礼查饭店 - 浦江饭店 - 礼查饭店 - 外灘 - 外滩 上海
The Bund - Shanghai

The Astor House Hotel (礼查饭店), (known as the Pujiang Hotel (浦江饭店) in Chinese since 1959), which has been described as once "one of the famous hotels of the world",[1] "the pride of Shanghai",[2] "a landmark of modern Shanghai",[3] and perhaps hyperbolically as "once the most luxurious hotel in the world",[4] was the first Western hotel established in China.[5] Established in 1846 as Richards' Hotel and Restaurant (礼查饭店) on The Bund in Shanghai, it has been in its present location at 15 Huangpu Lu, Shanghai, near the confluence of the Huangpu River and the Suzhou Creek in the Hongkou District, near the northern end of the Waibaidu (Garden) Bridge, since 1858.[6]

Location

The Astor House Hotel has been located on the North Bund of Shanghai, near the northern end of the Waibaidu Bridge (Chinese: 外白渡; pinyin: Wàibáidù Qiáo) (the Garden Bridge in English),[6] since its relocation in 1858 from near Jinling East Road,[7] in the Shanghai French Concession on the southern end of The Bund.[8] Today the Astor House Hotel is located on a 4,580 square metre site and has a total building area of 16,563 square metres with 134 rooms and suites.[9] It is near the confluence of the Huangpu River and the Suzhou Creek, near 'the point where the Soochow Creek poured its silt into the river's clouded yellow waters.'[10] It is sited at the intersection of Huangpu Lu (formerly Astor Road), Daming Lu (Broadway), Changzi Dong Lu (Seward Road), Suzhou Bei Lu (Soochow Road), and Zhongshan Dong Yi (The Bund) roads.[11][12] Its mailing address is 15 Huangpu Road.[13] For many years, the Hotel was the best known landmark in the Hongkou District and the centre of foreign social life before the opening of the Cathay Hotel.[14] The Hotel occupies an entire block, and is across the road from the Chinan Consulate, and previously the embassies of Germany, the United States and Japan.[14] The Hotel is located near Huangpu Park (simplified Chinese: 黄浦公园; traditional Chinese: 黃浦公園; pinyin: Huángpǔ Gōngyuán), which opened in 1886 as Public Garden; across the road from the Broadway Mansions since its construction in 1935; the Hongkou market, 'Shanghai's biggest market, where farmers brought their fowl and produce to sell every day';[14] and Little Tokyo, the Japanese part of Shanghai.[15]

History

The story of the Astor House Hotel in Shanghai provides a revealing insight into the history of China itself. According to Rob Gifford, 'The Astor House Hotel has witnessed the whole sweep of China's emergence into the modern world, from English opium running in the 1840s through the tea dances of polite society in the 1920s and to the excesses of Maoist China in the 1960s.' [16]

Richards' Hotel and Restaurant (1846–1859)

History of the Astor House Hotel (Shanghai) 1844 to 1858

On 29 August 1842 the Treaty of Nanjing declared Shanghai to be one of five open treaty ports in China, the others being Canton, Amoy, Foochow, and Ningpo.[17] On 17 November 1843 Shanghai was declared open to foreign traders, and soon after the British concession in Shanghai was established and the boundaries gradually defined.[17] The resident foreign population of the British concession increased gradually: 'In 1844 it was 50, in the following year 90, and after five years it had grown to 175. In addition there was a floating population , consisting of the men on shore from the ships in harbour.'[18]

Peter Felix Richards (1846–1859)

Among the very first foreign residents of Shanghai was a Scottish merchant, Peter Felix Richards (born 6 April 1808 in Edinburgh, Scotland; died 14 November 1868 in Shanghai, China)[19] who had been doing business in China from about 1840.[20] During 1844 Richards established P.F. Richards & Co. (Shanghai and Fuchowfoo),[21] which operated a general store, ship chandler, and commission agent business,[22] on 4th Avenue (四马路) (now Fuzhou Road; 福州路)[23] about a 'block and a half to the west' of Sichuan Road.[24] P.F. Richards & Co. imported and sold staples of English diets.[25]

In 1846, Richards opened one of the first western restaurants in Shanghai[26] and the first western hotel in China,[27] south of the Yangkingpang (Yangjingbang) creek[12][28] on the river front on The Bund[29] facing the Huangpu River[5][30] near Jinling Road East,[31] in the Huangpu District of Shanghai,[32] in what became in 1849 the French Concession. Named after its founder, Richards' Hotel and Restaurant (礼查饭店; 'Licha'; Lee-zo),[33] was 'a single and ordinary building',[34] in the Baroque style.[9] that targeted initially the seafaring clientele that made up the bulk of travelers to 19th century Shanghai. One contemporary account describes corridors and floors whose color and design echoed those on ships.[32] Almost a century later, John B. Powell recounted the origins of the Hotel: 'The Astor House Hotel ... had grown from a boarding house established originally by the skipper of some early American clipper, who left his ship at Shanghai.[35] A string of sea captains followed the original as managers of the hotel.[32]

The very first public meeting of the British settlement was in the newly opened Richards' Hotel on 22 December 1846.[36]

By 1848 Richards had married Rebecca MacKenzie (born 6 May 1826 in Brechin, Forfarshire, Scotland),[37] and they had their first child, Rebecca A. Richards (born about 1848 in Shanghai).[38] Other children included: Adelaide (born about 1851 in Shanghai),[39] Amelia (born about 1852 in Shanghai),[40] Helen Mary (born about 1853 in Shanghai; died 10 February 1861 in Shanghai),[41] Peter Felix MacKenzie Richards (born about 1863 in Shanghai; died 18 December 1920 in Colchester, Essex, England),[42] and Frederick Edward Richards (born about 1864 in Shanghai).[43]

In August 1850 Richards advertised that a reading room for shipmasters had been established in his hotel.[44]

By 1854 Richards was the owner of the Pekin, a lugger-rigged vessel, that successfully eluded a fleet of Chinese pirate junks, on a voyage originating in Shanghai on 10 June, with Richards on board.[45] After an auction in Shanghai on 27 March 1855, Richards purchased the ship Margaret Mitchell, which had run aground off Woosung on 1 February 1855 and required extensive repairs to make it seaworthy, from its master, Thomas Jameson for $20,000,[46] (then worth nearly £7,000),[47] which was paid on 16 April 1855.[48] Additionally, repairs were estimated initially to cost at least $40,000,[49][50] but increased due to further damage after a collision with the dry dock gate at Shanghai on 4 April 1855.[51] Richards had to mortgage the ship and other assets to finance the purchase, repairs and subsequent return voyage to England at an interest rate of 24%.[52] On 26 March 1855 John Dewsnap, an American engineer who had constructed the dry dock at Hongkou in 1852,[53] defended successfully a lawsuit brought by Jameson in the United States Consular Court of Shanghai for $20,000 for his part in causing the damage in the collision with the dry dock's gate.[54] After 15 September 1855, the Margaret Mitchell left Shanghai under the control of ship master Captain Dewey Stiles, and after stops at Canton; Whampoa, where a mortgage of £1,336 was obtained from Anthon & Co. to finance insurance of the freight and the ship; Batavia; and Amsterdam, arrived in London on 23 May 1856, by which time Richards had discharged the mortgage obtained in Hong Kong.[55] Two of Rebecca's brothers, James Mackenzie (born about 1830) and David Mackenzie (born about 1834), assisted in the operation of Richards' business until their termination in September 1857.[56]

Insolvency (1856–1857)

After 1 March 1856, Richards announced that his company would be renamed 'Richards & Co.', and that during his upcoming absence from Shanghai that James McKenzie would manage his operations in Shanghai, while George D. Symonds would manage his interests in Fuchowfoo, and that both were authorised to sign by procuration.[57] On 15 May 1856, while in New York, Richards' company was declared insolvent by decree of the British Consular Court in Shanghai,[58] and all of his assets (including the Margaret Mitchell and the Richards' Hotel) were assigned provisionally to his creditors, Britons William Herbert Vacher and Charles Wills (died 8 September 1857),[59] acting on behalf of Gilman, Bowman and Jardine, Mathieson respectively.[60] Vacher and Wills authorised James McKenzie to continue to manage the store and ship chandlery 'under inspection'.[61] By early June 1856 Richards planned to leave New York to return to England in order to sell the Margaret Mitchell to ameliorate his financial situation.[62] However, Richards' ownership of the Margaret Mitchell was disputed by Thomas Mitchell of Glasgow, the original owner, and by another group who had purchased it from Stiles, the ship's master, upon its return to England.[48]

William Herbert Vacher (born ca.1826 in London; died 1899 in Hastings, England),[63] a leading freemason,[64] was a member of the Shanghai Municipal Council from 1855–1856,[65] and represented Gilman and Bowman, a British hong established as a tea trader in 1840,[66] and was by 1859 chairman of the influential Shanghai British Chamber of Commerce.[67] In 1859 Vacher is listed as resident in Ningpo.[68] Vacher retired as a partner in Gilman & Bowman in 1865, and returned to England, where he became the first manager of the London office of the newly established The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation later that year.[69] In 1873 Vacher was forced to resign when it was discovered that he 'had made disastrous speculations in South American railways, and had lost both on his own and the bank's account' £81,000.[70]

Wills' Bridge

Charles Wills (died 9 September 1857),[71] a British trader who had been resident in Shanghai since before 1850,[72] and freemason,[73] was a representative of Jardine, Matheson & Co.. In 1856 the Soochow Creek Bridge Company, a consortium of foreign merchants that was headed by Wills, built a wooden draw bridge crossing Suzhou creek,[74] that linked the British Settlement in the south and the unofficial American Settlement in the north.[75]

Solvency

On 16 August 1857, Daniel Brooke (D.B.) Robertson (born 1810; died 27 March 1881 at Piccadilly),[76] the British Consul of Shanghai announced that Richards' insolvency was superseded with the approval of his creditors.[77] The following day, Richards announced that he was personally resuming control and management of his business in China.[78] In August 1858 the Privy Council determined that the Margaret Mitchell had been sold legally to Richards and was now the property of his insolvency assignees.[79]

According to Shanghai historian Peter Hibbard, the completion of the Wills Bridge made a good profit for the consortium members and allowed the expansion of the over-crowded Settlement, and also 'bestowed civilising influences on a lawless area often compared to America's Wild West, which was renowned for the rough antics of its 'floating' drunken seafarer population.'[80] Wills, who owned land on the northern side of Suzhou Creek, benefited from increased property values.[81] During 1857 Wills leased a lot that was slightly larger than 22 mu (15,000 square metres); [106] in a section of reclaimed mud flats in Hongkew[82] east of Broadway (now Daming Lu) on the northern banks of the Soochow Creek, that was adjacent to the new Wills Bridge, and faced the Suzhou Creek near its confluence with the Huangpu River, 'at a huge profit for the building of the Astor House Hotel.'[81] While returning to England, Wills died of dysentery on 9 September 1857 on board the P & O steamer SS Bengal between India and Suez.[83] At the time of his death, Wills had extensive holdings of land north of the Soochow Creek, which became known as the Wills' Estate.[84] The executors and trustees of the Wills' Estate were George Wills and Samuel Wills, both of Bristol, England,[85] and Howell Wills by 1884.[86]

On 24 September 1857 the Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society,[87] which in 1858 became the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, had its first meeting at the Hotel, and continued meeting there until 1871, when it relocated to its own premises on Museum Road (now Huqiu Lu).[88]

The Astor House Hotel (1859–1959)

History of the Astor House Hotel (Shanghai) 1858-1900

Peter Felix Richards (1858–1861)

In February 1858 Richards' store and the Richards Hotel and Restaurant were relocated to the site leased from Charles Wills on the northern banks of the Suzhou Creek, near its confluence with the Huangpu River in the Hongkou District of Shanghai.[89] probably 'because of an unbeatable combination of lower priced land and convenient access caused by the construction of Wills' Bridge.'[32] The new Hotel was a two-story East India style building.[90] On 5 February 1858 Richards announced that:

We beg to give notice that we have removed from our Establishment to the Premises expressly built for us, immediately after crossing the New Bridge between the British and American Consulates. The Premises command a beautiful view of the whole front settlement and of the surrounding country and down towards Woosung as far as the eye can reach. They have also a commanding and central river position remarkably well adapted for Shipping Business; we Have spared no expense to make the Store convenient and safe for Goods.[91]

By 1859 the hotel was renamed (in English) the Astor House Hotel,[92] while retaining the original Chinese name until 1959. According to actress Grace Hawthorne, who stayed at the Astor House in 1894: 'The man who named it, some thirty years ago or so, had been to New-York and found in the Astor House a model of elegance and hotel excellence. He returned to Shanghai, and forthwith named his hotel the Astor House.[93] According to John B. Powell, 'He christened his establishment in honor of the then most famous hotel in the United States, the Astor House in New York; however, he was compelled to add the designation 'hotel,' as the fame of the New York hostelry had not yet reached the China coast. Aside from the name, the two establishments had little in common.'[35]

Even after the sale of the Astor House Hotel to Englishman Henry W. Smith on 1 January 1861,[94] Richards and his wife were still residents of the Astor House at the time that their seven year old daughter, Helen Mary Richards, died on 10 February 1861.[95] By 17 March 1861, Richards had relocated to Tientsin, where he had established himself as an 'Agent ... to carry on business generally with the Chinese in Imports and Exports, having had twenty one years experience in business in China and being acquainted with the language sufficiently to transact business without the assistance of Compradors.'[96] In March 1862 Richards was described as 'an enterprising speculator'.[97] By 1863 Richards was back in Shanghai, when his son Peter Felix MacKenzie Richards (died 18 December 1920 in Colchester, Essex, England) was born.[98] Another son, Frederick Edward was also born in China by 1865.[99] Richards died on 14 November 1868 in Shanghai, and left an estate valued at less than £2.[100] Subsequently Rebecca and their five surviving children relocated to Britain.[101]

Henry W. Smith (1861–1868)

On 1 January 1861 the Astor House Hotel was sold to Englishman Henry W. Smith,[8] In 1862 Smith advertised the Hotel as a 'first-class FAMILY HOTEL, ... [that] is unsurpassed, comprising every comfort and convenience, particularly for Gentleman and Families travelling.'[102] Under Smith's ownership, there was increased foreign patronage due to his innovations such as a twelve table billiard room,[90] and a public bar, and dances and plays held at the Hotel. Urban myth suggests that 'in the nineteenth century, you could order opium from room service at the Astor House.'[16] However, despite being one of the better hotels in Shanghai, the lack of internal plumbing was known to cause death to some guests, including members of the Japanese ship Senzai maru who stayed at the Astor House Hotel for ten weeks in 1862: 'Three crew members died, at least one from dysentery contracted as a result of inadvertently imbibing the filthy waters of the Wusong River in which everything they consumed had been washed.[103] On 17 September 1862 'a fatal case of cholera occurred in the house', causing the illness of 'the wife of the proprietor of the hotel ... [who] was seized with the same disease' and of the seventeen military officers of the 31st Regiment who were billeted at the Astor House Hotel, 'nine of them were attacked with sickness, and three of the number invalided.'[104] During 1863 the swamps and 'enormous pools of filthy and stagnant water which . . . stretched for a considerable distance behind the Astor House' were filled, thus ameliorating the situation.[105]

From 20 June 1863 Smith advertised that the Astor House was for sale. Smith indicated in the North-China Herald: 'The business of the Hotel la good; and the only reason the proprietor wishes to dispose of it, is in consequence of ill health, which necessitates his departure from Shanghai.'[106] On 21 September 1863, the American Concession, which was centred on Hongkou, merged with the British concession to form the International Settlement,[107] thus bringing the Astor House under that jurisdiction. By November 1863 the Hotel was managed by John Mahon.[108] By 1865 a gasworks was established on North Tibet Road by the British-owned Shanghai Gas Co., Ltd, which had been formed in 1862.[109] On 1 November 1865 coal gas was first used to artificially illuminate the streets of Shanghai,[109] earning the city the nickname 'the city without nights.'[110] The gas that lit the street lamps was known as 'earth fire' (dihuo).[111] In 1867 the Astor House Hotel was the earliest in Shanghai to use coal gas to provide lighting. Ludovic (1846–1929), the Marquis de Beauvoir, who formed a negative view of Shanghai itself while staying at the Astor House in March 1867 described it as 'the least horrible hotel in this place'.[112] About that time the Astor House Hotel received a more favourable evaluation: 'Several hotels or taverns exist in the different settlements, but the only establishment of high pretensions is the Astor House, situated in the Hong-kew Settlement, close by the bridge crossing the Soochow Creek. Good apartments and tolerable accommodation can be found here by strangers. Charges, about $3 per diem.[113] Despite Smith's best efforts, the Astor House remained unsold by August 1867.[114]

