Heinkel He 111 1.Fliegerkorps (B1+BA) Roupti Luga Russia 1941-42 01

Heinkel He 111 in formation Sep 1940 01

Photo 01: Providing fighter escort for bomber formations, such as this group of He 111s, proved one of the most difficult tasks for the Jagdgeschwader. Considerable discipline was required, and the fighters found it difficult to remain with the slower bombers without weaving. However, each weave carried the fighters away from the immediate vicinity of the bombers and made the bomber crews more nervous and more insistent in their demands that the fighter escort stay close to them.

Heinkel He 111H3 Geschwaderstab StG3 coded S7+AA and based in Derna, Libya, 1941.Heinkel He 111 seriously damaged France 1940 01

Photo 01: When bombers were lost, or returned to France as seriously damaged as this shot-up He 111, Goring saw this as a failure on the part of the Jadgwaffe to provide adequate protection.

Heinkel He 111H3 Geschwaderstab StG3 coded S7+AA and based in Derna, Libya, 1941.
Heinkel He 111 dropping a SC 1000 Demyansk Area, Russia Feb 1942 01-02

Photo 01-02: The Soviets realized that if they could capture the airfields at Demyansk and Kholm, the pockets would be completely isolated. Luftwaffe bomber units therefore flew missions to support German ground troops holding the outer defense perimeters. Here He 111's drop SC 1000 bombs.

List of all photographs of Heinkel He 111 taken at various times during the war:
Heinkel He 111 dropping a SC 1000 Demyansk Area Russia Feb 1942 01-02
Heinkel He 111 during Battle of Britain 01 04
Heinkel He 111 in formation during Battle of Britain Sep 1940 01
Heinkel He 111 transport and supply Stalingrad Russia 1943 01
Heinkel He 111E1 (CH+NR) 01
Heinkel He 111H (+AM) 01
Heinkel He 111H mixed war time BW photographs 01-20
Heinkel He 111H World War 2 color photo 01-16
Heinkel He 111H1 WNr6853 2./KG26 (1H+EN) captured RAF AW177 00-02
Line Drawing Heinkel He 111H Scale 1 72 01-30
Line Drawing Heinkel He 111H Scale 1 72 Arkusz 01-29

Heinkel He 111H in the preliminary stage of wing installation

Captured He-111H in RAF 260Sqn markings Libya 1942

Heinkel He 111H bomber, which was abandoned by the Luftwaffe during the retreat after the Battle of El Alamein, on a landing ground in Libya after being "commandeered" by No. 260 Squadron RAF, who painted it with RAF roundels and the unit code letters "HS-?". The Squadron used it to fly supplies, beer and other necessities from Alexandria to their bases in Libya. Date 1942.


Heinkel He 111

Role: Medium bomber
Manufacturer: Heinkel Flugzeugwerke
Designed by: Siegfried and Walter Gunter
First flight: 24 February 1935
Introduced: 1936
Retired: 1945
Primary user: Luftwaffe
Produced: 1935 - 1944
Number built: 7,300 estimated
Variants: CASA 2.111

The Heinkel He 111 was a German medium bomber designed by Siegfried and Walter Gunter in the early 1930s in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The Heinkel became the most numerous and primary Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. It is perhaps the most famous symbol of the German bomber force (Kampfwaffe) due its distinctive 'Greenhouse' nose.

The He 111 took on the mantle of 'workhorse', and was used in a variety of roles on every front in the European Theatre throughout the war. It was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber during the Battle of the Atlantic, a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western Front, Eastern Front and Mediterranean and North African Fronts. It became obsolete, but the failure to design and produce a successor meant the He 111 continued to be produced until 1944, when piston-engined bomber production was largely halted, in favour of fighter aircraft.

The design of the Heinkel endured after the war in the CASA 2.111. Its airframe was produced in Spain under license by Construcciones Aeronauticas SA. The design differed significantly in powerplant only. The Heinkel's descendant continued in service until 1973, when it was retired.

History

In the early 1930s, Ernst Heinkel decided to build the world's fastest passenger plane, a lofty goal met by more than a little skepticism by the German aircraft industry and its newly evolving political leadership. Heinkel entrusted the development to the Gunter brothers, fairly new to the company and untested.

The aircraft was superior to the already fast Lockheed 9 Orion that their design was competing against. The first example of their soon-to-be-famous Heinkel He 70 Blitz ("Lightning") rolled off the line in 1932 and immediately started breaking records. In its normal four-passenger version, its speed almost reach 200 mph (320 km/h), even though it was powered by only a single 600 hp (447 kW) BMW V1 engine. The elliptical wing, which the Gunther brothers had already used in the Baumer Sausewind sports plane before they joined Heinkel, became a feature in many subsequent designs the brothers developed. The design immediately garnered the interest of the Luftwaffe, which was looking for medium bombers for military service.

The future Heinkel He 111 was a more powerful twin-engine version of the Blitz, producing an aircraft that had many of the Blitz's features, including its elliptical inverted gull wing, small rounded control surfaces, and BMW engines. With location of the engines the only notable change in appearance, the new He 111 design was often called the Doppel-Blitz ("Double Lightning").

Early variants

He 111A - D

The first prototype, He 111V1 (W.Nr. 713, D-ADAP), first flew from Rostock-Marienehe on 24 February 1935. It was followed by the civilian-equipped V2 and V4 in May 1935. The V2 (W.Nr. 715, D-ALIX) used the bomb bay as a four-seat 'smoking compartment', with another six seats behind it in the rear fuselage. V2 entered service with Lufthansa in 1936, along with five newly-built versions known as the He 111C.

