russia, wherein Russia acknowledged the independence of the Estonian Republic. Tallinn became the capital of an independent Estonia. After World War II started, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1940, and later occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941-44. After Nazi retreat in 1944, it was occupied by the USSR again. After annexation into the Soviet Union, Tallinn became the capital of the Estonian SSR.
During the 1980 Summer Olympics a regatta was held at Pirita, north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, like the hotel ‘Olümpia’, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Center, were built for the Olympics.
In August 1991 an independent democratic Estonian state was re-established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on August 20, 1991.
Tallinn has historically consisted of three parts:
* The Toompea (Domberg) or ‘Cathedral Hill’, which was the seat of the central authority: first the Danish captains, then the komturs of the Teutonic Order, and Swedish and Russian governors. It was until 1877 a separate town (Dom zu Reval), the residence of the aristocracy; it is today the seat of the Estonian government and many embassies and residencies.
* The Old Town, which is the old Hanseatic town, the ‘city of the citizens’, was not administratively united with Cathedral Hill until the late 19th century. It was the centre of the medieval trade on which it grew prosperous.
* The Estonian town forms a crescent to the south of the Old Town, where the Estonians came to settle. It was not until the mid-19th century that ethnic Estonians replaced the local Baltic Germans as the majority amongst the residents of Tallinn.
Historically, the city has been attacked, sacked, razed and pillaged on numerous occasions. Although extensively bombed by Soviet air forces during the latter stages of World War II, much of the medieval Old Town still retains its charm. The Tallinn Old Town (including Toompea) became a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site in 1997.
At the end of the 15th century a new 159 m high Gothic spire was built for St. Olav's Church. Between 1549 and 1625 it was the tallest church in the world. After several fires and following rebuilding, its overall height is now 123 m.
Tallinn is situated on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, in north-western Estonia.
The largest lake in Tallinn is Lake Ülemiste (covers 9.6 km²). It is the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku is the second largest lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is 1.6 km². Unlike many other large towns, the only significant river in Tallinn is Pirita River (a city district counted as a suburb). The river valley is a protected area because of its natural beauty.
A limestone cliff runs through the city. It is exposed, for instance, at Toompea and Lasnamäe. However, Toompea is not a part of the cliff, but a separate hill.
The highest point of Tallinn, at 64 meters above the sea level, is situated in the district of Nõmme, in the south-west of the city.
The length of the coastline is 46 kilometres. It comprises 3 bigger peninsulas: Kopli peninsula, Paljassaare peninsula and Kakumäe peninsula.
Toompea castle – the seat of the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia
District: Area: Population
Haabersti: 18.6 km²: 35,000
Kesklinn: 28.0 km²: 34,985
Kristiine: 9.4 km²: 27,531
Lasnamäe: 30.0 km²: 108,644
Mustamäe: 8.0 km²: 62,219
Nõmme: 28.0 km²: 35,043
Pirita: 18.7 km²: 8,507
Põhja-Tallinn: 17.3 km²: 52,573
For local government purposes, Tallinn is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (Estonian: linnaosad, singular linnaosa). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and statutes.
Each district government is managed by an Elder (Estonian: linnaosavanem). He or she is appointed by the City Government on the nomination of the Mayor and after having heard the opinion of the Administrative Councils. The function of the Administrative Councils is to recommend, to the City Government and Commissions of the City Council, how the districts should be administered.
Tallinn's population is registered 400,200 (as of May 2007).
According to Eurostat, the statistical agency of the European Union, of all EU member states' capital cities, Tallinn has the largest number of non-EU nationals: 27.8% of its population are not EU citizens. This is because the Soviet occupation (1944-1991) brought large numbers of non-Estonians, mostly Russians, to Tallinn and other areas of Northern Estonia, and while those people and their descendants have been steadily naturalising, many -- by some estimates, around half of Tallinn's current ethnic Russian population -- have still not taken the route to citizenship.
In addition to the native Estonian language (which is of the Finno-Ugric group, closely related to the Finnish language), Russian, Finnish and English are widely understood in Tallinn.
In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector in recent years; in its 13 December 2005, edition, The New York Times characterized Estonia as ‘a sort of Silicon Valley on the Baltic Sea.’ One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley town of Los Gatos, California. Skype is one of the best-known of several Tallinn IT start-ups, and a first venture capital firm was founded in 2005. Many are housed in the Soviet-era Institute of Cybernetics, which is said to been one of the seeds for Estonian adoption of computing technology. Despite this, the most important economic sectors of Tallinn are the light, textile, and food industry, as well as the service and government sector. There is a small fleet of ocean going-trawlers that operate out of Tallinn.