When Charles Carleton Coffin (1823–1918), a journalist at the Boston Journal, stayed at the Astor House in early 1868, he described the Hotel as 'a building not quite so imposing as its namesake of New York, but clean and comfortable, with good fare, a courteous landlord and excellent landlady from Old England, who do their best to make our stay agreeable.'[115]

George Baker (1868–1873)

By October 1868 George Baker was the proprietor of the Astor House.[116]

DeWitt Clinton Jansen (1873–1894)

By August 1873 the Astor House Hotel was purchased by DeWitt Clinton Jansen[117] (born at Shawangunk, New York on 8 November 1840; died 6 November 1894 in Shanghai),[118] 'a Hudson River Dutchman',[119] a former merchant sailor, and colporteur in China's interior, and by 1871 Tide-Surveyor[120] in the Imperial Maritime Customs Service in Shanghai.[121] Jansen and his wife, Ellen McGrath (died 12 November 1918 in Shanghai)[122] and their seven children,[123] had been residents of Shanghai since 1871.[90] Jansen was a polyglot, fluent in a number of Chinese dialects, and assisted in the preparation of an 1871 Pekinese-English dictionary.[124] Due to their familiarity with Shanghai and other parts of China, Jansen offered an information and travel service.[90] Jansen was a member of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from 1877 to his death in 1894,[125] and the Honorary Curator of the Shanghai Museum from 1881 to 1883.[126] Jansen was first elected a member of the Shanghai Municipal Council on 16 January 1890.[127]

Egerton Laird indicated in 1875: 'I am stopping at the Astor House, which seems clean and comfortable.'[128] Another traveller opined: 'We took up our abode at the Astor House, which is very comfortable, with a tolerable table d'hote, and not as expensive as we expected an Eastern hotel to be.'[129] On 15 November 1875 the Shanghai Municipal Council decided to re-name the part of Hongkew road north and east from Whangpoo road, 'Astor road' (later Jin Shan Lu).[12][130]

Enlargement (1876)

Astor House Hotel

In 1876 the Astor House Hotel was enlarged,[90] with fifty new rooms added that were often used to accommodate newly arrived families who were awaiting the completion of their own residences.[131] At the time of the US presidential election on 6 November 1876, there were 85 American adult male citizens resident at the Astor House,[132] making it also a center of celebrations of the centennial of the signing of the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1876.[133] The Hotel was illuminated by both Chinese lanterns and colored fires manufactured by C.S. Churton & Co.[133] After the 1876 expansion the hotel was 'four large neo-Renaissance brick buildings linked together by stone passageways.'[14] American travel writer Thomas Wallace Knox (1835–1896) recorded this description of the Astor House Hotel after his stay in 1879. He found it a less imposing fare than the Astor House of New York, though it occupied more ground, and had an evident determination to spread itself. A large space of greensward was enclosed by a quadrangle of one-story buildings, which formed the hotel, and consequently it required a great deal of walking to get from one part of the house to the opposite side....Some rooms were entered from a veranda on the side of the court-yard....On the other side there was a balcony...As this balcony was well provided with chairs and lounges, it was a pleasant resort on a warm afternoon. The house was kept by an American, but all his staff of servants was Chinese.[134]

In January 1877 plans were announced to construct a Turkish Bath on the Seward Road frontage as part of the expansion of the Astor House.[135] In 1881 Jansen renewed his lease of the Astor House Hotel with the trustees of the Wills' Estate for a period of thirty years.[136]

In its desire to be the premier hotel in Shanghai, 'the Astor House was eager to be the first in Shanghai with the latest mod cons.'[32] On 26 July 1882, 'the revolution of electric lighting was introduced to Shanghai'[137] by the American-owned Shanghai Electric Co. which had been founded earlier in 1882.[109] The first public display of electric lights was made in Shanghai on 26 July 1882.[109] When Shanghai lit its first fifteen electric street lamps, seven were installed in the Astor House Hotel, making it the first building in China to be lit by electricity. In 1883 Shanghai became the first city in China to provide piped water to its residents.[110] In 1880 The Shanghai Waterworks Co., Ltd., was incorporated in England,[109][138] with operations commencing in Shanghai in 1883, and running water supplied from 1 August 1883.[139] The water was pumped from the Whangpoo River, filtered to a level of 99.99 per cent purity.[109] The Astor House Hotel was the first building in Shanghai to install running water. About this time accommodation was $3 a day.[140]

In 1882 the Astor House hosted the first Western circus in China. Benjamin David Benjamin, a Sephardic Jew, and colleague of Elias David Sassoon, in his efforts to acculturate to the prevailing British society in Shanghai, frequently entertained his friends at the Astor House from 1879 to 1883, 'running up bills of as much as $70–90 for the evening'.[141] By the end of 1887, the Astor House was described by Simon Adler Stern as 'the principal American hotel in Shanghai'[142] The Astor House Hotel was 'a landmark of the white man in the Far East, like Raffles Hotel in Singapore.'[143]

During 1889, The Shanghai Land Investment Company Limited (SLIC), which was formed in December 1888, purchased the 'extensive estate known as the Wills' Estate, which includes the site of the Astor House Hotel, and possesses one of the best business situations in Hongkew' for 390,000 taels.[144] By the end of November 1889 Jansen agreed with the Shanghai Land Investment Company to transfer the Astor House Hotel and its land to the proposed Shanghai Hotel Company (SHC).[145] The purchase, which have been funded by the issue of shares to the public and with a loan from the SLIC, would have included the purchase of Jansen's lease, which had 21 years to run, the goodwill of his business, and all of the furniture and trading stock, in exchange for half in SHC shares, and the balance in annual payments of 5,000 taels.[145] To allow for the expansion of the Astor House and the construction of a new one-hundred bedroom hotel and large assembly hall, the SHC would also purchase the land at the back of the Hotel, so that the property would extend from Whangpoo (Huangpu) Road to Broadway, and from Astor Road to Seward Road.[145] Until the necessary land was purchased, Jansen would continue to operate the Hotel for SHC until it was necessary to clear way for the new building.[136] However, in March 1890 the North-China Herald reported: 'We are requested to state that the applications for shares not having been sufficiently numerous, the formation of the proposed Shanghai Hotel. Company, Limited, is to be abandoned for the present.'[146]

By 1890, 'For foreigners the Astor House was the center of social activity....At the Astor House bar tradespeople gathered every morning for an eleven-o'clock drink. It was at the Astor House that the important foreign balls were always held, in the banquet hall, but the Chinese at that time did not join in these revels.[147] Renovations to the Astor Hall were completed in time for the annual St. Andrew's Ball on Wednesday, 30 November 1892.[148] It was described as 'a very handsome room with a height of some 30 feet, with a pretty stage at one end, the dancing floor being 100 by 43 feet. . . . It was fairly well lighted with gas, and the only possible improvement in the Hall itself would have been the substitution of electric lighting.'[148] At that time Mr Arthur was the manager,[148] By 1892 and Frederick J. Buenzle, an American sailor,[149] rescued from assault by Jansen, was the night manager at the Ascot House until 'the sudden and untimely death' of Jansen.[150] Buenzle left Shanghai on the steamship Empress of India bound for Philadelphia in July 1895.[151]

Frenchman Monsieur U. Videau, who had been a partner in L'Hôtel des Colonies at Rue du Consulat (Jinling Dong Lu) et Rue Montauban (Sichuan Nan Lu) in the French Concession until 1891,[152] also assisted in managing the hotel by 1894.[153] In 1894 the Astor House was described as a 'first class hotel in all these words imply' and was listed in Moses King's Where to Stop.': A Guide to the Best Hotels of the World.[154]

On 6 November 1894, during an installation meeting of the Masonic lodge, where he was the first District Deputy Grand Master,[155] Jansen 'suddenly fell back in his chair, gave one or two gasps for breath' and died.[156] Jansen Road (now Fulu Street) in the Yangtszepoo District was named in his honour.[157]

Ellen McGrath Jansen (1894–1900)

After her husband's death, Ellen Jansen decided to stay in Shanghai and to operate the Astor House. Ellen purchased a home at 2 Jessfield Road (now Wanhangdu Lu), Shanghai, where her children lived with her.[158] The Astor House remained in Ellen's control until 1 November 1900.[159] By 1896 the Hotel was managed by Lewis M. Johnson (born Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada),[160] who was responsible for booking the first motion pictures to be shown in Shanghai (and probably in China) on Saturday 22 May 1897,[161] in Astor Hall in the Astor House Hotel.[162] The Animatoscope, then considered 'Edison's greatest invention',[163] was presented by Harry Welby Cook,[164] and accompanied by pianist Albert Linton.[165] On 5 November 1897, China's first prom was hosted at the Astor House, which celebrated the 60th birthday of Cixi, the Emperor Dowager, thus 'ending the social stricture that women should not attend social events';[32] In 1899, Methodist Bishop Cyrus Foss described the Astor House as 'the best hotel in Shanghai, and quite good. All the servants are sleek, neatly dressed Chinamen.'[166] Captain Sydney Jackson (1863–1928) who stayed at the Hotel on Easter Sunday 2 April 1899, indicated it was 'delightfully situated near the Public Gardens and much patronized by the Americans whose custom is chiefly catered for, this hotel is very comfortable and is undoubtedly the 'smartest' in the place, but the artificially heated rooms and hermetically closed doors and windows are rather trying to lovers of fresh air....[W]e were charged sixteen dollars a day for the two.'[167] An 1899 travel guide described the Astor House: 'This Hotel, entirely newly built and furnished, contains forty two front-facing Bed-rooms, Billiard and Dining-rooms.'[168] One traveller indicated in 1900, 'the Astor-House Hotel at Shanghai, it might be called European with a few Chinese characteristics. We of course had Chinese to wait on us here'.[169] In August 1900 the manager was Mr. Loureiro.[170]

Auguste Vernon (1900–1901)

On 1 November 1900 Mrs Ellen Jansen sold the Astor House Hotel for 175,000 taels (about US$130.000)[171] to Frenchman Monsieur Auguste Vernon (born 1851 in France; died 3 July 1918 at Kamakura, Japan),[172] who owned another hotel in Hankow,[173] who had previously managed the Hotel Bella Vista in Macau from its opening on 1 July 1890 until he left due to serious illness.[174] Vernon retained all of the principal staff.[175] At that time of the change of ownership, the Hotel was considered the first first-class hotel in Shanghai,[176] and 'the best hotel in all the Orient',[119] but Vernon introduced several improvements, including a series of 'Elite Dinners' accompanied by the Shanghai Municipal Symphony.[177] Vernon added a suite of eighteen bedrooms and saloons to the Hotel.[178] In 1901 the first telephones were installed in Shanghai, with the Astor House having the first telephone used.[179] In the first Yellow Pages telephone directory published in Shanghai, its number was '200'. The North-China Herald praised the Astor House Hotel in January 1902: 'it is a great thing that we have at last in Shanghai a hotel which is a credit to the place, and whose vast improvement has stimulated its rivals to renewed efforts to satisfy the travelling and homeless public'.[180]

In the first six months of 1901 the Astor Astor House Hotel had generated $90,000.61 profit, while its sister hotel in Hankow made just over $10,000.[181]

The Astor House Hotel Company (1901–1915)

History of the Astor House Hotel (Shanghai) 1900-1922

Auguste Vernon (1901–1902)

In July 1901 Vernon floated privately the Astor House Hotel Co. Ltd. with a capital of $450,000.[182] 4,500 shares were issued for $100 each, and were fully subscribed with Vernon or his nominees taking 4,494 shares,[183] with the remaining shares purchased by six separate individuals.[184] The shares were soon trading for up to $300 each.[185] The Astor House Hotel Ltd. was 'incorporated under the Company Ordinances of Hong Kong',[186] with Vernon becoming the managing director.[131]

As a response to the severe shortage of accommodation in the rapidly growing International Settlement, later in July 1901 Vernon was able to convince the company to negotiate the extension of the current nine year lease of the hotel and its property it had with the Land Investment Company for an additional twenty-one years,[184] of the entire block, which included all the Chinese shops at the rear of the hotel, thus greatly expanding its holding but also increasing substantially the company's debt.[131][182] Vernon intended to demolish the Chinese shops to allow the construction of a new three-storied wing containing 250 rooms, thus increasing its capacity to 300 rooms, with the ground floor of the new wing to provide first class accommodation for retail stores.[187] Debentures with a return of 6% were issued in July 1901 to finance the expansion of the hotel,[188] with the expectation that the increased number of rooms would generate a surplus of income to repay the debentures expeditiously.[189]

In 1902, after less than two years of leadership, Vernon retired because of ill-health, and left owing the company 'a considerable sum of money'.[190] By 1904 Vernon was living in Tangku (Tanggu), and was the owner of the steamship George, which was seized that year off Liaotishan as a prize of war by the Empire of Japan, after transferring goods to China during the Russo-Japanese War.[191] Subsequently Vernon was manager of the Hotel de France and from 1916 the Keihin Hotel in Kamakura, Japan.[192]

Expansion (1903)

As Vernon had planned, the Chinese shops that occupied the newly leased property at the rear of the existing hotel were demolished, however the new northern section of the hotel contained only 120 rooms, less than half of the number that Vernon had envisaged.[131] An outbreak of cholera in the city resulted in few guests when the northern wing was opened in November 1903. It was managed originally by 'an eccentric American' octaroon,[193] Louis Ladow (died in China on November 20, 1928),[194] who had been imprisoned in Folsom Prison,[195] who subsequently built the Grand Carleton Hotel in Shanghai in 1920.[196] Under Ladow's supervision, his bartenders served 'the finest cocktails in the Far East', a reputation it maintained through the 1930s.[197]

In 1904 the Hotel was considered 'by far the best hotel in the whole of the East, including Japan.'[198] At this time Mr A. Haller was the manager.[199] About this time the Hotel's managers wrote letters 'complaining to the foreign-run Shanghai Municipal Council about "natives," "coolies" and "rickshaws" making too much noise for patrons to bear.'[200]

Captain Frederick W. Davies (1906–1907)

By July 1906 retired British naval officer Captain Frederick W. Davies (born about 1850; died 16 January 1935 in Shanghai),[201] who had previously been a sea captain on the NYK European Service, and associate manager of the Grand Hotel in Yokohama,[202] had become manager of the Astor House,[203] and 'a more genial and hospitable gentleman never carried out the duties of that position.'[204] Room rates were between $7 and $10 per day (Mexican).[205] The hotel employed 254 people, with each hotel department 'under special European supervision'.[206] The 1904 announcement of the rebuilding of the Central Hotel (reopened in 1909 as the Palace Hotel) as a luxury hotel on the Bund,[207] and the demolition of the nearby Garden Bridge, and construction of the current Waibaidu Bridge in 1907, which involved the resumption of part of the Astor House Hotel's property, forced the owners of the Astor House Hotel to begin extensive renovations.[208]

Walter Brauen (1907–1910)

From February 1907 the hotel's manager was Swiss citizen Mr. Walter Brauen,[209] a skilled linguist who had been recruited from Europe.[210] The existing hotel was described as 'the leading hotel of Shanghai...., but has an unpretentious appearance.'[211] The company decided to embark on a completely new hotel, 'fitting of Shanghai's growth and importance' and 'better than any in the Far East.'[212] In 1908, before any reconstruction or renovations, the Astor House was described in glowing terms:

Leading straight from the entrance to the main residential portion of the house is a long glass arcade. Upon one side of this are the offices, where the clerks and commissioners will attend promptly and courteously to every want; upon the other is a luxuriously furnished lounge, and, adjoining this, the reading, smoking, and drawing rooms. The dining room has accommodations for five hundred persons. It is lighted with hundreds of small electric lamps, whose rays are reflected by the large mirrors arranged around the walls, and when dinner is in progress, and the band is playing in the gallery,the scene is both bright and animated. There are some two hundred bedrooms, each with a bathroom adjoining, all of which look outward, facing either the city or the Whangpoo River. Easy access is gained to the various floors upon which they are situated by electric elevators. The hotel...generates its own electricity and has its own refrigerating plant.'[206]

Architects and civil engineers Davies & Thomas (established in 1896 by Gilbert Davies and C.W, Thomas), were responsible for the re-building of the three principal wings of the Astor House Hotel.[213] The Astor House Hotel was to be restored to a neo-classical Baroque structure,[5] making it once again 'the finest hotel in the Far East'.[207] The new addition (the Annex) was based on plans drawn by 'Shanghai's leading architects of the time',[208] British architects and civil engineers, Brenan Atkinson and Arthur Dallas (born 9 January 1860 in Shanghai; died 6 August 1924 in London), established as Atkinson & Dallas in 1898.[214] After the death of principal architect Brenan Atkinson in 1907,[215] he was replaced by his brother, G.B. Atkinson.[216] The intention was to rebuild the hotel 'on modern lines', using reinforced concrete as the primary building material.[217] Included in the plans were: 'the dining room, facing the Soochow Creek, is to be extended along the whole front of the building. Winter gardens are being constructed, the writing and smoking rooms, and the private bar and billiard room will be enlarged and the kitchen placed upon the roof.'[218] A new reinforced concrete wharf measuring 1,180 feet (360 m) long and 200 feet (61 m) wide was also constructed.[217]

William Howard Taft and Helen Herron Taft

Prior to the new construction, future US President William Howard Taft, then US Secretary of War, and his wife, Helen Herron Taft,[219] were honoured at a banquet organised by the American Association of China in the large dining room at the Astor House Hotel in Shanghai on 8 October 1907, with over 280 in attendance, at that time 'the largest affair of the kind ever given in China.'[220] During the dinner, Taft made a significant speech on the relationship between the United States and China, and supporting the Open Door foreign policy previously advocated by John Hay.[221] Organized Sunday School work in China was born at Shanghai on 4 May 1907. 'This beginning of Sunday-school history in China took place in Room 128 of the Astor House, Shanghai, occupied at that time by Mr. Frank A. Smith.'[222]

The opening of a tram line in March 1908 over the new Garden bridge along Broadway (now Daming Lu) past the Astor House Hotel by the Shanghai British Trolley Company,[223] greatly increased both access and business.[211] Also in this period, the first western movies shown in China were shown at the Astor House Hotel.[224] On 9 June 1908, a motion picture with some sound was first shown in China in the open air in the hotel's garden.