The design was only masquerading as an airliner. The aircraft was intended to be a bomber as the Luftwaffe began rearmament.

The initial reports from the test pilot, Gerhard Nitschke, were favourable. It flight performance and handling were impressive although it dropped its wing in the stall. As a result the passenger variants had their wings reduced from 25 to 23 metres. The military aircraft, the V1, V3 and V5 spanned just 22.6 metres.

The first prototypes were underpowered, as they were equipped with 578 hp BMW VI 6.0 six-cylinder in-line engines. This was eventually increased to 999 hp with the fitting of the DB (Daimler-Benz) 600 engines into the V5, which became the prototype of the 'B' series.

Only ten He 111A-0 models based on the V3 were built, but they proved to be underpowered and were eventually sold to China. The type had been lengthened by 1.2 metres due to the added 7.92 mm MG 15 machine gun in the nose. Another gun position was installed on top of the fuselage, and another in a ventral position, which could retract. The bomb compartment was divided into two compartments and could carry 1,500 lbs of bombs. The problem with these additions was that the weight of the aircraft reached 8,200Kg. The He 111's performance was seriously reduced; in particular, the BMW VI 6.0 Z engines were not now powerful enough. The increased length also altered tHe 111's aerodynamic strengths and reduced its excellent handling on takeoffs and landings. The crews found the aircraft difficult to fly, and its top speed was reduced significantly. Production was shut down after the pilots reports reached the RLM. However, a Chinese delegation was visiting Germany and they considered the He 111A-0 fit for their needs and purchased seven machines.

The first He 111B made its maiden flight in the autumn of 1936. After improvements, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM-Air Ministry) ordered 300 He 111B-1s; the first were delivered in January 1937. The B-2 variant had its engines upgraded to the supercharged 850 hp DB 600C, or in some cases, the 925 hp 600G. The B-2 began to roll off the production lines at the Heinkel works in Oranienburg in 1937. In late 1937, the D-1 series entered production. However, the DB600Ga engine with 1,074 hp planned for this variant was instead allocated to the Bf 109 and Bf 110 production lines. Heinkel then opted to use Jumo engines, and the He 111V6 was tested with Jumo 210 G engines, but was vastly underpowered. However, the improved 999 hp Jumo 211 A-1 powerplant prompted the cancellation of the D series altogether and concentration on the design of the E series.

He 111E

The E-1s came off the production line in February 1938, in time for a number of these aircraft to serve in the Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War in March 1938. In a way, the positive performance influenced later variants. The Luftwaffe believed that because the E variant could outrun enemy fighters, there was no need to upgrade the defensive weaponry, which would prove a mistake from the Battle of Britain onward. The fuselage bomb bay used four bomb racks, in later versions eight modular standard bomb racks designed to carry one SC 250, 250 kg bomb or four SC50, 50 kg bombs each in nose up orientation (which resulted in the bombs doing a flip as they were dropped out of the aircraft). These modular standard bomb racks were a common feature on the first generation of Luftwaffe bombers (including the Junkers Ju 52), but it turned out that they limited the ordnance selection to bombs of only two sizes. Since they had to be built strongly enough to carry heavy bombs without contributing to the structural integrity of the aircraft, these racks were abandoned in later designs. The E-3 series was produced with only a few modifications, such as external bomb racks. The E-4 variant was fitted with external bomb racks also and the empty bombay space was filled with a 835 litre tank for aviation fuel and a further 115 litre oil tank. This increased the loaded weight to nearly 11 tons, but increased its range to 1,800 km (1,125 miles). The modifications allowed the He 111to perform both long and short range missions.

He 111F

The He 111 design quickly ran though a series of minor design versions to fix one sort of problem or another. One of the more obvious changes started with the He 111F models, which moved from the elliptical wing to one with straight leading and trailing edges, which could be manufactured more efficiently. The thirty machines of the F-1 series, fitted with DB 600 engines, were exported to Turkey. The Turkish interest, prompted by the fact the tests of the next prototype, He 111V8, was some way off, prompted the RLM t order 40 F-4s with Jumo 211 A-3 engines. These machines were built and entered service in early 1938. This fleet was used as a transport group during the Demyansk Pocket and Battle of Stalingrad. At this time, development began on the He 111J. It was powered by the DB 600 and was intended as a torpedo bomber. As a result, it lacked an internal bomb bay and carried two external torpedo racks. The RLM gave an order for the bomb bay to be retrofitted; this variant became known as the J-1. In all but the powerplant, it was identical to the F-4.

He 111J

The He 111's low-level performance attracted the interest of the Kriegsmarine. The navy believed the He 111would make an excellent torpedo bomber, and as a result, the He 111J was produced. The J was capable of carrying torpedoes and mines. The Kriegsmarine eventually dropped the program as they deemed the four man crew too expensive in terms of manpower. The RLM however, had progressed too far with the development, and continued to build the He 111J-0. Some 90 were built in 1938 and were then sent to Kustenfliegergruppe 806.