Tallinn is the location of many institutions of higher education and science, including:
* Tallinn University
* Tallinn University of Technology
* Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre
* Estonian Academy of Arts
* Public Service Academy
* Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church Institute of Theology
Since independence, improving air and sea transport links with Western Europe and Estonia's accession to the European Union have made Tallinn easily accessible to tourists.
Estonia has made rapid economic progress since independence and this is reflected in local prices. Although not extortionate, neither are prices as cheap as in other former Eastern Bloc countries.
St. Catherine's Passage
The main attractions are in the two old towns (Lower Town and Toompea) which are both easily explored on foot. Eastern districts around Pirita and Kadriorg are also worth visiting and the Estonian Open Air Museum (Eesti Vabaõhumuuseum) near Rocca al Mare, west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture.
This area was once a separate town (Dom zu Reval), the residence of the Chivalry of Estonia, Roman Catholic bishops of Tallinn (until 1561) and Lutheran superintendents of Estonia, occupying an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the walls and various bastions of Castrum Danorum, the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (built during the period of Russian Empire, the church was built on a site that formerly housed a statue of Martin Luther) and the Lutheran Cathedral (Toomkirik).
Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. One of two remaining towers that were once part of a larger gate system built in the 14th century
This area is one of the best preserved old towns in Europe and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include Raekoja plats (Town Hall square), the town walls and towers (notably ‘Fat Margaret’ and ‘Kiek in de Kök’) and St Olaf church tower (124 m).
This is 2 kilometres east of the centre and is served by buses and trams. The former palace of Peter the Great, built just after the Great Northern War, now houses (part of) the Art Museum of Estonia, presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland.
The new residence of the Art Museum of Estonia: KUMU (Kunstimuuseum, Art Museum) was built several years ago.
This coastal district is a further 2 kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the Moscow Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the Pirita river. Two kilometres inland are the Botanic Gardens and the Tallinn television tower.
The city operates a system of bus (63 lines), tram (4 lines) and trolley-bus (8 lines) routes to all districts. A flat-fare system is used. Payment is made either by pre-purchase of tickets at street-side kiosks or by a purchase from the transport vehicle.
Tallinn Airport is about four kilometres from Raekoja plats (Town Hall square). There is a local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station Ülemiste is only 1.5 km from the airport.
The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008.
There has been a helicopter service to and from Helsinki operated by Copterline and taking 18 minutes to cross the Gulf of Finland. The Copterline Tallinn terminal is located adjacent to Linnahall, five minutes from the city center. After a crash near Tallinn in August 2005, service was suspended but restarted in 2008 with a new fleet. The operator cancelled it again in December 2008, on grounds of unprofitability.
Rail and road
The Edelaraudtee railway company operates train services from Tallinn to Tartu, Valga, Türi, Viljandi, Tapa, Narva, Orava, and Pärnu. Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to Saint Petersburg in Russia and Riga in Latvia. The GO Rail company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn-Moscow.
Tallinn also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's main rail station in two main directions: east (Aegviidu) and to several western destinations (Pääsküla, Keila, Riisipere, Paldiski, Klooga and Kloogaranna). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elektriraudtee railroad company. The trains are a mixture of modernised older Soviet EMU's and newly built units. The first electrified train service in Tallinn was opened in 1924 from Tallinn to Pääsküla, a distance of 11.2 kilometres.
The Rail Baltica project, which will link Tallinn with Warsaw via Latvia and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn with the rest of the European rail network. A tunnel has been proposed between between Tallinn and Helsinki, though it remains at a planning phase.
The Via Baltica motorway (part of European route E67 from Helsinki to Prague) connects Tallinn to the Lithuanian/Polish border through Latvia.
Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn with other parts of Estonia.
Several ferry operators, Viking Line, Linda Line Express, Tallink and Eckerö Line, connect Tallinn to
The most popular passenger lines connect Tallinn to Helsinki (80 kilometres north of Tallinn) in approximately 90 minutes by fast ferries or 1.5-3.5 hours by cruiseferries.
Tallinn participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:
Annapolis, United States
Dartford, United Kingdom
Kotka, Finland (1955)
Los Gatos, United States
Portland, United States
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Tallinn, Estonia Map
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