Construction finally commenced in November 1908, and was scheduled to be completed by July 1909.[212] However, delays postponed completion until November 1910.[212]

In September 1910, days after the annual meeting of the Astor House Hotel Co., Brauen 'ran off with a huge chunk of hotel funds just three months before the hotel opened, six months behind schedule, in January 1911.'[212] A total of $957 had been embezzled by Brauen.[225] A warrant for his arrest was issued by the Mixed Court of Shanghai,[225] but Brauen had already left Shangha on a Japanese steamship.[226] Brauen was spotted in Nagasaki on Thursday, 14 September 1910, but evaded capture.[212][226] At the annual meeting of Astor Hotel Co. in September 1911, Mr. F. Airscough, the chairman, reported that Brauen had been 'a thoroughly capable hotel Manager' but who had 'left our employment under most regrettable circumstances'.[210]

Re-opening (1911)

Costing $360,000,[227] the restoration was completed in December 1910,[228] and the official opening was on Monday, 16 January 1911.[229] The North-China Herald reported:

The enduring impression of a city is largely given by the buildings that first catch the eye. The new Astor House Extension will greatly assist in bearing in upon the visitor that he is approaching no mean city. Favoured by its site, it stands out boldly and inspires a belief in the future of a city that can support such a huge caravanserai, in addition to others. The Shanghai resident regards it with equal admiration and also with a sense of personal pride. That gigantic edifice stands where, in the memory of many still living, the swamp-birds called defiantly to the struggling settlement that was finding its feet on the other side of the creek. It personifies to the resident the verification of the brightest dreams that in the old days the most daring dared to dream. A huge, but stately seal has in a sense been set upon the city's aspirations, and it stands at once as an emblem of accomplishment and an example for emulation.[229]

Advertising itself as the Waldorf Astoria of the Orient', its new 211-room building, with a 500-seat dining room.[207] Another advertisement described the Astor House Hotel in even more glowing terms: 'Largest, Best and Most Modern Hotel in the Far East. Main Dining Room Seats 500 Guests, and is Electrically Cooled. Two hundred Bedrooms with Hot and Cold Baths Attached to Each Room. Cuisine Unexcelled; Service and Attention Perfect; Lounge, Smoking and Reading Rooms; Barber and Photographer on the Premises. Rates from $6; Special Monthly Terms.'[230] An advertisement in Social Shanghai in 1910 bragged, 'The Astor House Hotel is the most central, popular and modern hotel in Shanghai.[231] At the time of its re-opening in January 1911, the refurbished Astor House Hotel was described as follows: Astor House Hotel Shanghai Dining Room

Astor House Hotel Shanghai Dining Room

The building has five storeys and attics on the Whangpoo Road frontage and four storeys on the Astor Road side. On the ground floor, at the corner of Whangpoo Road and the Broadway, is a handsomely appointed public bar-room and buffet, 59 ft. by 51 ft; in the centre, with main entrance from Whangpoo Road, is a magnificent lounge ball, 70 ft. by 60 ft., and at the East end are the Hotel office and the manager's office, with the secretary's office, in mezzanine, above the latter. The basement fronting Astor Road contains store-rooms, the steam-heating apparatus, and motor fire-pump. The grand staircase, with marble dado and red panels on white background, leads upward to passenger lifts, a ladies cloak room, a very prettily furnished ladies' sitting room, a reading room with several comfortable sofas and easy chairs upholstered in leather, a private buffet with a polished teakwood bar, and a large billiard room. Farther up the grand staircase is the main dining hall, almost the whole length of the building with a gallery and verandah on the second floor and well lighted by a barreled ceiling of glass. On the Astor Road side is a handsome banqueting hall and reception rooms, both decorated in ivory and gold, and six private dining rooms. There were six service elevators, bedrooms with private sitting rooms, and luxury suites under the dome.[229]

Additionally, the Hotel now had a 24 hour hot water supply, some of the earliest elevators in China, and each of the 250 guest rooms had its own telephone, as well as an attached bath. A major feature of the reconstruction was the creation of the Peacock Hall, 'the city's first ballroom',[232] 'the most commodious ballroom in Shanghai'.[233] The newly restored Astor House Hotel was renowned for its lobby, special dinner-parties, and balls.'[233] According to Peter Hibbard, 'Despite their architectural bravura and decorative grandeur, the formative years of both the Palace and Astor House Hotels were overshadowed by an inability to cater for the fast changing tastes of Shanghai society and her visitors'.[234] In 1911 John H. Russell, Jr. told his daughter, the future Brooke Astor, that the Hotel offered 'the finest service in the world', and that in response to her question about 'a man dressed in a white skirt and blue jacket beside every second door', was told by Russell: 'They are the 'boys.' ... When you want your breakfast or your tea, just open the door and tell them.'[235]

William Logan Gerrard (1910–1915)

In October 1910 Scotsman William Logan Gerrard, who was a long-time resident of Shanghai, was appointed the new manager,[236] but severe illness forced him into hospital for several weeks, before being invalided home temporarily.[210] Soon after his release from the hospital, Gerrard married Gertrude Heard on Tuesday 19 July 1911 at the St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church in the French Concession. That evening they departed on their honeymoon in the USA and Scotland, and returned to Shanghai early in 1912.[237] The Secretary of the Hotel, Mr. Whitlow, was appointed acting manager, but was soon replaced by Mr. Olsen.[210]

Jim Thorpe at 1912 Olympics and Christy Mathewson

On 3 November 1911, during the Xinhai Revolution that would lead to the collapse of the Qing dynasty in February 1912, an armed rebellion began in Shanghai, which resulted in the capture of the city on 8 November 1911, and the establishment of the Shanghai Military Government of the Republic of China, which was formally declared on 1 January 1912. Business proceeded for the Astor House Hotel, where rooms were available from $6 to $10 per night,[238] however the effects of the Revolution and the long absence of Gerrard, resulted in a three-month operating loss of $60,000. On 30 June 1912 a 'serious crisis' confronted the shareholders of the Astor House Hotel Company. While praise for the renovations was almost universal, they strained severely the Hotel's finances.[239] The Hotel's bank refused to issue the funds needed to pay interest to the debenture holders, forcing an extraordinary meeting with the trustees of the note holders.[240] The interest was finally paid after mortgaging the Astor Garden (B.C. Lot 1744), the foreshore property between Whangpoo Road and the Suchow Creek, for 25,000 taels (US$33,333.33).[227]

On 11 December 1913 the Astor House Hotel hosted a banquet for both the New York Giants of John McGraw and Chicago White Stockings of Charles Comiskey baseball teams, which included Christy Mathewson and Olympian Jim Thorpe, who were touring the world playing exhibition games.[241] This transnational tour was led by Albert Goodwill Spalding, owner of the White Stockings, 'professional baseball's most influential figure.'[242] At that time, 'No hotel in Shanghai, and few in the world, surpassed the Astor House Hotel. A handsome and impressive stone edifice of arched windows and balconies, the hotel stood six stories high and sprawled over three acres of land near the heart of the city.[243] On 29 December 1913 the first sound film in China was shown at the Hotel. At this time there were still restrictions on Chinese entering the Astor House Hotel.[244]

At the annual meeting of the Astor House Hotel Company held at the hotel in October 1913, the directors revealed plans to increase profit by another reconstruction,[245] including the construction of a new theatre seating 1,200 people to replace Astor Hall, which seated only 300; additional luxury suites; and also a winter garden.[3]

Mary Hall, who stayed at the Astor House in April 1914, described her experience:

The Astor House, which since I was here last, seventeen years ago, had outgrown all recognition....I entered the spacious social hall flanked with cigar, sweets, scent and other stalls.... Inside the hotel it was easy to imagine ones self in London or New York. The idea is soon dissipated when you find yourself following a man clad in bath-room slippers and shirt to the feet, the whiteness of which is relieved by a long black pigtail hanging down his back. He bows and smiles as he unlocks a door and shows you to your room, which is light and airy, with a bath-room attached. The dining-room was a gorgeous scene in the evening...The room is long , and the prevailing colours buff and white: down the centre are very handsome Chinese inlaid pillars on which, during the hot months, electric fans are worked. A gallery runs down either side, and in the busy season is also filled with tables. A band plays nightly....'Boys' moved hither and thither dressed in long blue shirts over which were worn short white sleeveless jackets, the latter obviously full dress, as they were dispensed with at breakfast or tiffin. Soft black shoes over white stockings, and legs swathed with dark felt were the finishing touches of a picturesque uniform.[246]

During 1914, the Astor Gardens, the portion of the hotel grounds at the front of the Hotel known as 'the foreshore' that had stretched to the Suzhou Creek, was sold to allow the construction of the consulate of the Empire of China immediately in front of the Hotel.[247] By October 1914, the Hotel's financial position had improved sufficiently to allow the shareholders to approve the renovation plans, which included demolishing the old dining room and kitchen to create eight shops that could be leased, and first class bedrooms and small apartments; construction of a new dining room in the centre of the hotel; relocation of the kitchen on the top floor to allow the conversion to bachelor's bedrooms; and conversion of part of the bar and billiard room into a grill room.[248]

Despite the renovations, financial difficulties persisted that resulted in the trustees for the debenture holders foreclosing on the Hotel in August 1915.[249] In September 1915 The trustees subsequently sold the Astor House Hotel Company Limited and all of its property and assets, including over 10 mow of land, to Central Stores Limited, owners of the Palace Hotel, for 705,000 taels.[249] With the change of ownership, Gerrard's services were no longer required.

History of the Astor House Hotel, Shanghai 1900-1922

Central Stores Ltd. (renamed The Shanghai Hotels Limited in 1917) was owned 80% by Edward Isaac Ezra (born 3 January 1882 in Shanghai; died 16 December 1921 in Shanghai),[250] the managing director of Shanghai Hotels Ltd., the largest stockholder,[251] and its major financier,[252] At one time Ezra was 'one of the wealthiest foreigners in Shanghai'.[253] According to one report, Ezra amassed a vast fortune estimated at from twenty to thirty million dollars primarily through the importation of opium,[254] and successful real estate investment and management in early twentieth century Shanghai.[255] The Kadoorie family, Iraqi Sephardic Jews from India,[256] who also owned the Palace Hotel at number 19 The Bund, on the corner with Nanjing Road, had a minority share holding in the Astor House Hotel.

Captain Harry Morton (1915–1920)

Photo: SS Mongolia, formerly captained by H.E. Morton

Despite some shareholder opposition, in March 1915 Captain Henry 'Harry' Elrington Morton (born 12 May 1869 in Clonmel, Ireland; died 2 October 1923 in Manila)[257] a 'staunch Britisher'[258] who had become a naturalised American citizen,[259] a master mariner who had first gone to sea at age 14,[260] formerly of the Royal Navy,[261] a Royal Arch freemason,[262] who 'had been coming to Shanghai for twenty years',[263] was appointed managing director, with responsibility for managing Central Stores' three Shanghai hotels, including the Astor House, with a salary of $900 a month, plus board and lodging.[264] Morton was 'a retired ship captain who ran it as a ship, the hotel had corridors painted with portholes and trompe l'oeil seascapes and rooms decorated like cabins; there was even a 'steerage' section with bunks instead of beds at cheaper rates.'[14] American journalist John B. Powell, who first arrived in Shanghai in 1917 to work for Thomas Franklin Fairfax Millard, the founder of what later became The China Weekly Review, described his new accommodation at the Astor House Hotel: 'the Astor House in Shanghai consisted of old three- and four-story brick residences extending around the four sides of a city block and linked together by long corridors. In the center of the compound was a courtyard where an orchestra played in the evenings. Practically everyone dressed for dinner, which never was served before eight o'clock.[35] According to Powell, 'Since most of the managers of the Astor House had been sea captains, the hotel had taken on many of the characteristics of a ship.'[265] While at that time the Hotel charged about $10 a day Mexican for accommodation,[266] 'a room in the 'steerage' ... [cost] $125 a month, including meals and afternoon tea. That figured out at about $60 in United States currency.'[265] According to Powell, the 'steerage' section ... consisted of single rooms and small suites at the back of the hotel. The section resembled an American club, because practically all of the rooms and suites were occupied by young Americans who had come out to join the consulate, commercial attaché's office, or business firms whose activities were undergoing rapid expansion. Sanitary arrangements left much to be desired. There was no modern plumbing. The bathtub consisted of a large earthenware pot about four feet high and four feet in diameter....The Chinese servant assigned to me would carry in a seemingly endless number of buckets of hot water to fill the tub in the morning.[267]

In 1915 soon after taking control of the Astor House Hotel, Ezra decided to add a new ballroom.[268] The new ballroom, designed by Lafuente & Wooten, was opened in November 1917.[269]

In July 1917 the assistant manager was Mr. Goodrich.[270] Around the end of World War I, the Sixty Club, a group of sixty men-around-town (a mixture of actors and socialites), and their dates would meet at the Astor House each Saturday night.[271] Shanghai was considered the 'Paradise of Adventurers', and the 'ornate but old-fashioned lobby' of the Astor House was considered its hub.[272] The lobby was furnished with the heavy mahogany chairs and coffee tables.[273] By 1918 the lobby of the Astor House, 'that amusing whispering gallery of Shanghai',[274] was 'where most business is done' in Shanghai.[275] After China signed the International Arms Embargo Agreement of 1919, 'sinister-looking German, American, British, French, Italian, and Swiss arms dealers appeared in the lobby of the Astor House . . . to dangle fat catalogs of their wares before the eager eyes of any buyers.'[276] In 1920 the lobby 'with its convivial atmosphere, presents to the visitor a welcome oasis, where congregate travelers from afar to chat pleasantly.'[277] Another recorded: 'The effervescence at the Astor is more tangy than elsewhere. All the latest scandal of the town is an old story in its lobbies almost before it occurs.'[278] Powell added: 'At one time or another one saw most of the leading residents of the port at dinner parties or in the lobby of the Astor House. An old resident of Shanghai once told me, 'If you sit in the lobby of the Astor House and keep your eyes open you will see all of the crooks who hang out on the China coast.'[35] According to Ron Gluckman, 'Opium was commonplace, says one woman who lived in Shanghai before World War II. 'It was just what you had, after dinner, like dessert.' Opium and heroin were available via room service at some of the old hotels like the Cathay and Astor, which offered drugs, girls, boys, whatever you wanted.'[279]

In 1919, Zhou Xiang (周祥),[280] 'an Astor House bellboy, rewarded for recovering a Chinan guest's wallet with its contents, spent a third of it on a car. That car became Shanghai's first taxi, and spawned the Johnson fleet, now known as the Qiangsheng taxi',[32] which is 'now ranked number-two by the number of taxis in the city behind Dazhong. The Shanghai government took over Qiangsheng after the Communists won the Chinese civil war in 1949'.[281]