He 111P

The He 111P incorporated the updated Daimler-Benz DB 601 and featured a newly designed nose section, including an asymmetric Ikaria nose mounting for an MG 15 machine gun that replaced the 'stepped' cockpit with a roomier and aerodynamically favourable glazed 'dome' over the front of the aircraft. These improvements allowed the aircraft to reach 475 km/h at 5000 m and a cruise speed of 370 km/h, although a full bombload reduced this figure to 300 km/h. The design was implemented in 1937 because pilot reports indicated problems with visibility. After World War II, however, British Royal Navy test pilot Eric 'Winkle' Brown, who had flown a number of captured later model He 111s, described the view through the redesigned nose as comparable to 'looking down a glass tunnel.' The pilot's seat could actually be elevated, with the pilot's eyes above the level of the upper glazing, complete with a small pivoted windscreen panel, to get the pilot's head above the level of the top of the 'glass tunnel' for a better forward view for take-offs and landings. Eric Brown remarked that this was sort of a 'Tiger Moth' transformation (referring to the famous British training biplane's open cockpits and windscreens) to such an advanced bomber's pilot accommodation.

The new design was powered by the DB 601 Ba engine with 1,175 PS and reduced the length of the aircraft by 1.1 metres. It was designated as P-0, and the first production lines reached their units in the autumn of 1938. In May 1939 the P-1 and P-2 went into service with improved radio equipment. The P-2, like the later P-4 was given stronger armour and two MG 15 machine guns on either side of the fuselage and two external bomb racks.

Many of the He 111Ps served during the Polish Campaign. With the Junkers Ju 88 experiencing technical difficulties, the He 111and the Dornier Do 17 formed the backbone of the Kampfwaffe. On 1 September 1939, Luftwaffe records indicate the Heinkel strength at 705 (along with 533 Dorniers).

The P-6 variant was the last production model of the He 111P series. In 1940, the RLM abandoned further production of the P series in favour of the H versions, mostly because the P-series' Daimler-Benz engines were sorely needed for Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Bf 110 fighter production. The remaining P-6s were redesignated P-6/R2s and used as heavy glider tugs.

He 111H variant

The H variant of the He 111series was more widely produced and saw more action during the Second World War than any other Heinkel variant.

Owing to the uncertainty surrounding the delivery and availability of the DB 601 engines, Heinkel began tests with the 1,100 hp (820 kW) Junkers Jumo 211 powerplants. The somewhat larger size and greater weight of the Jumo 211 engines were unimportant considerations for a twin engine design, and the Jumo was used on almost all early-war bomber designs. When the Jumo was fitted to the P model it became the He 111H.

The P-series was gradually replaced on the eve of war with the new the H-2, powered by Jumo 211 A-3 engines. A count on 2 September 1939 revealed that the Luftwaffe had a total of 787 He 111s in service, with 705 combat ready, including 400 H-1 and H-2s that had been produced in a mere four months. Production of the H-3, powered by the 1,200 hp Jumo 211 D-1, began in November 1939. After the Battle of Britain, smaller scale production of the H-4s began. This variant differed from the H-3 in that could either carry 2.000 kg of bombs internally or mount one or two external racks to carry one 1.800 kg or two 1.000 kg bombs. As these external racks blocked the internal bomb bay doors, a combination of internal and external storage was not possible. The H-5 series followed in February 1941, with heavier defensive armament. Some H-3 and H-4s were equipped with barrage balloon cable cutting equipment in the shape of cutter installations forward of the engines and cockpit. They were designated H-8, but later named H8/R2. These aircraft were difficult to fly and the production stopped. The H-6 initiated some all around improvements in design. The Jumo 211 F-1 engine of 1,350 hp increased its speed while the defensive armament was upgraded with one MG FF in the nose position, one MG 15 in the ventral turret and in each of the fuselage side windows (optional). Some H-6 variants carried tail-mounted MG 17 defensive armament. With the H-11, the Luftwaffe had at its disposal a powerful medium bomber with heavier armour and defensive armament.

One of the most interesting variants was a glider tug, the He 111Z, standing for Zwilling or twin. It was built from two 111 H-6s joined together with a connecting wing and a fifth engine and used to tow the giant Messerschmitt Me 321 or two Gotha Go 242 gliders. Ten He 111Zs were built, and all served until destroyed.

At 14,000 kg take-off weight (carrying 2,000 kg of bombs internally), the He 111H achieved a top speed of 405 km/h at 6 km, improving to 435 km/h without the bomb load and at 50% fuel load. Still, this was considerably slower than the newer Junkers Ju 88 which entered service in 1940, so the He 111 was gradually withdrawn from the bomber role. The He 111became a jack-of-all-trades as the war progressed, carrying out missions not even imagined when the war started.

Nevertheless, the He 111 had to be kept in production until 1944 because the RLM failed to provide a successor: the He 177 Greif heavy bomber was plagued by engine problems, and the Bomber B program was eventually abandoned. The vast majority of the 7,300 He 111s produced would be the H models, largely identical to the first H introduced in 1939.