Despite an annual profit of $596,437 in the previous year, in April 1920 Morton was forced to resign as the manager of the Shanghai Hotels Companies, Ltd, due to a new British government order in council restricting management of British companies to British subjects.[282] Morton subsequently left Shanghai in May 1920 on board the steamer Ecuador.[283][284]

Walter Sharp Bardarson (1920–1923)

Morton was replaced by Canadian Walter Sharp Bardarson (born 20 September 1877 in Roikoyerg, Iceland); died 17 October 1944 in Alameda, California).[285] who became an American citizen after he resigned from the Astor House Hotel in June 1923.[286] A 1920 travel guide summarised the features of the Astor House: 'Astor House Hotel 250 rooms all with attached baths, the most commodious ballroom in Shanghai, renowned for its lobby, special dinner-parties, and balls. Banquets a special feature, and a French chef employed. Up-to-date hairdressing salon and beauty parlor. Strictly under foreign supervision.'[287]

Under the leadership of Edward Ezra, the Astor House Hotel made a handsome profit. Ezra, intended to build 'the biggest and best hotel in the Far East, a 14-storey hotel with 650 huge luxury bedrooms, including a 1500-seat dining hall and two dining rooms,' on Bubbling Well Road.[288] Tragically, Ezra died on Thursday, 16 December 1921.[289] In 1922 Sir Ellis Kadoorie, one of the prominent members of the board of the Hong Kong Hotel Company, died aged 57, thus curtailing their expansion plans.[290]

James Harper Taggart

Captain Harry Morton (1915–1920)

Astor House Hotel Baggage Label 1920s

On 12 May 1922 Ezra's 80% controlling interest in The Shanghai Hotels Limited was purchased for 2.5 million Mexican dollars by Hongkong Hotels Limited,[291] 'Asia's oldest hotel company',[292][293] which already owned the Hongkong Hotel, as well as the Peak, Repulse Bay, and Peninsular Hotels in Kowloon; Messrs. William Powells Ltd., a large department store in Hong Kong; the Hong Kong Steam Laundry; and three large parking garages in Hong Kong.[291] Shanghai Hotels Limited, which was managed by Mr. E. Burrows, owned the Astor House Hotel, Kalee Hotel, Palace and Majestic Hotels in Shanghai and approximately 60% of The Grand Hotel des Wagons-Lits in Beijing; the China Press; and China Motors Ltd., which owned parking garages.[291] The architect of the acquisition was James Harper Taggart (born 1885 in Castlemaine, Victoria, Australia)[294] managing director of Hongkong Hotels Limited, who was of 'Lowland Scot heritage, of evidently very humble parentage',[295] who was married to 'an American millionaire heiress',[296] was described as 'dynamic',[288] and as 'diminutive and sharp-minded'.[296] and who had been the former manager of the Hong Kong Hotel. Initially both Burrows and Taggart were joint managing directors of the new entity.[297] In October 1923 Taggart helped engineer the merger of Shanghai Hotels Limited and the Hongkong Hotel Company, to create Hong Kong & Shanghai Hotels, Limited with himself as managing director.[298]

Despite indicating in May 1922 that Ezra and Kadoorie's planned new 'super hotel' to be built at Bubbling Well Road would proceed,[297] later Taggart decided to cancel the project, instead decided to create 'new rendezvous and entertainment centres of Shanghai's social and business circles.'[299] Taggart 'played a leading role in revolutionising the modern hotel business in Shanghai by introducing novel concepts, such as dinner dances and European-style grill rooms.'[252] After the first radio broadcast in China on 26 January 1922, the Astor House Hotel was among the first to install a receiving set to hear the inaugural broadcast, locating it in the Grill room.[300] Another innovation was The Yellow Lantern, an exotic and exclusive curio shop, located off the lobby shop, operated by Jack and Hetty Mason, where rare Oriental treasures, including embroideries, were offered for sale.[301] By the early 1920s, the Astor House Hotel had become 'an international institution in fame and reputation.'[302] The Shanghai Rotary Club (Club 545), which was formed in July 1919, began meeting at 12.30pm each Thursday at the Astor House Hotel for tiffins in 1921, and again for five years from 1926.[303] The Shanghai Stock Exchange was housed at the Astor House Hotel from 1920 until 1949.[304] According to Peter Hibbard, the 'Roaring Twenties' saw Shanghai entering a period of frenetic growth, only tamed in the late 1930s, with the old fabric of the city being torn apart in a rapacious drive towards modernisation. The city was staking its claim as a great international city, with a modern skyline and manners to match. Apart from its rapidly growing foreign population with their ever-increasing demands for sophisticated entertainment, the number of foreign visitors began to boom in the early 1920s. The first of a long stream of round-the-world cruise-liners began to call on the city in 1921 and by the early 1930s, Shanghai was playing host to around 40,000 globetrotters each year.[252]

The influx of White Chinan refugees from Vladivostok after the fall of the Provisional Priamurye Government in Siberia in October 1922 at the close of the Chinan Civil War, created a significant community of Shanghai Chinans. Denied the benefits of extraterritoriality, and having few other resources, there was a proliferation of white slavery, brothels and street prostitution, and new nightspots on Bubbling Well Road and Avenue Edward VII[305] also reduced patronage at the more sedate tea dances at the Astor House: 'For foreigners, the better cabarets offered a welcome alternative to club life and the stuffy tea dances at the Astor House Hotel ... around which the foreign colony's social life had previously revolved.'[306]

Renovations (1923)

By the beginning of 1923, there were those who felt the Astor House Hotel needed improvement. Further, while 'The Astor House on Whangpoo Road, with its palm garden and its French chef, was the largest and best place to stay,' the opening of the Majestic Hotel in 1924 eclipsed the Astor House once again.[307] One guest who attended a New Year's Eve event in 1922 indicated: 'We hied to the Astor House, a place far removed in space and comfort from its namesake in New York city.'[308] Additionally, the large public spaces created in the previous renovations were not proving profitable.[268]

The owners began remodelling the hotel again in 1923 to 'keep up with the Shanghai passion for nightly entertainment.'[302] The ground floor was remodelled, and 'its grill-room soon earned distinction.'[269] They commissioned architect Mr. A. Lafuente to design the dining room and ballroom.[309] On Saturday, 22 December 1923, the new ballroom was opened formally with 350 invited guests.[309]

The North-China Herald described the ballroom:

The light blue walls decorated with maidens and sylphs dancing in the open spaces, are surmounted by the plaster reliefs for the indirect lighting system suspended from the ceiling, while high on the marble pillars beautifully cast female figures appear to support the roof. Probably the most novel feature of the decorative scheme, excepting the incandescent mirrors was the peacock shell utilized by the orchestra.[309]

The initial Astor House orchestra had eight members under the direction of 'Whitey' Smith.[309] Later the resident Astor Orchestra was directed by Alex Bershadsky, a White Chinan emigré,[310] while the orchestra of Ben Williams, the first American orchestra to travel to Shanghai, also played at the Astor House.[311]

Jacques Kiass (1924–1928)

By April 1924 the manager was Jacques Kiass.[312] In 1924 the American aviators who made the first aerial circumnavigation of the world, indicated: 'Upon entering the lobby, had it not been for the Chinese attendants, we should have thought ourselves in a hotel in New York, Paris, or London.[313] During the First Jiangsu-Zhejiang War, conflict between the armies of General Sun Chuanfang, warlord of Fukien, and rival warlord General Lu Yongxiang of Chekiang, an evening fire caused damage at the Astor House Hotel on 17 October, 1924, and forced the evacuation of guests and hundreds of Chinese servants.[314] Isabel Peake Duke recalled being at a tea dance at the Astor during an earthquake in 1926, during which 'the walls of the hotel were visibly shaking and swaying'.[315] At this time the tea dances were held daily (except Sundays) between 5pm and 7pm. Duke indicates that for the price of one Mexican dollar (about 35 US cents), the Paul Whiteman Orchestra played the romantic dance tunes of the period, and included sandwiches, cream and cakes. Her only complaint was the lack of air-conditioning, necessitating overhead ceiling fans and fountains of water to keep the dancers cool in the summer months.[315] According to Frederic E. Wakeman, 'The tea dance was one of the first cultural events to bring the Chinese and Western elites of Shanghai together. High society initially met at the Astor.'[316] At one time Chinese visitors were not allowed into the lobby or the elevator. However, by now, 'smartly dressed Chinese youngsters, Shanghai's jeunesse dorte, enjoyed the tea dance at the Astor House.'[317] These afternoon tea dances at the Majestic Hotel and the Astor House became 'the first places where 'polite' foreign and Chinese society met. At both venues, more whiskey than tea was served. These 'teas' dragged on late into the evening, with drunken guests occasionally falling into the magnificent fountain that occupied the center of its clover-shaped Winter Garden ballroom.'[318] Elise McCormick indicated in 1928, 'Tea dances at the Astor House formerly took place only once a week. Later the demand caused them to be introduced twice a week and soon they were taking place every day except Saturday and Sunday, with a dinner dance in the ballroom practically every night.'[319]

On 21 March 1927, during a battle between the Kuomintang and the Communist forces during the Chinese Civil War, the Astor House Hotel was struck by bullets.[320] In 1927 the Astor House Hotel in Shanghai was included in Robert Ludy's Historic Hotels of the World, where it was indicated that 'the Astor House Hotel...has been the principal hostelry for more than fifty years.'[321] Ludy further indicates that the Hotel was one of the three hotels in Shanghai where all the important foreign visitors to Shanghai stay, and that 'it is not only possible to enjoy modern conveniences in these Chinese hotels, but they are quite as well equipped as those found in America or Europe.'[321] In 1929 the officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps were impressed with the standard of accommodation: 'The rooms at the Astor House Hotel are very comfortable, central heating, bathroom attached, hot and cold water ad lib. The hotel charges were $12 a day, about 25 shillings., inclusive of food and everything, but you have to have your meals in the big dining room.'[322]

H.O. Wasser (1928)

By November 1928 the manager was H.O. 'Henry' Wasser.[323] Another valuable employee was Mr Kammerling, a Chinan Jew (born in Turkey) who became Reception Clerk: 'With an amazing flair for languages and the opportunity to work with people of many cultures, Mr H. Kammerling eventually learned to converse fluently and faultlessly in German, English, French, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese and one or two other languages, as well as his native Chinan and Turkish.'[324] By 1930, Kammerling was one of the Hotel's managers.[325]

Decline in prestige (1930–1932)

Despite the 1923 renovations, by 1930 the Astor House Hotel was no longer the pre-eminent hotel in Shanghai. The completion of the Cathay Hotel in 1929, 'threw a painful shadow upon the old-fashioned Astor House.'[326] According to Gifford, 'The center of social activity shifted in the 1930s from the Astor House around the corner to the Cathay. Its jazz was even more jumping, its rooms were even more Art Deco a-go-go.'[327] In 1912, when the American Consulate was constructed on Huangpu Road, and just after the re-opening of the Astor House after extensive renovations, the Hongkou area was considered 'a most desirable location', however by 1932 the area had deteriorated, due in part to the proliferation of Japanese businesses and residents, with many Chinese refusing to cross into the Hongkou district. In April 1932 The China Weekly Review indicated that the Hotel 'incidentally had slumped into a second rate establishment due to the construction of newer and more modern hotels south of the [Suzhou] creek.'[328] Further, Fortune magazine in describing the Cathay Hotel highlighted the problem for the Astor House: 'Its air-conditioned ballrooms have emptied all the older ballrooms in town. And the comfort of its tower bedrooms has brought wrinkles to the foreheads of the managers of the old Astor House and the Palace Hotel.[329] While the Astor House was less expensive than the Cathay Hotel, it also lacked air-conditioning.[330] American historian William Reynolds Braisted recalling that on his return to Shanghai in 1932, after an absence of a decade:

The Palace Hotel and the Astor House were now far outclassed by three hotels built by a wealthy Baghdadi Jew, Sir Victor Sassoon: the magnificent Cathay Hotel on the Bund, the Metropole in midtown, and the Cathay Mansions across the road from the Cercle Français in the French Concession.[331]

James Lafayette Hutchison, on his return to the Astor House in the 1930s after several years absence in the United States, noticed no changes: 'I walked across the bridge and registered at the old Astor House Hotel.... The same subdued, cavernous lobby with the same white-gowned boys leaning against the tall pillars, the same mystic maze of halls leading to a sparsely furnished bedroom.' Further, he described the Astor House as 'a faded green, cavern-like wooden structure, with tall rooms smelling of must and mildew'.'[332] According to Canadian journalist Gordon Sinclair, by 1931 the Shanghai Press Club used the Astor as their regular meeting place,[333] and overseas Chinese frequently stayed there.[334]

28 January Incident (1932)

In response to the Mukden Incident, and the subsequent beating of five Japanese Buddhist monks in Shanghai by Chinese civilians on 18 January 1932, and despite offers of compensation by the Shanghai municipal government, Japanese forces attacked Shanghai in the January 28 Incident. A good deal of fighting took place near the Astor House Hotel.[335] Reports to the United States Department of State indicated: 'Chinese shells once more fell in neighborhood of wharf area of Hongkew. The shells were clearly heard passing between British Consulate and Astor House.'[336]

On 30 January 1932, during the Japanese invasion of Shanghai, a reporter for The New York Times, reported on the impact of the Shanghai Incident on the Astor House Hotel:

'At 11:30 o'clock this morning the Japanese inexplicably began firing machine guns down Broadway past the Astor House Hotel....The streets were then filled with milling masses of frightened, homeless Chinese, some of them wearily sitting on bundles of household goods. Immediately there was the wildest panic. . . . Chinese women with their bound feet and with babies in their arms were attempting to run to safety as their faces streamed in tears.'[337]

On 30 January 1932 the Japanese 'effected the seizure and military occupation of virtually all parts of the International Settlement eastward of and down the river from Soochow Creek, which area includes the postoffice, the Astor House Hotel, the buildings of the Japanese, German and Chinan consulates and the city's main wharves and docks.'[338] The fighting and shelling in the vicinity of the Astor House Hotel 'resulted in consternation among the guests',[339] but the arrival of four American naval vessels on 1 February 1932 partially alleviated their concerns.[340] On 25 February 1932, American Consul-General Cunningham ordered all Americans staying at the Astor House to evacuate due to fears of the artillery of the counter-attacking Chinese forces.[341] However, despite 'many Chinese shells' falling in the vicinity of the Astor House that night, the American guests refused initially to evacuate the Hotel,[342] but by 30 April 'many guests moved out of the Astor House hotel',[328] along with most non-Japanese residents of the Hongkou district.

Arrest of Ken Wang (1932)

On 27 February 1932 Japanese sailors pursued Chinese Brigadier General Ken Wang (Wang Keng or Wang Kang) (born 1895),[343] then a recent a West Point graduate,[344] whom they believed to be a spy,[345] into the lobby of the Astor House Hotel and arrested him,[346] in violation of the international law that operated in the International Settlement,[347] without explanation or apologies, and refused to turn him over to the police of the International Settlement.[348] After a strike of Astor House employees,[349] and a scare caused by a 'convivial guest' throwing an empty bottle out of one of the Hotel's windows at midnight,[350] eventually Wang was released but detained by the Nanjing government,[351] which was forced to deny three weeks later that Wang had been executed for treason.[352]

Highlights (1932–1937)

By 1934 'the Astor House Hotel's tea dances and classical concerts [were] popular...during the Winter season.'[353] In 1934 the Astor House's tariffs were, in Mexican dollars (approximately 1/3 of an American dollar): 'single, $12; double, $20; suite- for two, $30.'[353] One of the more interesting frequent visitors to the Astor House Hotel was Mr. Mills, a gibbon, who accompanied American journalist Emily Hahn,[354] the sometime paramour of Sir Victor Sassoon, from 1935 until her departure for Hong Kong in 1941.[354] In 1936 American artist Bertha Boynton Lum (1869–1954) was enthusiastic in her description of the Astor House Hotel: 'The rooms are huge, the ceilings unbelievably high, and the baths large enough to drown' in.[355] American Charles H. Baker, Jr., in his 1939 travelogue The Gentleman's Companion, describes the drink that caused him to miss many steamships as 'a certain cognac and absinthe concoction known as The Astor House Special, native to Shanghai'.[356] According to Baker, the ingredients for the Astor House Special are: '1½ oz cognac, 1 tsp maraschino liqueur, 2 tsp egg white, ¾ oz Pernod, ½ tsp lemon juice, and club soda', however 'the original recipe calls for Absinthe instead of Pernod.'[357]

Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

Photo: Effects of a Chinese aerial bomb dropped near Cathay Hotel 14 August 1937

The Hotel was damaged during the Battle of Shanghai when the Japanese invaded Shanghai in August 1937 at the outset of the Second Sino-Japanese War.[358] After Japanese machine guns were set up outside the hotel, and Japanese troops searched the Astor House for an American photographer, Americans living there evacuated on 14 August, with one, Dr. Robert K. Reischauer, subsequently killed later that day in the lobby of the Cathay Hotel by a bomb dropped from a Chinese war plane.[359] Subsequently Japanese troops seized the Astor House Hotel,[360] but by 18 August, the Hotel management recaptured the Astor House.[361] In the following days, some 18,000 to 20,000 Europeans, Americans and Japanese evacuated to Hong Kong, Manila, and Japan,[362] including Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie, who fled to Hong Kong.[363] The Hotel was damaged again on 14 October 1937 by bombs from planes of the Chinese government and shells from Japanese naval guns.[364] On 4 November 1937 a Chinese torpedo boat launched a torpedo in an attempt to sink the Japanese cruiser Izumo,[365] then 'lying moored to the Nippon Yusen Kaisha wharf close to the Japanese Consulate General, just east of the mouth of Soochow Creek',[362] near to the Garden Bridge,[366] exploded outside the Astor House breaking several windows.[367] American foreign correspondent Irène Corbally Kuhn,[368] one of the writers of the 1932 film, The Mask of Fu Manchu, and then a reporter for The China Press,[369] described the hotel as 'the most famous inn on the China coast, redundantly identified as the Astor House Hotel,'[370] and also the damage inflicted upon it during the 1937 Japanese invasion: 'from the street the boards were up over the shop fronts.'[371] On 23 November 1937, it was reported that 'The Japanese at present have the Astor House Hotel filled with socalled Chinese traitors'.[372]

The vacuum created when the British owners of the Astor House Hotel fled to Hong Kong in September 1937 allowed the Japanese occupation forces to assume control of the hotel until the surrender of the Empire of Japan on 14 September 1945 on the USS President Harrison.[302] The Astor House Hotel was occupied by the Japanese YMCA for two years, until 1939.[373] The Japanese subsequently leased the hotel for a three-year term to another party, with 'a reasonable return' remitted to the absent owners.[374] On 6 November 1938 four hundred members of the White Chinan diaspora in Shanghai met at the Astor House Hotel (across the road from the Soviet embassy) to discuss forming an ant-communist alliance with the Axis Powers: Japan, Italy and Germany against Soviet Union.[375]

In July 1940 Time magazine reported that, in response to the unapproved anti-Japanese thrice daily broadcasts on radio station XMHA (600 kilocycles on the AM band) of 'burly, tousled, tough-tongued, 39-year-old'[376] veteran American journalist Carroll Duard Alcott (1901–1965),[377] 'The embittered Japanese began operating a maverick transmitter from Shanghai's Astor House Hotel, which set up a terrible clatter whenever Alcott began to broadcast. Alcott told about it. The Japanese denied it. Alcott told the number of the hotel room where it was housed. Finally the Japanese turned their transmitter over to some Shanghai Nazis.[378] The jamming continued by the Japanese from the top floor of the Astor House.[379] Alcott, who had worn a bullet-proof vest, had two bodyguards, and carried a .45 automatic after threats to him by Japanese authorities, was ordered to leave China by the Japanese-sponsored government of Wang Ching-wei in July 1940,[380] refused to quit his broadcasts, but eventually departed Shanghai on 14 September 1941 on board the President Harrison,[381] after four years of broadcasts.[382]

During the Japanese occupation the Astor House was also used to house prominent British (and later American) nationals captured by the Japanese.,[383] Later the Astor House Hotel was used as the Japanese General headquarters,[384] before being leased as a hotel for the duration of the war. In late June 1944 the Japanese held 'an elaborate ceremony at the Astor House Hotel in which the titles of six public utilities in Shanghai, including electricity, gas, waterworks, telephone, telegraph and tram service were transferred to the Nanjing Government.'[385]

Post-War Era (1945–1949)

During World War II and the Japanese occupation, 'the Astor House fell into decline, and its elegance was soon no more than an almost unimaginable memory.'[386] Hibbard indicates 'the hotel fared badly in the war and extensive refurbishment bills were deferred following its requisition by the US Army',[387] in September 1945. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels Ltd (HKSH) leased the hotel to the US Army until June 1946.[388] According to Horst Eisfelder, a German Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany, lunch at the Astor House during the American army occupancy was a real treat: 'For only US 5¢ we had freshly prepared pancakes and a bottle of icy cold Coca Cola, which also cost five cents'.[389]

By 1946 White Chinan refugee Len Tarasov had become manager of the Astor House Hotel, but was fired when a Chinese businessman leased the Hotel[390] from the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels Ltd (HKSH) in 1947. Its address was listed as 2 Ta Ming Road, Shanghai.[391] The Chinese management subdivided the first floor to create 23 rooms, and rebuilt the shops on street level, opened a cafe, and re—opened the bar. The hotel was 'filled with members of organisations involved in the post-war reconstruction of China, including the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Association'.[387] On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army marched into Shanghai, and on 1 October 1949 the People's Republic of China was proclaimed, forcing Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek to flee. According to some accounts, Chiang had his last dinner on the Chinese mainland at the Astor House on 10 December 1949, before flying into exile on the island of Taiwan.[392] By 1950 the agreement between the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels Ltd and the Chinese company expired. While the HKSH wanted to resume management of the hotel, the Chinese company was reluctant to relinquish control. Diplomatic tensions between the new Chinese government and the United Kingdom further complicated the dispute.

Government control (1954–1959)

On 19 April 1954 the Hotel was confiscated[393] and control of the hotel passed to the Land and House Bureau of the Shanghai people's government. On 25 June 1958 the hotel was incorporated into the Shanghai Institution Business Administrative bureau. Prior to the Hotel's re-opening as the Pujiang Hotel in 1959, 'the building had been used by a tea and textile trading company as offices and dormitories, as well as by the Chinese Navy.'[394]

Pujiang Hotel (1959 onwards)

On 27 May 1959, the name was changed from the Astor House Hotel to the Pujiang Hotel (浦江饭店),[228] and the hotel was permitted to receive both foreigners and overseas Chinese guests. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), the Hotel declined substantially, with the dining room on the top floor being changed beyond all recognition.

During this period, the Hotel became the first hotel in China to offer hostel beds.[395] In the 1980s and 1990s, the Hotel 'became the city's premiere destination for independent travellers seeking dormitory accommodation.'[396] One 1983 guide described the Hotel as 'slightly run-down',[397] while a 1986 guide warned: 'Despite its exceptional location near the Bund, ... the Pujiang is recommended only to travelers well prepared for 'roughing it''.[398] Pamela Yatsko, who stayed at the Pujiang Hotel in 1986, described it as 'a dilapidated western architectural relic catering to penny-pinching backpackers like myself, melted seamlessly into this somber skyline, making it barely distinguishable from a distance....As for the Astor House Hotel's spacious rooms, the renamed hotel rented me a cot in one that had been converted into a dorm room fitting probably 30 beds....The clerk charged me the equivalent of US$8 a night for the cot.'[399] Shanghai Hengshan Mountain Group (1988 to today)

In 1988 the Pujiang Hotel was incorporated into another government-controlled entity, the Shanghai Hengshan Mountain Group (上海衡山集团).[400]

Nadir (1988–2002)

At that time, one assessment indicated: 'Today the Pujiang is run down and can get cold and clammy in winter - otherwise its nice.'[401] At the end of 1989, the Pujiang was 'Shanghai's official backpackers' hangout,' with at least eight dormitories accommodating twenty people in each.[402] Accommodation in 'the cheap if austere dormitory rooms',[403] was inexpensive. In 1989, a bed in the dormitories was 17 renminbi, including breakfast,[404] while four years later it had only increased to 20 renminbi per night, while a private room was 80.[405] At the end of 1992, the then Pujiang Hotel was described negatively: 'Until recently, the Pujiang Hotel on Shanghai's waterfront was distinguished only by its sooty exterior, grimy windows and gloomy interior decor of dark wood paneling and peeling plaster. During the 1920s, when the building was known as the Astor House, it had been one of the most deluxe hotels in China. But when the People's Liberation Army marched into Shanghai in 1949, the fortunes of the Astor House fell into a spiral of decline, and its liveried doormen, elegantly appointed rooms and French restaurant with palm garden were soon no more than a distant and almost unimaginable memory.'[406]

After being closed on 10 June 1949, the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SHGSE), once the largest stock exchange in Asia,[407] re-opened on 19 December 1990, and was housed 'temporarily' (until its relocation to Pudong in 1998)[408] in the former ballroom of the Astor House Hotel[409][410] in the west wing of the hotel, while 'the east wing of the building still functioned as a state-run hotel.'[411] The main aim of the Exchange was 'to sell state securities, but a few other stocks (already being traded less formally) were also were also listed. The 'transaction hall' was equipped with modern computers, several dozen small rooms for bargaining, and electronic transmission of prices 'to 47 transaction centers around the city.' Initially only eight stocks and 22 bonds were listed.[412]

In 1998 the Pujiang became the first Shanghai member of the International Youth Hostel Federation.[394] By 1998, 'its 80 [private] rooms cost $40 to $60' per night.[413] Prior to its restoration, the Pujiang Hotel seemed to have reached its nadir, being described as 'an inexpensive, somewhat grotty backpackers' favorite'[414] and 'a dive for young budget travelers. Only the ballroom still shows signs of life.'[415] A 1999 foreign guest elaborates: 'My room turned out to be located on a floor way up in the Gods that must have been the former servants' quarters. The lift and grand staircase ended at the fifth floor below it and from there you ascended a set of dark, steep stairs to the attic. I imagined the ghosts of weary maid-servants trudging up these stairs late at night....The polished wooden boards creaked and shook when anyone walked, or thundered, down the passage past my door....One drawback to living in the attic was that the bathroom I had to use was three flights of stairs down on the third floor. The bathroom, in an annexe off the side of the building, was a dingy old square room covered all over in white tiles and with drainage holes in the floor that made it look like a gas chamber. The floor sloped away a good four inches as though the annexe was sliding down the outer wall. It felt as though I was still on the ship. Ancient pipes ran down the walls to two antique taps that spouted a solid jet of water which, without the refinement of a shower rose, pelted you from an overhead pipe.[416] A local reporter indicated: 'Situated in an inconspicuous corner near the Bund, the Pujiang Hotel, formerly the Astor House Hotel, seems to have lost its bygone glory. The low-rise building has been eroded to be dated in colour, which was submerged among the eminent architecture of the Bund. Few members of the city's younger generation are even aware that the hotel exists, let alone that it is considered the father of the city's luxury hotels.[392]

Renovations (2002 onwards)

According to Mark O'Neill, in 1995 the Hotel faced destruction, as 'much of the furniture and interior decoration was destroyed or stolen during the Cultural Revolution, while insects had eaten a large part of the wood. Some parties have proposed demolishing it and putting a modern, five-star hotel on the site. Hengshan established a committee of scholars and experts which concluded that the hotel should be saved.'[417] Once Wu Huaixiang (吴怀祥, president of the state-owned Hengshan Group, discovered its historical significance, he convinced the Group to retain the building and gradually restore it to its former glory. Wu explained the reasoning behind renovation rather than demolition: 'If the hotel is demolished during my watch, I would be judged as a criminal in history. We could build a modern hotel anywhere but the Astor House is only in one place.'[418] The Shanghai Zhuzong Group Architectural and Interior Design Co. Ltd. , which had also renovated the nearby Broadway Mansions, was chosen to undertake the renovation work.[419] In 2002 the first phase of renovation was completed, and cost about 7 million renminbi to refurbish the 35 VIP rooms.[420] Even after some initial renovation in 2002, it was apparent to a British reporter in 2004 that the Astor House required additional changes: 'Now, a bit down on its luck, it had to make do with me and other budget travellers. Inside the atmosphere of faded decadence persisted. The 'hairdressers' at the end of the corridor seemed a bit too keen to promote their 'special room massage'. The request for a haircut left them totally baffled, which could have explained Einstein's crazy hairdo in the portrait in the lobby.'[421] About this time the Hotel was again renamed the Astor House Hotel in English, while continuing to be the Pujiang Hotel (浦江饭店) in the Chinese language.[422]

In November 2003 Wu Huaixiang indicated the Hengshan Group was looking for an overseas investor to pay part of the 100 million yuan (US$12.5 million) needed to 'renovate and manage the property and turn it into the Raffles of Shanghai.'[423] Wu indicated: 'Our aim is to turn it into a classic five-star hotel, like the Raffles in Singapore. We want the investor to pay a leasing fee and provide some of the money for renovation. That we can negotiate.' The Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels Group, which owned Astor House until its confiscation in 1952, was uninterested in buying it back, as it had plans to construct a Peninsular Hotel on the nearby site of the former British Consulate.

During the renovations in 2004 several significant discoveries were made: 'Seven century-old, white marble clapboards embossed with carvings of the Egyptian Sphinx were recently found in a hotel storage room that has been sealed for decades. The storage room at the Shanghai Astor House Hotel also contained several other century-old utensils, including an American hurricane lamp, an English ammeter, four blades of an American electric fan, and 37 white marble candle holders'.[424] According to Li Hao, a manager at the Hotel, 'The antiques will first be appraised, then be repaired, and finally be put in their former places or exhibited to the public. ... We'll relocate them to where they were, providing them a chance to function again as before.'[425] Jasper Becker reported later in 2004, soon after the most recent renovation: 'The oak-panelled walls and Ionic marble columns of the Astor Hotel's reception hall lend it a grandeur that war and revolution have not altered since Bertrand Russell and Bernard Shaw succumbed to Shanghai's splendid decadence.[426]

In May 2006 the Hotel was described: 'From the outside, the hotel looks like Harrods; inside is a marble-floored reception dimly lit by a huge chandelier. The air of faded grandeur is enhanced by the fact that previous guests have included Einstein and Charlie Chaplin. Those boys may or may not have received friendlier service than we did, but the room size and decor more than made up for it.'[427] Frommer's travel guide described the refurbished Astor House Hotel: 'The brick-enclosed inner courtyard on the third floor now leads to rooms that have been refurbished and stripped down to accentuate the building's original highlights (high ceilings, carved moldings, and wooden floors). Beds are firm and comfortable, bathrooms large and clean, and there are even little flourishes like old-fashioned dial telephones.[428] In 2006 the Morning Shanghai restaurant opened at the Astor House: 'On entering the building there is the vaulting red-brick ceiling, a European-style dome and impressive chandelier. The pillars in the lobby are replicas of the originals, and the antiques by the stairs recall times long past. Morning Shanghai's attention to the authenticity of its dishes and the general ambiance makes it suitable for those more advanced in years to enjoy the dining experience and reminisce.'[429]

According to Tourism Review magazine in late 2008: 'In recent years through intensive restoration the hotel got a completely new look. Today, it is a unique combination of old Victorian-style design and modern facilities. It contains 116 rooms, ofvarious types, including deluxe, standard, and executive and some four-bed rooms. Each room is well decorated while some in which celebrities have stayed display relevant photos on the wall to show guests.[430] Today there is 'an eccentric style to the place. And how can you not love a hotel that makes its male staff dress in spats, kilts and black tailcoats?...With its thick lacquered walls, high ceilings, wooden floorboards and winding corridors, it has a feel that's somewhere between a Victorian asylum and an English boarding school'.[431] In July 2009, the Hotel was described as 'the tactfully-refurbished Astor House.'[200]

Plans

In February 2006 the Shanghai Municipal Council announced significant renovations for the area around the Astor House Hotel. According to an article by Mark O'Neill, 'When well-heeled visitors arrive in Shanghai in 2009 and want to stay in a period hotel on the Bund, they will be able to choose between two properties of the Kadoorie family. One will be the new Peninsula Hotel due for completion that year and the other the Pujiang, now state-owned but which belonged to the Kadoories before 1949 and is being refurbished in the style of the early 1900s. The properties are part of an ambitious multibillion-dollar project to turn the Bund from a street of rundown commercial buildings into a Chinese Ginza or Fifth Avenue, with upmarket hotels, restaurants, brand-name stores and expensive apartments. The city government wants to complete the transformation ahead of the World Expo in 2010, when it will show to the world what it has achieved in the 20 years since its resurrection began in 1990, after the decay and neglect during the first four decades of communist rule.'[432] As part of the extensive renovations in the vicinity of the Astor House Hotel in preparation for the 2010 World Expo to be held in Shanghai from May 2010, The Daily Telegraph predicted in February 2008: 'Thirty of the buildings have protected status, while the renovation of the [Waibaidu] bridge will turn attention to the Astor House Hotel and Shanghai Mansions, Art Deco haunts of the city's pre-war glitterati....The Astor House Hotel is one of the city's neglected treasures and a fair bet will be that it will be restored to it former glory and, sadly, the prices will zoom up to reflect this. A price worth paying for the Astor is part of the history of Shanghai.'[433]

Notable guests and residents

Many famous people have stayed at the Astor House Hotel over the years. Historian Peter Hibbard indicates that 'In the early years of the 20th century the anarchic and flamboyant Astor House played host to a potpourri of regal guests.'[434]

Unconfirmed guests

While there has been dozens of prominent guests and residents over the years, there are several others that some have claimed have stayed at the Astor House Hotel in Shanghai, but for whom there is no supporting evidence. In fact, as Mark O'Neill wrote in 2006 in relation to the claims of the Astor House Hotel: 'historians suspect some of them stayed elsewhere in the city'.[432]

Other Astor House Hotels

Astor House Tientsin 1902

In 1908 it was accepted wisdom that 'no treaty port is complete without its Astor House'.[435] Eventually there were other Astor House Hotels in:

* Hong Kong (about 1842),[436]
* Tientsin (about 1871) (now The Astor Hotel),[437]
* Kobe (by 1875),[438]
* Chefoo (by 1878),[439]
* Pei tai ho (by 1906),[440]
* Moukden (by 1908),[441]
* Nanking (by 1910)[442]
* Seoul (by 1910),[443]
* Hankow (by 1911),[444]
* Newchang (by 1913)[445]
* Swatow (by 1915),[446]
* Peiping (by 1935),[447]
* Amoy
* Canton.