List He 111H variant

* He 111A-0: 10 aircraft built based on He 111V3, two used for trials at Rechlin, rejected by Luftwaffe all 10 were sold to China.
* He 111B-0: Pre-production aircraft, similar to He 111A-0, but with DB600Aa engines.
* He 111B-1: Production aircraft as B-0, but with DB600C engines, and defensive armament of three 7.92 mm MG 15.
* He 111B-2: As B-1, but with DB600G engines, and extra radiators on either side of the engine nacelles under the wings.
* He 111C-0: Six pre-production aircraft build.
* He 111D-0: Pre-production aircraft with DB600Ga engines.
* He 111D-1: Production aircraft, only a few built.
* He 111E-0: Pre-production aircraft, similar to B-0, but with Jumo 211A-1 engines.
* He 111E-1: Production aircraft up to 2,000 kg bomb load.
* He 111E-3: Production bomber.
* He 111E-4: Half of 2,000 kg bomb load carried externally.
* He 111E-5: Fitted with several internal auxiliary fuel tanks.
* He 111F-0: Pre-production aircraft similar to E-5, but with a new wing of simpler construction with a straight rather than curved taper, and Jumo 211A-3 engines.
* He 111F-1: Production bomber, small number build for export to Turkey.
* He 111F-4: Production bomber for use with Luftwaffe.
* He 111G-0: Pre-production transportation aircraft built, featured new wing introduced on F-0.
* He 111G-3: Also known as V14, fitted with BMW 132Dc radial engines.
* He 111G-4: Also known as V16, fitted with DB600G engines.
* He 111G-5: Four aircraft with DB600Ga engines built for export to Turkey.
* He 111J-0: Pre-production torpedo bomber similar to F-4, but with DB600CG engines.
* He 111J-1: Production torpedo bomber, 90 built, but re-configured as a bomber.
* He 111L: Alternative designation for the He 111G-3 civil transport aircraft.
* He 111P-0: Pre-production aircraft featured new straight wing, new glazed nose, Db601Aa engines, and a ventral gondola for gunner (rather than 'dust-bin' on pervious models.)
* He 111P-1: Production aircraft, fitted with three 7.92 mm MG 15 for defensive armament.
* He 111P-2: Had FuG 10 radio in place of FuG III.
* He 111P-3: Dual control trainer.
* He 111P-4: Fitted with extra armour, three extra MG 15's, and provisions for two externally mounted bomber racks.
* He 111P-6: Fitted with DB 601N engines.
* He 111P-6/R2: Conversions later in war of surviving aircraft to glider tugs.
* He 111H-0: Pre-production aircraft similar to P-2 but with Jumo 211 engines.
* He 111H-1: Production aircraft.
* He 111H-2: This version was fittwed with improved armament.
* He 111H-3: Similar to P-4, but with Jumo 211A-3 engines.
* He 111H-4: Fitted with Jumo 211D engines, late in production changed to Jumo 211F engines, and two external bomb racks.
* He 111H-5: Similar to H-4, all bombs carried externally, internal bomb bay replaced by fuel tank
* He 111H-6: Torpedo bomber, could carry two LT F5b torpedoes externally, powered by Jumo 211F-1 engines, had six MG 15's and one MG/FF 20 mm cannon in forward gondola.
* He 111H-8: Similar to H-3 or H-5 aircraft, but with balloon-cable cutting fender.
* He 111H-8/R2: Conversion of H-8 into glider tugs, balloon-cutting equipment removed.
* He 111H-10: Similar to H-6, but with 20 mm MG/FF in ventral gondola, and fitted with Kuto-Nase balloon-cable-cutters.
* He 111H-11: Had a fully enclosed dorsal gun position and increased defensive armament and armour.
* He 111H-11/R1: As H-11, but with two MG 81Z twin-gun units at beam positions.
* He 111H-11/R2: As H-11, but converted to a glider tug.
* He 111H-12: Modified for carry Hs 293A missiles, fitted with FuG 203b Kehl transmitter, and ventral gondola deleted.
* He 111H-14: Pathfinder, fitted with FuG Samos and FuG 351 Korfu radio equipment.
* He 111H-14/R1:Glider tug version.
* He 111H-15: Torpedo bomber.
* He 111H-16: Fitted with Jumo 211F-2 engines and increased defensive armament of 13 mm MG 131's, twin 7.92 mm MG 81Z's, and a 20 mm MG/FF cannon.
* He 111H-16/R1: As H-16, but with 13 mm MG131 in power operated dorsal turret.
* He 111H-16/R2: As H-16, but converted to a glider tug.
* He 111H-16/R3: As H-16, modified as a pathfinder.
* He 111H-18: Based on H-16/R3, was a pathfinder for night operations.
* He 111H-20: Defensive armament similar to H-16, but some aircraft feature power operated dorsal turrets.
* He 111H-20/R1: Could carry 16 paratroopers, fitted with jump hatch.
* He 111H-20/R2: Was a cargo carrier and glider tug.
* He 111H-20/R3: Was a night bomber.
* He 111H-20/R4: Could carry 20 50 kg bombs.
* He 111H-21: based on the H-20/R3, but with Jumo 213E-1 engines.
* He 111H-22: Re-designated and modified H-6, H-16, and H-21's used to air launch V-1 flying-bombs.
* He 111H-23: Based on H-20/R1, but with Jumo 213A-1 engines.
* He 111R: High altitude bomber project.
* He 111Z-1: Two He 111airframes coupled together by a fifth engine, used a glider tug for Me 321.
* He 111Z-2: Long-range bomber project based on Z-1.
* He 111Z-3: Long-range reconnaissance project based on Z-1.

CASA 2.111

The Spanish company CASA also produced a number of heavily modified He 111s under license for indigenous use. These models were designed CASA 2.111 and served until 1965.

Operators

Military operators
* Bulgaria
* China
* Czechoslovakia (post-war)
* Germany: Luftwaffe
* Hungary
* Romania
* Slovakia
* Spanish State
* Turkey (He111F variant)

Civil operators
* Germany: Lufthansa
* Romania (1 converted bomber)

Survivors

Only three original German built He 111's survivors are on display or stored in museums around the world (not including major sections). Of the three complete German built Heinkels, one E-3 series (Wk Nr 2940) with the 'conventional' cockpit is on display at Museo del Aire, Madrid, Spain, having served in the Condor Legion. The Second, a mostly complete He 111P-2 (Wk Nr 1526), is on display at the Norwegian Air Force Museum at Gardermoen. The third, a H-20, Wk Nr 701152, is on display at the RAF Museum Hendon, London.

In 2005 another He 111 was salvaged from a Norwegian lake and has since been moved to Germany for restoration, and may be the most complete wartime He 111to date. Unrelated to this effort are efforts by several organizations to restore one to flyable condition.

Approximately 14 Spanish licensed built CASA 2.111s survive today in various conditions on display or storage. One modified Spanish 2.111D served as a transport for Spanish VIPs, including General Francisco Franco, before being purchased in England by the Commemorative Air Force in 1977. It remained the last He 111in flyable condition until July 10, 2003, when it was destroyed in a fatal crash landing. The aircraft was attempting a landing at the Cheyenne Municipal Airport, near Cheyenne, Wyoming, while en route from Midland, Texas to an air show in Missoula, Montana. Eyewitness reports indicate the aircraft lost power to one engine on final approach and ploughed through a chain link fence before colliding with a school bus washing building under construction. Killed were CAF pilot Neil R. Stamp and co-pilot Charles S. Bates.

Specifications (He 111H-6) Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II

General characteristics

* Crew: 5 (pilot, navigator/bombardier, nose gunner, ventral gunner, dorsal gunner)
* Length: 16.4 m (54 ft 6 in)
* Wingspan: 22.5 m (74 ft 3 in)
* Height: 3.9 m (13 ft 9 in)
* Wing area: 86.5 m (942 ft)
* Empty weight: 7,720 kg (17,000 lb)
* Loaded weight: 12,030 kg (26,500 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 14,075 kg (31,000 lb)
* Powerplant: 2 Jumo 211F-1 liquid-cooled inverted V-12, 986 kW (1,300 hp) each

Performance

* Maximum speed: 400 km/h (250 mph)
* Range: 2,800 km with max fuel (1,750 mi)
* Service ceiling 8,390 m (27,500 ft)
* Rate of climb: 20 minutes to 5,185 m (17,000 ft)
* Wing loading: 137 kg/m (28.1 lb/ft)
* Power/mass: .082 kW/kg (.049 hp/lb)

Armament

* Guns: up to seven 7.92 mm MG 15 or MG 81 machine guns, some of them replaced or augmented by
+ 1 20 mm MG FF cannon (central nose mount or forward ventral position)
+ 1 13 mm MG 131 machine gun (mounted dorsal and/or ventral rear positions)

* Bombs:
o up to 2,000 kg (4,409 lb) carried internally (eight 250 kg max), or:
o up to 2,500 kg (5,512 lb) on two external racks

Comparable aircraft

* PZL.37 Los
* Vickers Wellington
* B-25 Mitchell

Bibliography

* Bridgeman, Leonard. The Heinkel He 111H. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
* Joachim Dressel and Manfred Griehl. Bombers of the Luftwaffe. DAG Publications. 1994. ISBN 1-85409-140-9
* Janowicz, Krzysztof. Heinkel He 111: Volume 1. Kagero. 2004. ISBN 978-8-38908-826-0
* Nowarra, Heinz J; Atglen. The Flying Pencil. Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing. 1990. ISBN 0-88740-236-4.
* Smith, J. Richard and Kay, Anthony L. German Aircraft of the Second World War. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 2002. ISBN 1-55750-010-X.
* Heinkel He 111. Network Projects Production. 1993.

Web Reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinkel_He_111

External links
http://www.preservedaxisaircraft.com/Luftwaffe/heinkel/he111.htm List of He 111 survivors
http://www.flysamlingen.museum.no/index.php/om_flysamlingen/utstillinger">Museum with He 111P in Norway
http://ju88.net/ Museum volunteers site, click on: OTHER - OTHER PROJECTS - 111P
http://www.preservedaxisaircraft.com/Luftwaffe/heinkel/he111.htm List of He 111 survivors
http://ktsorens.tihlde.org/flyvrak/buvikvoll.html An article on a He 111 wreck site in Norway
http://www.battleofbritain.net/0017.html BattleOfBritain.Net He 111


Obwohl zunachst die Herstellung He.111P und He.111H geplant parallel, die Lieferung letzten begonnen nur im Mai 1939. Experimental Flugzeuge des Modells He.111-V19 (D-AUKY) flogen im Januar. Signifikante Unterstutzung der Produktion von H-Serie hatte das Ergebnis - der Beginn des Krieges von 808 He.111 in Teilen von der ersten Zeile wurde etwa 400 Flugzeuge dieses Update, freigegeben 'Heynkele und anderen Unternehmen fur nur vier Monate!

Mit Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs Flieband hat sich von einem Modell H-2, die zunachst unterschieden sich nur Motoren Jumo-211A-3 Power Start 1100l.s. Seit November wurde verfugbaren He.111H-3, die Aufgaben und maritime Bomber, die ubrigens nur die betroffenen Waffen MGFF die Installation der Gondel am unteren Rand vor.