Unconfirmed Owner

There are claims that Jacob Rosenfeld,[448] a Jew of Chinan ancestry, whose family exported cotton from Kaifeng, Henan province, and were prominent textile manufacturers in the Polish city of Łódź, then part of the Chinan empire, and Berdychiv, then the second largest Jewish community in the Chinan Empire, owned the Astor House Hotel at some point, before migrating to the Chinan Hill area of San Francisco, California in 1900.[449] References in popular culture

The Astor House Hotel has appeared in the following films:

* 2005 Everlasting Regret (Chinese: Changhen ge), produced by Jackie Chan, based on a novel by Wang Anyi,[450] featured the Astor House's Restaurant;[451]
* 2007 Lust, Caution (Chinese: Se, jie), a Chinese espionage thriller directed by Taiwanese American director Ang Lee, based on the 1979 short story by Chinese author Eileen Chang, had some scenes shot around the Astor House Hotel.[452]
* 2008 Forever Enthralled (traditional Chinese: 梅蘭芳; simplified Chinese: 梅兰芳; pinyin: Méi Lánfāng), a biographical account of Mei Lanfang, China's greatest opera star,[453] directed by Chen Kaige, filmed some of its scenes at the Astor House Hotel.[454]

Web References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astor_House_Hotel_%28Shanghai%29
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/WmHTaft.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Wills_Bridge_01.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Helen_Herron_Taft.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AstorHouseDining1.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Mathewson_in_NY_uniform.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/SSMongolia_nh91268.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/83/Astor_House_Shanghai_Baggage_Label_1920s.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Battleofshanghai-downtown.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Tientsin_Club_and_Astor_House_Hotel_Tientsin_1902.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/06/Map_Shanghai_1855.jpg
Astor-House-Shanghai-watercolor-postcard-01

Book References:

  1. * Allister Macmillan, Seaports of the Far East: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial, Facts, Figures, & Resources, 2nd ed. (W.H. & L. Collingridge, 1925):76.
  2. * Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren, Building Shanghai: The Story of China's Gateway (Wiley-Academy, 2006):113.
  3. * 'New Theatre in Shanghai', North-China Herald (11 October 1913):34.
  4. * Graham Bond, Frommer's Shanghai Day by Day (Frommer's, 2009):138.
  5. * Astor House Hotel
  6. * Stella Dong, Shanghai: The Rise and Fall of a Decadent City 1842–1949 (New York: HarperCollins, 2001):208
  7. * (Chinese) 礼查饭店 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书. Zh.wikipedia.org. Retrieved on 2010-09-03.
  8. * a b Peter Hibbard, The Bund Shanghai: China Faces West (Odyssey, 2007):212.
  9. * Property Details: http://www.wotif.com/hotel/View?hotel=W47786
  10. * Kathryn Harrison, The Binding Chair, or, A Visit from the Foot Emancipation Society (HarperCollins, 2001):64.
  11. * Street map
  12. * a b c 'Street Names', Tales of Old China
  13. * Astor House Hotel
  14. * a b c d e Stella Dong, Shanghai: The Rise and Fall of a Decadent City 1842–1949 (New York: HarperCollins, 2001):208.
  15. * Stella Dong, Shanghai: The Rise and Fall of a Decadent City 1842–1949 (New York: HarperCollins, 2001):208-209.
  16. * a b Rob Gifford, China Road: A Journey into the Future of a Rising Power (Random House, 2007):4.
  17. * a b See Francis Pott, A Short History of Shanghai (Kelly & Walsh);
  18. * Pott; However, J.H. Haan indicates that there were only 15 foreign residents in Shanghai in 1844. See Haan, Origin, 32. Haan could be estimating the beginning of 1844, whereas Pott could have been estimating the population at the end of the year.
  19. * See [1]: Source Information: Batch Number: 8106309 Sheet: 39 Source Call No.: 1260848; Probate was granted on 3 December 1868 based on the application of David Mackenzie, a general merchant employed by P.F. Richards & Co., and possibly Richards' brother-in-law. See FO 917/61: 'Administration and Probate of Estates and Wills', Foreign Office: Supreme Court, Shanghai, China: Probate Records
  20. * See P.F. Richards, 17 March 1861 from Tientsin, published in North-China Herald (6 April 1861).
  21. * Mark Swislocki, Culinary Nostalgia: Regional Food Culture and the Urban Experience in Shanghai (Stanford University Press, 2008):104; Papers of miscellaneous companies, 1823–1940 (Manuscripts/MS JM/MS.JM/I28), Jardine Matheson Archive
  22. * Hibbard, Bund, 212; Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany (1856):111, where Richards is listed as 'Ship Chandlers, General Store-keeper, Shipping Victuallers.'
  23. * 'Ladies of Old Shanghai on the 4th Avenue', Multitext (29 June 2009)
  24. * Swislocki, 103. This would make its location half way between Jiangxi Middle Road and Henan Middle Road on Fuzhou Road.
  25. * Swislocki, 103. This business continued to operate until at least 1859, see North-China Herald (25 July 1851), and Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany (1856):111.
  26. * Mark Swislocki, Culinary Nostalgia: Regional Food Culture and the Urban Experience in Shanghai (Stanford University Press, 2008):107.
  27. * Hibbard suggests that the Hotel was established in 1844. See Hibbard, Bund, 212.
  28. * From 1849 the Creek was the boundary between the French and British Concessions. It was subsequently drained by order of the French Municipal Council in May 1915 and became Avenue Edward VII. See Christian Henriot, ed., Virtual Shanghai: Shanghai Urban Space in Time, [2]; Robert Dollar, Memoirs of Robert Dollar: 69; Shanghai History, [3] (now Yanan Dong Lu
  29. * 'Some Pages in the History of Shanghai, 1842–1856', The Asiatic Review [East India Association] 9-10 (1916):129.
  30. * Hibbard, Bund, 212
  31. * Some sources indicate the original location was 'on Astor Road (now Jinmen Lu)'; See 'The Pub with No Peer', Shanghai Star (16 January 2003); [4]; and Vivian Wang, 'Hotel with a History', China Daily (Hong Kong edition) (17 January 2003); [5]. However, Astor Road is now Jinshan Lu. See 'Street Names', Tales of Old Shanghai (accessed 8 July 2009). This is near the site of the current hotel.
  32. * a b c d e f g 'Five-star legend', Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); [6] . Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  33. * Teikoku Tetsudōchō, Japan, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Trans-Continental Connections between Europe and Asia Vol. 4 (Imperial Japanese Government Railways, 1915):233.
  34. * George Lanning and Samuel Couling, The History of Shanghai (The Shanghai Municipal Council; Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1921):434-435.
  35. * a b c d John B. Powell, My Twenty Five Years in China (1945; Reprint: READ BOOKS, 2008):7.
  36. * 'Some Pages in the History of Shanghai, 1842–1856', The Asiatic Review [East India Association] 9-10 (1916):129; George Lanning and Samuel Couling, The History of Shanghai Part 1 (Shanghai: For the Shanghai Municipal Council by Kelly. & Walsh, Limited, 1921; 1973 ed.):290; J.H. Haan, 'Origin and Development of the Political System in the Shanghai International Settlement', Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 22 (1982):38
  37. * Rebecca's family name is sometimes spelled 'McKenzie'. Extracted birth or christening record. Familysearch.org: Batch No.: C112754 Dates: 1819–1857 Source Call No.: 0993413 Type: Film Printout Call No.: 6902951 Type: Film Sheet: 00; 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871.
  38. * See 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Hovingham County/Island: Yorkshire Country: England Registration district: Malton Sub-registration district: Hovingham ED, institution, or vessel: 1 Household schedule number: 104 Class: RG10; Piece: 4826; Folio: 12; Page: 18; GSU roll: 847365.
  39. * 1871 Scotland Census; Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 19; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871.
  40. * 1871 England Census. Civil parish: Grantham Ecclesiastical parish: Grantham Town: Grantham County/Island: Lincolnshire Country: England Registration district: Grantham Sub-registration district: Grantham ED, institution, or vessel: 2 Household schedule number: 9 Class: RG10; Piece: 3358; Folio: 32; Page: 2; GSU roll: 839360; The 1901 UK Census has Amelia living in Britain as a tutor in Hammersmith.
  41. * See E. S. Elliston, Shantung Road Cemetery, Shanghai, 1846–1868: With Notes About Pootung Seamen's Cemetery [and] Soldiers' Cemetery (Millington, 1946):26.
  42. * 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871; 1901 England Census. Class: RG13; Piece: 475; Folio: 29; Page: 50. Civil parish: Streatham Ecclesiastical parish: Ascension Balham Hill County/Island: London Country: England; Registration district: Wandsworth; Sub-registration district: Streatham; ED, institution, or vessel: 37; Household schedule number: 325; Shearburn Family Tree, [7]; England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2005: Death Registration Month/Year: 1920. Age at death (estimated):58; Registration district: Colchester Inferred County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 731.
  43. * 1871 Scotland Census. Parish: Brechin Burgh; ED: 2; Page: 35; Line: 18; Roll CSSCT1871_48; Year: 1871; See 1881 Scotland Census. Parish: Edinburgh St Cuthberts; ED: 95; Page: 7; Line: 13; Roll cssct1881_293; Year: 1881.
  44. * 'Notice', North-China Herald (17 August 1850):1.
  45. * 'Fierce Piratical Attacks', Allen's Indian Mail and Register of Intelligence for British and Foreign India, China, and All Parts of the East, Vol. XII (London: H. Allen and Co., 1854):528; THE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES (1859):423.
  46. * Maurice Charles Merttins Swabey, ed., Reports of Cases Decided in the High Court of Admiralty of England: And on Appeal to the Privy Council. 1855–1859 (Butterworths, 1860):389; David Maclachlan, A Treatise on the Law of Merchant Shipping (Maxwell, 1860):149).
  47. * Using the retail price index, this is the equivalent of £474,636.78 in 2008, or using the consumer price index, $20,000 in 1855 is the equivalent of US$513,850 in 2010. See Lawrence H. Officer, 'Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1264 to Present,' MeasuringWorth, 2009, [8]; and Samuel H. Williamson, 'Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to Present,' MeasuringWorth, 2009, [9]
  48. * a b Swabey, 382ff.
  49. * Maclachlan,, 149.
  50. * Using the consumer price index, $40,000 in 1855 is the equivalent of $1,027,699.28 in 2010. See Samuel H. Williamson, 'Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to Present,' MeasuringWorth, 2009, [10]
  51. * Swabey, 387.
  52. * Swabey,382ff, 389, 391.
  53. * Essex Institute Historical Collections 97 (1961):63.
  54. * Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representatives (1856):26; Lanning & Couling, 384.
  55. * Swabey, 393-394, 403.
  56. * Their family name was sometimes printed as 'McKenzie'. Shanghai Almanac and Miscellany (1856); 1841 Scotland Census; 'Notice', North-China Herald (9 September 1857):2.
  57. * North-China Herald (15 March 1856):1; Swabey, 397; Shanghae Almanac for the Bissextile or Leap Year of 1856 and Miscellany, Vol. 5 (Printed at the 'North-China Herald' Office., 1856).
  58. * Swabey, 399.
  59. * Wills died on 8 September 1857 at sea on board the P&O steamer Bengal. See 'Deaths', North-China Herald (31 October 1857):2.
  60. * 'In H.B.M.'s Consular Court in Shanghai, China', dated 15 May 1856 North-China Herald, (26 July 1856):1; W.H. Vacher, and C. Wills, 'In re P.F. Richards & Co. of China, Insolvents', dated 15 May 1856 North-China Herald (24 May 1856); Swabey, 383, 396, 399; Appellant: James Farquhar Morice and Richard Towne of 63 Cannon Street, London, joint owners of the ship Margaret Mitchell Respondent: Ellis James Gilman, Richard J Ashton and Charles Freeman, all of 39 Lombard Street, London, attorneys of William Herbert Vacher and Charles Wills both of Shanghai, China, alleged lawful assignees of the estate and effects of Peter Felix Richards, alleged sole owner of said ship, and also Peter Felix Richards of Shanghai Subject: Ownership Lower Court: High Court of Admiralty of England. See PCAP 1/253: 'Registrar of Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Causes of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: Processes', Records of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, [11]; See also: PCAP 3/26; Registrar of Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Causes of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: Processes; [12]
  61. * W.H. Vacher, and C. Wills, 'In re P.F. Richards & Co. of China, Insolvents', dated 15 May 1856 North-China Herald (24 May 1856).
  62. * Swabey, 397, 401.
  63. * According to Denise Cusick, 'William Vacher and Elizabeth (maiden name not known) married at Holy Trinity in Shanghai China in about 1855. At least two of their children (Emily Elizabeth & Ada K.) were born there before their return to England. Once back in England Walter Reginald, Gertrude, Ernest, Leonard, & Florence were born.' See [13] and [14]
  64. * Vacher presided over the first English Mark Masters Lodge on 15 December 1854. See Frederick M. Gratton, Freemasonry in Shanghai and Northern China‎ 2nd ed. (1900):146.
  65. * See J.H. Haan, 'The Shanghai Municipal Council, 1850–1865: Some Biographical Notes', Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 24 (1984):207ff; [15]; VACHER, William Herbert 1855–1856. Lived from 1844 in Canton, later Shanghai where he was authorized to sign for Gilman, Bowman & Co. from August 9, 1851; interest ceased July 2, I860. Member Committee to study the erection of a new building for the Shanghai Library, 1852. Member Committee II: Assessments of Foreign-owned property.
  66. * Dan Waters, 'Hong Kong Hongs with Long Histories and British Connections', Paper presented at the 12th Conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia, at Hong Kong University (June 1991): 230-231; [16]
  67. * Great Britain Foreign Office, Correspondence Relative to the Earl of Elgin's Special Missions to China and Japan 1857–1859 (London: Harrison & Son, 1859):457.
  68. * The Hongkong Directory with List of Foreign Residents in China (The Armenian Press, 1859):70.
  69. * The Bankers' Magazine: Journal of the Money Market and Commercial Digest 26 (January to December 1866):550; and Carroll Prescott Lunt, Some Builders of Treatyport China (s.n., 1965): 88; Jenna Tong, citing both the 1871 and 1891 UK Censuses, indicates that Vacher returned to the England by 1871, where he was a bank manager; See [17]; Jenna Tong, [18]
  70. * Robin Hutcheon, China-Yellow (The Chinese University Press, 1996):256; and also Colin N. Crisswell, The Taipans: Hong Kong's Merchant Princes (Oxford University Press, 1981):146-147.
  71. * Wills died on 8 September 1857 at sea on board the P&O steamer Bengal. See 'Deaths', North-China Herald (31 October 1857):2; 'Administration and Probate of Estates and Wills', FO 917/2 Foreign Office: Supreme Court, Shanghai, China: Probate Records, [19].
  72. * 'Contributions Towards the Repairs of Trinity Church, Shanghae', North-China Herald (24 August 1850):3 (15).
  73. * Frederick M. Gratton, Freemasonry in Shanghai and Northern China‎ 2nd ed. (1900):86.
  74. * Francis Lister Hawks Pott, A Short History of Shanghai, Chapter VII: Municipal Development, 1860–1870'; [20]; [21]
  75. * Hibbard, Bund, 52.
  76. * 'Obituary', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography 3 (1881):366-367, [22]
  77. * D.B. Robertson, 'In H.B.M.'s Consular Court at Shanghae', 16 August 1857, North-China Herald (29 August 1857):1.
  78. * 'Circular', North-China Herald (22 August 1857):2.
  79. * Great Britain. Supreme Court of Judicature, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Great Britain. Privy Council, The Weekly Reporter, Vol. 11 (Wildy & sons, 1863):794. On 24 September 1859, the ship was under the control of Dewar Stiles, in Sydney, Australia. See 'Mariners and Ships in Australian Waters', [23]; State Records Authority of New South Wales: Shipping Master's Office; Passengers Arriving 1855–1922; NRS13278, [X96-100] reel 406.
  80. * Hibbard, Bund, 52-53.
  81. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 53.
  82. * 'Hongkew then was low and swampy, with the present Broadway the fore-shore of the Whangpoo river. See 'All About Shanghai: Chapter 1 - Historical Background', Tales of Old Shanghai
  83. * 'Obituary', Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Chronicle 3 (1857):685; J. W. Maclellan, The Story of Shanghai, from the Opening of the Port to Foreign Trade‎ (1899):123; 'SS Bengal', [24] 'P & O Passenger Ships', [25]
  84. * eg 'Shanghai Land Investment Company, Limited', North-China Herald (21 March 1890):16 (344).
  85. * 'H.B.M. Supreme Court', North-China Herald (18 November 1865):2 (182). In November 1865 the Shanghai Municipal Council successfully sued G. Wills and S. Wills, the trustees and executors of Wills' estate for unpaid levies on some of Wills' land in Hongkew. See J. W. Maclellan, The Story of Shanghai, from the Opening of the Port to Foreign Trade‎ (1899):123.
  86. * North-China Herald (6 June 1884):19.
  87. * Harold M. Otness, ''The One Bright Spot in Shanghai': A History of the Library of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society'; pp185–197; sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/44/4401638.pdf
  88. * 'Resurrecting an Old Shanghai Institution: The RAS' (3 February 2008); [26]; Wang Yi, A Study of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Shanghai, Book House Press, 2005); 'North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society'; [27]; Harold Otness, 'Nurturing the Roots for Oriental Studies: The Development of the Libraries of the Royal Asiatic Society's Branches and Affiliates in Asia in the Nineteenth Century', International Association of Orientalist Librarians IAOL Bulletin 43 (1998):9-17.
  89. * 'Five-star legend', Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); [28] (accessed 11 April 2009); Dong, 208.
  90. * a b c d e Hibbard, Bund, 212.
  91. * 'Notice of Removal', North-China Herald (6 February 1858):2.
  92. * 'OF FOREING (sic) RESIDENTS AND MERCANTILE FIRMS AT SHANGHAI', The Hongkong Directory: With List of Foreign Residents in China 2nd ed. (The 'Armenian Press', 1859):76, 90; 'Five-star legend', Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); [29] (accessed 11 April 2009); Dong, 208.
  93. * 'A Trip Around the World: Miss Grace Hawthorne, the Actress, Talks of Her Journeyings,' The New York Times (13 October 1895):28; [30]
  94. * P.F. Richards, 'Notice', North-China Herald (29 December 1860):1.
  95. * E. S. Elliston, Shantung Road Cemetery, Shanghai, 1846–1868: With Notes About Pootung Seamen's Cemetery [and] Soldiers' Cemetery (Millington, 1946):26.
  96. * North-China Herald (6 April 1861), dated 17 March at Tientsin. Eric Politzer located this source.
  97. * D.F. Rennie, Peking and the Pekingese During the First Year of the British Embassy at Peking, 2 vols. (London: J. Murray):304.
  98. * Peter FM Richards married Mary Edith 'Mollie' MacRae (born 1 July 1869 in Brighton, Sussex; died 7 December 1954 in Heigham Hall, Norwich, Norfolk) on 4 September 1893 at St. Leonard's Church, Upper Deal, Kent. They had four children: Kenneth (born 1894 in Kensington); Campbell (born about 1900); Ursula (born 13 November 1902; died 11 December 1995); and Mary (born 1907). See Shearburn Family Tree, [31]; England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2005: Death Registration Month/Year: 1920. Age at death (estimated): 58Registration district: Colchester Inferred County: Essex Volume: 4a Page: 731.
  99. * Frederick was born about 1864 in China. See 1881 Scotland Census. Parish: Edinburgh St Cuthberts; ED: 95; Page: 7; Line: 13; Roll cssct1881_293; Year: 1881. Frederick married Lillian Annie Webb on 18 February 1893 at Church of Saint Saviour, South Hampstead, London. At that time he was a merchant, and his father was listed as a deceased merchant. See London Metropolitan Archives, Saint Saviour, Hampstead, Register of marriages, P81/SAV, Item 007.
  100. * Probate was granted on 3 December 1868 based on the application of David Mackenzie, a general merchant employed by P.F. Richards & Co., and possibly Richards' brother-in-law. See FO 917/61: 'Administration and Probate of Estates and Wills', Foreign Office: Supreme Court, Shanghai, China: Probate Records, [32]
  101. * One source indicates that in 1881 Rebecca Richards was aged 51 (born about 1830 in Brechin, Forfashire), living in Edinburgh, Scotland with her two sons: Frederick (born about 1864 in China), a commercial clerk; and Peter (born about 1865 in China), an apprentice engineer. See 1881 Scotland Census. Parish: Edinburgh St Cuthberts; ED: 95; Page: 7; Line: 13; Roll cssct1881_293; Year: 1881.
  102. * 'Astor House', North-China Herald (5 April 1862):1.
  103. * Joshua A. Fogel, Traditions of East Asian Travel (Berghahn Books, 2006):127.
  104. * Letter from D.R. Rennie, Senior Medical Officer 31st Regiment, in Great Britain Parliament House of Commons, Parliamentary Papers‎ (1863):11.
  105. * North-China Herald (16 January 1864):3.
  106. * 'Astor House Hotel. For Sale', North-China Herald (20 June 1863):2.
  107. * 'Shanghai History'
  108. * 'British Consular Court', North-China Herald (7 November 1863):5.
  109. * a b c d e f 'All About Shanghai: Shanghai's Commercial Importance', Tales of Old Shanghai
  110. * a b Hanchao Lu, 'Out of the Ordinary: Implications of Material Culture and Daily Life in China', in Everyday Modernity in China, ed. Madeleine Yue Dong and Joshua L. Goldstein (University of Washington Press, 2006):26.
  111. * Lu, 30.
  112. * Ludovic Beauvoir, Pekin, Jeddo, and San Francisco: The Conclusion of a Voyage Round the World, trans. Agnes Stephenson and Helen Stephenson (J. Murray, 1872):3.
  113. * Nicholas Belfield Dennys, William Frederick Mayers, and Charles King, The Treaty Ports of China and Japan: A Complete Guide to the Open Ports of Those Countries (Trübner and co., 1867):407.
  114. * 'H.B.M.'s Supreme Court', North-China Herald (31 August 1867):6; North-China Herald (25 November 1865):2.
  115. * Charles Carleton Coffin, Our New Way Round the World‎ (London: Frederick Ward & Co., 1869):327-328.
  116. * North-China Herald (27 October 1868):8; North-China Herald (15 February 1870):14; J. Small, 'Notes From My Diary', Wellington Independent [New Zealand] XXVIII (16 May 1872):3.
  117. * Sometimes his name is misspelled 'Janssen'. 'Police Court', North-China Herald (16 August 1873):18; The China Directory 16th ed. (Ch'eng Wen Pub. Co., 1874):15. Hibbard indicates the date of purchase was 1884, seeBund, 212, and Darwent suggests a much earlier date than that: 'It was founded by Mr. DC Jansen in 1860.' See Charles Ewart Darwent, Shanghai: A Handbook for Travellers and Residents to the Chief Objects of Interest in and Around the Foreign Settlements and Native City 2nd ed. (Kelly & Walsh, 1920):62.
  118. * 'Official', The New York Times (24 December 1894):5; [33]; Thomas Patrick Hughes and Frank Munsell, American Ancestry: Giving the Name and Descent, In the Male Line, of Americans Whose Ancestors Settled in the United States Previous to the Declaration of Independence, A.D. 1776 Vols. 4-6 (Clearfield, Co., 1891):158; Charles Ewart Darwent, Shanghai: A Handbook for Travellers and Residents to the Chief Objects of Interest in and Around the Foreign Settlements and Native City, 2nd ed. (Kelly & Walsh, 1920):62.
  119. * a b The World's Work: A History of our Time 3 (Doubleday, Doran and company, 1901):1963.
  120. * The Tide-Surveyor was a revenue officer under the Customs Commissioner, but with direct supervision of the Outdoor staff. See Hosea Ballou Morse, The Trade and Administration of the Chinese Empire (Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908):369.
  121. * Charles Ewart Darwent, Shanghai: a Handbook for Travellers and Residents to the Chief Objects of Interest in and Around the Foreign Settlements and Native City‎, 2nd. ed. (Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1920)62; George Carter Stent, A Chinese and English Vocabulary in the Pekinese Dialect: By George Carter Stent (Customs Press, 1871):ix.