Die Wirksamkeit dieser Waffe war klein, weil der kleine Winkel, Dreh-und Zeitlupen-Feuer - 540 Schuss pro Minute. Motoren haben Jumo-211D-1 Start Macht 1200l.s. Bombe Die maximale Last von 2000 kg in bombootseke, aber in der linken Fach in der Regel fur die Installation von zusatzlichen Tanks entlang der Linien des R-4.

Im Herbst 1940 Luftwaffe half bei der Umstrukturierung der rumanischen Luftwaffe. Um dies zu tun, zusatzlich zu S.M.79b bestellt Italien, Rumanien und erhielt mehrere He.111H-3. Mit dem Beginn des Krieges gegen die Sowjetunion in der 1-m Bombardierung Regiment der rumanischen Luftwaffe hatte drei Staffeln (# 78, 79 und 80) auf neun Flugzeuge He.111H-3. In 1940 'Die Fabrik de Avione S.E.T.' Bukarest hat sich zu einem Produktions-Lizenz zur Herstellung von Flugzeugen. Die Auslieferung der rumanischen Luftwaffe begann mit 1942.

Anfang dieses Jahres eine Anderung der H-4, das in Verbindung mit der vorangegangenen ein. Anfangs, H-4 hatte die gleichen Motoren, aber den letzten Exemplare wurden bereits angesprochen Jumo-211F-1 verstarkte kolenvalom, neue nagnetatelem DFL und andere Unterschiede. Power Start wurde 1400ls und 1200ls auf einer Hohe von 5000m. Man kann nur bombootsek rechts und links geschlossen wurde verstarkt Plakat an zwei PVC Inhaber von zwei 1000 kg oder 1800 kg eine Bombe. Sie sind in der Regel ausgesetzt, wenn Fluge im Nahbereich.

He.111H-5 hatten die gleichen Design wie die H-4, wurde mit Motoren Jumo-211D-1, aber die rechts und links in die bombootsekah installiert wurden Kraftstofftanks. Die gesamte Last-Bombe auerhalb der Inhaber von PVC. Die maximale Startmasse von dieser Moglichkeit stieg auf 14.050 kg, und laden Sie bis zu 2500 kg.

Beide H-4 und H-5 wahrend seines Ausscheidens aus dem Dienst wurden, das verschiedene kleinere Finalize als Flieband, und im Bereich der Wartung und Reparatur Fabriken, aber gro angelegte Modelle sie nie hatte. Alle diese Anderungen wurden fur He.111H-6 - im Anschluss an die H-3 'Standard' serielle Version, erschienen Ende 1941.

Vor dieser Schule Bombenanschlag in Groenbrode wurden intensive Tests von allen deutschen Bomber, um zu ermitteln, die am besten geeignet fur die Rolle torpedonostsa. Das Ergebnis wurde gewahlt, He.111H. Dementsprechend Versionen der Bekampfung von Stress auf H-6 wurden erweitert und enthalten ein Paar von 765 kg Torpedo LTF-5b der Inhaber von PVC. Motors wurde Jumo-211F-1 als H-4 letzten Reihe. Bewaffnung H-6 wurde nach dem Vorbild der H-2 fulgurant vorn gun MGFF. Hekotorye Autos wurden MG-17 Maschinengewehr in den Schwanz Kegel. An einigen inszeniert Rohre Dumping Granaten, die zu explodieren, uber die Angreifer die Kampfer. Allerdings ist die Wirksamkeit war fast Null.

He.111H-6 wurde schnell die am weitesten verbreitete Modell Bomber 'Heynkelya.' In kurzester Zeit hatte er erschien auf fast allen Fronten Luft-Krieg. Beliebt unter der Besatzung, mit hervorragender Handhabung und Manovrierbarkeit, das Flugzeug war sehr weit verbreitet und vielseitig in der militarischen Anwendung. wurde zu Beginn der Produktion statt He.111H-6 neuen schweren Bomber He.177a und durchschnittliche Ju.288, das Scheitern der beiden Flugzeuge gezwungen, die Produktion He.111, trotz seiner schnellen Alterung. Das Flugzeug war eine gut entwickelte Hersteller gefordert kleineren Arbeits-und des Verbrauchs von Materialien, war leicht zu pflegen. Er war recht zufriedenstellend an der Ostfront, wo er mit einer relativ schwachen Luftabwehr, obwohl der Mangel an Flug-Reihe ist nicht berechtigt, die Bomber gegen strategische Ziele in den Tiefen der Sowjetunion.

Zusatzlich zu konventionellen Bomben, Minen, Torpedos, Erwartungen im Zusammenhang mit der Nutzung der kontrollierten Waffen, wie zum Beispiel ferngesteuerte Bomben 'Fritz-X' fur die Niederlage der geschutzten Ziele, Planung Bombe 'Blom und Voss' VV-246 'Hagelkorn' und der Planung bis zur Torpedo L-10 'Fridenzengel.' Im Fruhjahr 1942. He.111H mehrere-6 erhielt Sender Fuhrung FuG-203 'Tip' und fur die Test-FX-1400 'Fritz-X in Fedzhia, in Suditalien. Hesmotrya bis zu einem gewissen Erfolg, 'Heynkel' war nicht sehr geeignet Trager von neuen Waffen und hat wenig Verwendung fur diese Zwecke. Andere H-6 wurden FuG-103 Radio-Hohenmesser-Test Planung Bombe VV-246 'Hagelkorn.' Tests haben weiterhin mit L-10 - eine zusatzliche Federn und Flugel fur Torpedos, sondern nur wie im Fall des 'Fritz-X, mehr Experimente Fall spielt keine Rolle.

Zu diesem Zeitpunkt, nach dem einige kleinere Anderungen direkt auf Montagelinien oder zu reparieren Fabriken, geandert haben H-7 und H-9, die sich vor allem die Zusammensetzung der Gerate und Maschinen. H-8 wurde eine Anderung der zuvor ausgestellten H-W-und H-5. Schweine-, prikryvavshie industriellen Zentren in Grobritannien, ein ernsthaftes Hindernis fur zufugen genaue Bombardierung Angriffe von kleinen Hohen. Es wurde beschlossen, eine spezielle Flugzeuge mit einem Gerat 'Schleppnetzfischerei' Kabel Schweine, die posylalsya uns auf klaren Himmel auf die Bomber. Dies hat zur Folge, H-8 wurde eingebaut paravanom erscheinen, bevor der Rumpf, die entlang der gesamten Umfang des Flugels und ausgestattet mit Fraser. Alle diese Konstruktion wog 250 kg, an einem Ort hinter den gleichen Kontrast. Als Folge der drastisch verringerten militarischen Druck, Flug und Daten, da groere Luftwiderstand verringert. Also nach mehreren sorties der restlichen 30 Flugzeuge umgewandelt wurden verandert in buksirovschiki Segelflugzeuge He.111H-8/R-2.

Die nachste Serie wurde eine Anderung der H-10 mit externen Aussetzung-Typ H-6, mit der Installation der Nase gun MGFF, ein vor niedriger Gondel - MG-15. In den Rand des Flugels wurde bereits festgelegt 'kuto-Naze' - Drahtseilscheren Schwein. H-10, und die anschlieende H-11 sind mit Motoren Jumo-211F-2. H-11 unterschied sich weiter zu starken bronezaschity und defensiven Waffen. Erstens, die oberen Gewehr Anlage wurde komplett geschlossen und der geschutzten arrow transparent Rustung, und dann MG-15 wurde ersetzt durch MG-131. Maschinengewehr in der unteren Gondelbahn ersetzt Spark MG-81. Es wurde festgestellt, ein paar mehr broneplitok (in extremen Fallen konnen sie weggeworfen werden). Unter dem Rumpf installiert wurde zusatzliche Panel mit den Inhabern der funf 250 kg Bomben. In der Zukunft, defensive Waffen wurden verstarkt durch den Ersatz der Seite MG-15 Pairing MG-81Z (geandert H-11/R-1). Option buksirovschika Segelflugzeuge genannt H-11/R-2.

Obwohl He.111 'exotische'-Versionen von Waffen getestet lange her, der ersten Sondertagung Inhaber solcher Waffen geworden He.111H-12. Am es war nicht der unteren Gondel Merkmal fur alle Flugzeuge Serie H. Die Besatzung bestand aus vier Personen. Das Flugzeug war auf zwei Raketen Henshel 'HS-293a. Am Anfang der Pfeil wurde installiert Sender FuG203b 'Kiel', die am Receiver Raketen FuG-230B 'Straburg.' Gerate installiert auf der rechten Seite des Fahrerhauses. He.111H lassen HS-12-293a mit einer Geschwindigkeit von 340 km / h, positioniert auf der linken Seite der Raketen und biegen Sie dann sofort mit einer Geschwindigkeit von 260 km / h. Es wurde nur ein paar He.111H-12, und sie sind nie in der Schlacht. Heskolko fruheren He.111H-6-Rakete getestet HS-293G, getestet, die eine Reihe von Entscheidungen mehr Erfolg 'Fritz-H.' So Rakete Henshelya 'in der Endphase Flugbahn angegriffen mit dem Ziel der Tauchgang in einem Winkel von 60-80 . Einer der ersten Start fand am 3. Marz 1942. Insgesamt feuerte 10 HS-293G - beschlossen, wahlen Sie das 'Fritz-H.' Anfang Oktober 1944. Penemyunde in Tests verwaltet im Fernsehen Hs.293D, ins Leben gerufen H-12.

He.111H-14 wurde von der H-10-Version von 'Jager' mit speziellen Funkgeraten, einschlielich FuG 'Samos' aus dem Navigationsgerat 'Peyl'-GV und ARZ-5 plus FuG-351 'Korfu.' Ursprunglich, in einer Art, wie es war 30 Flugzeuge. Die Mehrheit von ihnen in 1944. erhalten ein spezielles Kommando Rastedtera in KG.40 Betrieb von Bordeaux. Weitere 20 Flugzeuge nach dem Ruckzug von Geraten, die als buksirovschikov Segelflugzeuge an der Ostfront unter dem Symbol He.111H-14/R-2.

H-16 kann als die dritte 'Standard'-Version der Serie H (der ersten und der zweiten, bzw., wurden H-W-und H-6). Alle anderen Optionen in erster Linie um eine schmale Palette von Aufgaben. In der Tat He.111H-16 ist eine Weiterentwicklung der H-6-Motoren Jumo-211F-2 uber mehrere Zwischenziele Modelle fur Anderungen an der Erfahrung der Ausbeutung. Defensive Waffen und Buchung ist nach dem Vorbild der H-11. Die Aussetzung der verschiedenen Arten von Waffen, bombootsek wurde beibehalten und es konnen zusatzliche Tanks. Im letzteren Fall, unter dem Rumpf gesetzt Inhaber ETS-2000. Bei H-16 verwendet wurde und mehrere Arten von Waffen, einschlielich der R-1 mit elektrifizierten Turm unter Maschinengewehr MG-131, R-2 mit einem harten Schlepper auf die Zelle, R-Z c bronezaschitoy weiter durch die Verringerung der Belastung Bombardierung.

He.111H-18-Bomber war die Nacht der Nahe von H-16/R-Z mit Radio-Typ H-14, und auch als Vorganger haben in zonderkomandu Rastedtera der KG.40. Alle H-18 ein-Hauben.

Wahrend He.111 hauptsachlich Bomber, wurden an der Ostfront und der Qualitat der Verkehrsleistungen - zunachst KG.4 wahrend das Dumping von Waren umgeben Garnison g.Holma Fruhjahr 1942. Am Ende des Jahres hatte bereits zwei besondere Transport-Geschwader K.Gr.zbV5 und 20 vor allem auf der Grundlage He.111 altere Versionen. Dies hat zur Folge, die folgende Anderung He.111H-20 wurde bereits Mehrzweck-Flugzeugen geeignet fur die Durchfuhrung der Aufgaben des Verkehrs oder buksirovschika Segelflugzeuge. H-20 Prototypen wurden He.111-V46, V47 und V48. In der Regel waren sie wie H-16. Vier wichtigsten Optionen fur die Verwendung: H-20/R-1 - Landung Ausfuhrung, mit drei Besatzungsmitglieder und 16 Fallschirmjagern, hatte Luke geringer und Halter fur zwei 800 kg Container; H-20/R-2 - Transportflugzeuge und Segelflugzeugen buksirovschik mit funf Mitgliedern die Besatzung und elektrifiziert Turm mit einem Maschinengewehr MG-131; H-20/R-Z - Nacht Bomber, die ein MG-131 Maschinengewehre im Bug, Gro-und Kleinschreibung Kleine Pflanzen, ein Paar von zwei MG-81 in der Side-Fenstern und externen Inhaber zu 2000 kg Bomben He-20/R-4 - Nacht 'bespokoyuschy' Bomber aus der externen Aussetzung 20 * 50 kg Bomben.

Alle Flugzeuge der Serie H, einschlielich H-20 hatte Motor Jumo-211, aber seit Anfang des Jahres 1944 ging in die Produktion Jumo-213. Es wurde beschlossen, He.111. Hovaya Treibladung System bestand aus zwei Jumo-213 mit zwei Stufen trehskorostnym Geblase-und Mittelstufe Kuhlung, Macht Start 1750ls und 1320ls auf einer Hohe von 10000m. Maximale Startmasse, wenn sie stieg auf 16.000 kg, eine Bombe-Belastung bis zu 3T.

Der Bau wurde gestarkt, aber im Allgemeinen, Ausrustung und Waffen links nach Art He.111H-20/R-Z. Option mit Jumo-213E war ein Symbol He.111H-21. Aufgrund von Verzogerungen bei Lieferungen von Motoren ersten 22 Stuck H-21 wurde mit Jumo-211F. Option mit neuen Motoren wurde in Beruhrung kommen Dienst im Spatsommer 1944. Diese Flugzeuge Bomben mit einer Geschwindigkeit bis zu 475 km / h.

Penemyunde und Tests auf den Start von He.111H Raketen Fizeler 'Fi.103 (FZG-76). Plane weiter, 'RUMPELKAMMER' - England Rakete Brennen Fi.103 wurden jetzt im Zusammenhang mit He.111, sowie Land-basierten Tragerraketen verloren gingen wahrend der Razzien Verbundeten vor der Eroffnung der Zweiten Front. Bis zu diesem Zeit-, Produktions-He.111H schnell katilos nach unten. Heskolko H-21 am Flieband wurden verandert in den Medien Fi.103, erhalten die Inhaber oder der linken Seite, entweder unter dem rechten Flugel zwischen dem Motor und Rumpf. Das Flugzeug erhielt die Bezeichnung He.111H-22. Zur gleichen Zeit fur die Reparatur-Werk in Oshatse in den Medien Fi.103 verandert wurden mehrere H-16 und H-20. Beim Start von Raketen in der Nacht aus einer Hohe von etwa 500 Meter in Richtung der groen Stadt Wahrscheinlichkeit fallen auf das Ziel war hoch. Nach einer kurzen Schulung starten Fi.103 3. Gruppe Z-bombardirovochnoy dritte Staffel seit Juli 1944. Werden Anwendung Rakete He.111 London und Southampton, fliegt von Basen in Holland.

Die jungsten Flugzeuge kamen nach unten auf das Flieband im Herbst 1944. Diese wurden spezielle He.111H-23 zur Durchfuhrung von Sabotage-Operationen. Sie haben acht Fallschirmjager und hatte eine Luke fur desantirovaniya modelliert H-20/R-1. H-23 ausgestattet mit Motoren Jumo-213A-1 Start Macht 1776ls und 1600ls auf einer Hohe von 6000m. Nach der Geburt von Truppen in diese Fahrzeuge peredelyvalis Bomber.

Mit der Emission von He.111H-23-Bomber der Produktion 'Heynkelya' dauerte neun Jahre, hatte fast abgeschlossen (das Flugzeug vor dem 50-en gebaut in Spanien). Obwohl genaue Zahlen waren nicht freigegeben He.111, gab es mindestens 7300, einschlielich 1399 in 1939, 827 in 1940, 930 in 1941, 1337, in 1942, 1408, in 1943 und 714 in 1944.


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