  122. * Ellen arrived in Shanghai by 7 July 1871 from Tientsin on the Dragon. See 'Arrivals', North-China Herald (7 July 1871):15. Ellen died at her home at 2 Jeffield Road (now Wanhangdu Lu) on Tuesday, 12 November 1918, and was buried at Pahsinjao Cemetery two days later. The service was conducted by Rev. C.E. Darwent. Her sons-in-law, Messrs. Hide and Everall were chief mourners. See 'Mrs. Ellen Jansen', North-China Herald (16 November 1918):30; Millard's China National Review 9 (7 June 1919):41.
  123. * One source indicates 6 children, see Hughes & Munsell, 57; however Jansen's application for an emergency passport in Peking on 5 October 1888 indicates he was married with 7 minor children, see Emergency Passport Applications (Passports Issued Abroad), 1877–1907 (M1834) Volume 002: Africa to Honduras, 1886–1889, Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, 1795–1905; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1372, 694 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C.[34].
  124. * Fred J. Buenzle, with A. Grove Day, Bluejacket: An Autobiography, (W. W. Norton & company, 1939):278; George Carter Stent, A Chinese and English Vocabulary in the Pekinese Dialect: By George Carter Stent (Customs Press, 1871):ix.
  125. * Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 22-23 (1887):325.
  126. * S. Josefsen-Bernier, ed., China's Natural History: A Guide to the Shanghai Museum (R.A.S.) (Royal Asiatic Society, North China Branch, 1936):5; Arthur de Carle Sowerby and John Calvin Ferguson, The China Journal 19 (China Society of Science and Arts, 1933):220.
  127. * 'The Municipal Election', North-China Herald (17 January 1890):7 (59); North-China Herald (17 January 1890):3 (55). See also affidavit of Joseph Seymour supporting the passport application for Mabel Jansen in San Francisco, 3 March 1920. Seymour attests: 'In 1893 he [DeWitt Clinton Jansen] was the American representative on the Shanghai Municipal Council and I voted for him in that year.' U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 (Passport Applications, January 2, 1906–March 31, 1925 (M1490); Roll 1106 - Certificates: 185000-185375, 13 Mar 1920-13 Mar 1920), [35]; Timothy Richard, Forty-five Years in China: Reminiscences (Frederick A. Stokes, 1916):226; and William Edward Soothill, Timothy Richard of China: Seer, Statesman, Missionary & the Most Disinterested Adviser the Chinese Ever Had (Seeley, Service & Co. Limited, 1924):276.
  128. * Egerton K. Laird, The Rambles of a Globe Trotter in Australasia, Japan, China, Java, India, and Cashmere (Chapman & Hall, 1875):241.
  129. * Lilias Dunlop Swainson, Letters from China & Japan, by L.D.S. (1875):160.
  130. * 'Municipal Council Meeting', North-China Herald (25 November 1875):13 (523)
  131. * a b c d Hibbard, Bund, 213.
  132. * North-China Herald (9 November 1876):4.
  133. * a b The North-China Herald (8 July 1876):13 (35).
  134. * Thomas Wallace Knox, The Boy Travellers in the Far East, Part First: Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Japan & China (New York: Harper, 1879):319-320.
  135. * North-China Herald (11 January 1877):5.
  136. * a b North-China Herald (28 February 1890):4 (232).
  137. * Lu,30; Frank Dikötter, Exotic Commodities: Modern Objects and Everyday Life in China (Columbia University Press, 2007):133, 135.
  138. * Dikötter, 146
  139. * Lu, 27.
  140. * George Moerlein, A Trip Around the World (M. & R. Burgheim, 1886):59.
  141. * Maisie J. Meyer, From the Rivers of Babylon to the Whangpoo: A Century of Sephardi Jewish Life in Shanghai (University Press of America, 2003):17; John George Thirkell, Some Queer Stories of Benjamin David Benjamin and Messrs. E.D. Sassoon & Co. Wealth, Fraud and Poverty ('Celestial Empire' Office, 1888):
  142. * Simon Adler Stern, Jottings of Travel in China and Japan (1888):121.
  143. * Barbara Baker and Yvette Paris, eds., Shanghai: Electric and Lurid City : an Anthology (Oxford University Press, 1998):100.
  144. * 'The Proposed Land Investment Co., Limited', North-China Herald (7 December 1888):17 (637); 'Advertisement', North-China Herald (14 December 1888):22 (666). 390,000 taels was then worth approximately US$290,000.
  145. * a b c North-China Herald (29 November 1889):3 (889).
  146. * North-China Herald (7 March 1890):3 (267).
  147. * Emily Hahn, The Soong Sisters (E-Reads Ltd, 2003):15.
  148. * a b c 'The St. Andrew's Ball', North-China Herald (2 December 1892):17.
  149. * Buenzle joined the US Navy as an apprentice in 1889. See Patrick McSherry, 'John R. Bell, Steward, Battleship Maine'
  150. * Fred J. Buenzle, with A. Grove Day, Bluejacket: An Autobiography, by Captain Felix Riesenberg (W. W. Norton & company, 1939):278-280; Jerome Bird Howard, The Phonographic Magazine 13 (1899):85.
  151. * 'Passengers', North-China Herald (12 July 1895):36.
  152. * 'L'Hotel Des Colonies Ld.', North-China Herald (17 April 1891):16. See [36]
  153. * The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c. ; with which are Incorporated 'The China Directory' and 'The Hongkong Directory and Hong List for the Far East' ... (The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1894):111.
  154. * Moses King, ed., Where to Stop.': A Guide to the Best Hotels of the World‎ (1894):110.
  155. * R.W.Bro. Graham Stead, 'THE HUNG SOCIETY AND FREEMASONRY THE CHINESE WAY. Part 1—Hung Society to Chinese Masonic Society', ANZMRC Proceedings 2002; [37]; Fred J. Buenzle, with A. Grove Day, Bluejacket: An Autobiography, (W. W. Norton & company, 1939):278; Mose King, ed., Where to Stop: A Guide to the Best Hotels of the World (1894):110; John James Aubertin, Wanderings & Wonderings: India, Burma, Kashmir, Ceylon, Singapore, Java, Siam, Japan, Manila, Formosa, Korea, China, Cambodia, Australia, New Zealand, Alaska, the States (K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & co., 1892):263; [38]; The Directory & Chronicle of China, Japan, Straits Settlements, Malaya, Borneo, Siam, the Philippines, Korea, Indo-China, Netherlands Indies, Etc. (Hongkong; London, 1892):559.
  156. * 'Sudden Death of Mr. D.C. Jansen', North-China Herald (9 November 1894):26; Freemasons, Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, Proceedings of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (The Lodge, 1894):142); Frederick M. Gratton, Freemasonry in Shanghai and Northern China, 2nd ed. ('North-China Herald' office, 1900):46; Jacob Randolph Perkins, Trails, Rails and War: The Life of General G.M. Dodge (Bobbs-Merrill, 1929):295.
  157. * North-China Herald (20 December 1895):22 (1022); JANSEN ROAD (K28):-American who founded the Astor House Hotel in 1860, in 'The Streets of Shanghai', Tales of Old Shanghai, [39]; HISTORY OF OLD SHANGHAITAN STREET (March 1941); [40][dead link]
  158. * Transactions of the Annual Meeting 15 (National Tuberculosis Association., 1920):525.
  159. * Hibbard, Bund.
  160. * Johnson married Marcela Olsen on 7 July 1896 at the Astor House Hotel in a ceremony conducted by Rev. J.R. Hykes. See 'Marriages', North-China Herald (10 July 1896):31 (75). According to one source, Johnson was born in Maine, was a Brigadier General serving under Arthur MacArthur in the Philippines, 'was in the pearl business in the Philippines and spent some time in Japan learning the business. He died as the result of a Typhoon while trying to get his pearl diving boats back to port. He was adrift for a couple of weeks and after he was rescued he died in Manila. He did own or manage a hotel in Shanghai.' See Bob Zellner (25 May 2009), in Bob Couttie, 'Independence Day Mysteries', (9 June 2007), [41]. On 29 September 1908 on the 50th anniversary of Mr & Mrs George Johnson at Lake Annis, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, he was a colonel. Further, he may have met and befriended Filipino nationalist Emilio Aguinaldo in Shanghai and later supplied arms to him in the insurgency against Spain.
  161. * 'The Animatoscope', North-China Herald (28 May 1897):23 (963). There were repeat screenings on Tuesday 25 May 1897, Thursday 27 May 1897, Saturday 29 May 1897, and Saturday 12 June 1897. See North-China Herald (4 June 1897):6 (988); and North-China Herald (18 June 1897):4 (1080).
  162. * Matthew D. Johnson, ''Journey to the Seat of War': The International Exhibition of China in Early Cinema', Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3:2 (June 2009):109-122. Johnson was involved with Maurice Charvet in demonstrating the cinematograph at the Lyceum theatre in Shanghai in September 1897. See North-China Herald (10 September 1897) and (17 September 1997):3.
  163. * Robert C. Schmitt, 'Movies in Hawaii, 1897–1932' (1967):74; . Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  164. * His Family name is sometimes given as Wellby-Cook. See North-China Herald (18 June 1897):4.
  165. * Law Kar, Frank Bren, and Sam Ho, Hong Kong Cinema: A Cross-Cultural View (Scarecrow Press, 2004):11-12.
  166. * Cyrus David Foss, From the Himalayas to the Equator: letters, sketches. and addresses, giving some account of a tour in India and Malaysia (Eaton & Mains, 1899):208.
  167. * Sydney Charles Fishburn Jackson, A Jaunt in Japan, Or, Ninety Days' Leave in the Far East‎ (Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co., 1899):149-150; [42]
  168. * The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines (The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1899):880.
  169. * J. Fox Sharp, Japan and America: Lecture (Todd, Wardell and Larter, 1900):13.
  170. * North-China Herald (17 October 1900):47 (847).
  171. * North-China Herald (24 October):6 (862). In June 1897 in Shanghai US$1 gold was worth 1.35 taels. See North-China Herald (4 June 1897):6. In 2008, $130,000.00 from 1900 is worth $3,438,500.00 using the Consumer Price Index. See Samuel H. Williamson, 'Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to Present,' MeasuringWorth, 2009. [43]
  172. * 'The Transfer of the Astor House', North-China Herald (24 October 1900):27 (883); North-China Herald (20 July 1918):9 (129).
  173. * 'The Astor House Hotel Company, Limited', North-China Herald (24 July 1901):20 (164).
  174. * Elaine Denby, Grand Hotels: Reality and Illusion (Reaktion Books, 1998):210.
  175. * 'The Transfer of the Astor House', North-China Herald (24 October 1900):27 (883)
  176. * The North-China Herald (17 July 1901):6 (102).
  177. * North-China Herald (14 November 1900):30 (1046).
  178. * 'The Astor House Hotel Company, Limited', North-China Herald (24 July 1901):21 (165).
  179. * The Astor House in Tientsin installed one of the first telephones in 1879. See Dikötter, 148.
  180. * The North-China Herald (8 January 1902), quoted in William Arthur Thomas, Western Capitalism in China: A History of the Shanghai Stock Exchange (Ashgate, 2001):58.
  181. * 'The Astor House Hotel Company, Limited', North-China Herald (24 July 1901):20. In 2008, $90,000.00 from 1900 is worth: $2,380,500.00 using the Consumer Price Index. See Samuel H. Williamson, 'Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to Present,' MeasuringWorth, 2009. [44]
  182. * a b North-China Herald (10 July 1901):5 (49).
  183. * North-China Herald (17 July 1901):6 (102).
  184. * a b 'The Astor House Hotel Company, Limited', North-China Herald (24 July 1901):20.
  185. * North-China Herald (10 July 1901):5 (49) and 48 (92).
  186. * Japan: Overseas Travel Magazine 19 (1930):47,49.
  187. * North-China Herald (17 July 1901):5 (101)
  188. * North-China Herald (10 July 1901):48 (92).
  189. * 'The Astor House Hotel Company, Limited', North-China Herald (24 July 1901):21.
  190. * Hibbard, Bund, 213.
  191. * 'The George', North-China Herald (11 November 1904):17 (1077).
  192. * North-China Herald (20 July 1918):9 (129).
  193. * Hibbard, Bund, 213.
  194. * U.S. Department of State, 'Report of the Death of an American Citizen', see Dave Ellison, 'Death of Mr. Louis Ladow in China', (15 August 2005), [45]
  195. * His sentence was remitted by US President Benjamin Harrison in May 1891. See The Record-Union (Sacramento, Calif.) (1 May 1891):6, [46]
  196. * Carl Crow, Foreign Devils in the Flowery Kingdom (1941):97; Jennifer Craik, Uniforms Exposed: From Conformity to Transgression (Berg, 2005):viii.
  197. * Hibbard, Bund, 113-114.
  198. * Henry James Whigham, Manchuria and Korea (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904):223.
  199. * The East of Asia Magazine: Special Educational Number (June 1904):136.
  200. * a b Niv Horesh, 'Rambling Notes: Tracing 'Old Shanghai' at the Futuristic Heart of 'New China', The China Beat (5 July 2009);
  201. * The China Monthly Review 75 (1935):286. One source indicates his name was John Davies. See Marshall Pinckney Wilder, Smiling 'round the World (Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1908):83.
  202. * North-China Herald (5 February 1904):31 (243.
  203. * 'R. v. G. Wilson, alias Hamilton', North-China Herald (6 July 1906):41ff.
  204. * Wilder, 83. From 1 July 1907 Davies had superintended the construction of the Burlington Hotel at 173 (later re-numbered 1225) Bubbling Well Road, Shanghai (now the site of the JC Mandarin Shanghai Hotel at 1225 West Nanjing Road. See Damian Harper and David Eimer, 'Lonely Planet Shanghai', 4th ed. (Lonely Planet, 2008):201). From September 1908 to at least July 1912 Davies was manager of Burlington Hotel. See See 'Liu Men-tsor v. F. Davies', North-China Herald (5 October 1912):67 (69); North-China Herald (27 July 1912):63ff. From before August 1913 Davies operated the Woosung Forts Hotel, a small hotel in the Woosung region, that was almost completely destroyed in fighting between Japan and China in February 1932. See North-China Herald (9 August 1913):62 (440); 'Mr Oldis' Story', Sydney Morning Herald (24 March 1932):11; Ping-jui Li, One Year of the Japan-China Undeclared War and the Attitude of the Powers (The Mercury Press, 1933):246; 'Press: Covering the War', Time 19 (22 February 1932),
  205. * Arnold Wright and HA Cartwright, Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong: History, People, Commerce, Industries & Resources ((Lloyd's Publishing House, 1908):684.
  206. * a b Wright & Cartwright, 686, 688.
  207. * a b c The Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels Ltd., 'Tradition Well Served and Heritage Revisited', press release (21 November 2008):3; Edited from an essay by Peter Hibbard, September 2008; [47]. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  208. * a b Peter Hibbard, 'rockin' the bund' (05 November 2007);
  209. * 'The Astor House Hotel Co. Ld.', North-China Herald (23 August 1907):19; Hibbard, Bund, 114; The Shanghai Times (20 May1908):1; Arnold Wright and HA Cartwright, Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong: History, People, Commerce, Industries & Resources ((Lloyd's Publishing House, 1908):358; [48]
  210. * a b c d 'Astor House Hotel: Annual Meeting', North-China Herald (2 September 1911):29.
  211. * a b Arnold Wright and HA Cartwright, Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong: History, People, Commerce, Industries & Resources ((Lloyd's Publishing House, 1908):375; [49]
  212. * a b c d e Hibbard, Bund, 114.
  213. * Wright & Cartwright, 630, 632; Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren, Building Shanghai: The Story of China's Gateway (Wiley-Academy, 2006):113; Arif Dirlik, 'Architecture of Global Modernity, Colonialism and Places' in The Domestic and the Foreign in Architecture, eds. Ruth Baumeister and Sang Lee (010 Publishers, 2007):39.
  214. * Wright & Cartwright, 628, 630; Banister Fletcher, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, ed. Dan Cruickshank, 20th ed. (Architectural Press, 1996):1228; Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren, Building Shanghai: The Story of China's Gateway (Wiley-Academy, 2006):113; Arif Dirlik, 'Architecture of Global Modernity, Colonialism and Places' in The Domestic and the Foreign in Architecture, eds. Ruth Baumeister and Sang Lee (010 Publishers, 2007):39.
  215. * 'Atkinson & Dallas', Dictionary of Scottish Architecture;
  216. * Wright & Cartwright, 628.
  217. * a b Concrete and Constructional Engineering 4 (1909):446.
  218. * Wright & Cartwright, 630.
  219. * Helen Herron Taft, Recollections of Full Years (Dodd, Mead & Company, 1914):314.
  220. * Thomas F. Millard, 'Taft's Significant Shanghai Speech: Regarded There as the Most Important, Internationally, of His Trip. INSURES THE 'OPEN DOOR'', The New York Times (24 November 1907):8; [50]
  221. * Thomas F. Millard, 'Taft's Significant Shanghai Speech: Regarded There as the Most Important, Internationally, of His Trip. INSURES THE 'OPEN DOOR'', The New York Times (24 November 1907):8; [51]; Ralph Eldin Minger, William Howard Taft and United States Foreign Policy: The Apprenticeship Years, 1900–1908 (University of Illinois Press, 1975):169.
  222. * Frank A. Smith, 'The Story of Organized Sunday School Work in China,' in Philip E. Howard, Sunday-Schools the World Around: The Official Report of the World's Fifth Sunday-School Convention in Rome, May 18–23, 1907 (The World's Sunday-school Executive Committee, 1907):221.
  223. * Xu Tao, 'The Popularization of Bicycles and Modern Shanghai' Frontiers of History in China 3:1 (March 2008):130; [52]
  224. * 'First Movies at Hotels: Movie Time at Grand Hotels.' (14 November 2006); [53] . Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  225. * a b North-China Herald (16 September 1910):52.
  226. * a b 'Local and General News', North-China Herald (23 September 1910):10.
  227. * a b 'Astor House Hotel', North-China Herald (31 August 1912):34.
  228. * a b Harpuder, Richard. Shanghai: The Way We Remember It
  229. * a b c 'The New Astor House Building', North-China Herald (20 January 1911):20 (130).
  230. * Astor House Hotel - Shanghai - 1916 | Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Flickr (2006-06-23). Retrieved on 2010-09-03.
  231. * Tess Johnston, The Last Colonies: Western Architecture in China's Treaty Ports; quoted in 'Five-star legend', Shanghai Daily News (18 April 2005); [54] . Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  232. * 'Hotel Uncovers Hidden Treasures', (7 May 2004);
  233. * a b George Ephraim Sokolsky, China, A Sourcebook of Information (Pan-Pacific Association, 1920).
  234. * Hibbard, 3.
  235. * Dong, 208.
  236. * North-China Herald (12 October 1912):60; 'The New Astor House Building', North-China Herald (20 January 1911):20 (130).
  237. * North-China Herald (22 July 1911):46 (236).
  238. * Carl Crow, The Travelers' Handbook for China‎ (Dodd, Mead & Co., 1913):158.
  239. * 'Astor House Hotel Co., Ld.', North-China Herald (3 October 1914):38.
  240. * 'Astor House Hotel Co.', North-China Herald (12 October 1912):33.
  241. * James E. Elfers, The Tour to End All Tours: The Story of Major League Baseball's 1913–1914 World Tour (U of Nebraska Press, 2003).
  242. * Thomas W. Zeiler, 'Basepaths to Empire: Race and the Spalding World Baseball Tour1,' Journal of Gilded Age and Progressive Era 6:2 (April 2007); [55] accessed (12 Apr. 2009).
  243. * James E. Elfers, The Tour to End All Tours: The Story of Major League Baseball's 1913–1914 World Tour (U of Nebraska Press, 2003):125.
  244. * North-China Herald (1 March 1913):66 (652).
  245. * 'Astor House Hotel Co.', North-China Herald (4 October 1913):46.
  246. * Mary Hall, A Woman in the Antipodes and in the Far East (Methuen, 1914):286.
  247. * 'Astor House Hotel Co., Ld.', North-China Herald (3 October 1914):38; Hibbard, 215.
  248. * 'Astor House Hotel Co., Ld.', North-China Herald (3 October 1914):38-39.
  249. * a b 'The Central Stores', North-China Herald (18 September 1915):29.
  250. * 'Sudden Death of Mr. Edward Ezra', North-China Herald (17 December 1921):27 (767); Les Fleurs de L'Orient; [56]
  251. * Hotel Monthly 28 (1920):53.
  252. * a b c Hibbard, 4.
  253. * Tahirih V. Lee, Contract, Guanxi, and Dispute Resolution in China ( ):110.
  254. * G. E. Miller, Shanghai: The Paradise of Adventurers (Orsay Publishing House Inc., 1937):153.
  255. * Kathryn Meyer and Terry Parssinen, Webs of Smoke: Smugglers, Warlords and the History of the International Drug Trade (Rowman & Littlefield, 2002):40.
  256. * Betta, Chiara (2003). 'From Orientals to Imagined Britons: Baghdadi Jews in Shanghai'. Modern Asian Studies 37: 999. doi:10.1017/S0026749X03004104.
  257. * U.S. Passport Applications Passport Applications, January 2, 1906–March 31, 1925 (M1490) Roll 0905 - Certificates: 115000-115249, 10 Sep 1919-11 Sep 1919. Application dated 22 July 1919; The China Weekly Review 26 (6 October 1923):218; Pacific Marine Review 20 (1923):528. On Friday, 20 July 1917, Morton married Mary Jane Free (born 29 June 1894 in USA), daughter of Mr Henry Free, at a private home at 53 Avenue Road, Shanghai. See Millard's Review of the Far East, Vol. 1 (1917); 'Presentation to Captain H.E. Morton', North-China Herald (21 July 1917):36 (156); California Passenger and Crew Lists: Arrival Date: 27 July 1922 Ship Name: President Hayes Port of Arrival: San Francisco, California Port of Departure: Manila, Philippines Archive information (series:roll number): M1410:162.
  258. * The Weekly Review of the Far East 21 (1922).
  259. * Morton lived officially in the USA from 1890 to 1915, and was naturalised on 11 December 1905 in the Federal Court in San Francisco. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906–March 31, 1925 (M1490); See Roll 0613 - Certificates: 41500-41749, 24 Oct 1918-25 Oct 1918 > Image 129
  260. * 'HIS PACIFIC LOG IS 720,000 MILES; Capt. Morton, Sailing There for 25 Years, Is Friendly with Typhoons', The New York Times (19 September 1910):7; The Cosmopolitan 50 (Schlicht & Field, 1910):59.
  261. * The Navy List (H.M. Stationery Office., 1891):324; Charles Higham, Wallis: Secret Lives of the Duchess of Windsor (Sidgwick & Jackson, 1988):38; Powell, 9, 52.
  262. * Proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the State of California at its ... Annual Convocation, Vols. 57-58 (1911):910.
  263. * Morton had been commander of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's Mongolia, which sailed between San Francisco and the Orient from 1904 until 1915. By 1910 Morton had crossed the Pacific Ocean 45 times as skipper of the Mongolia. See 'HIS PACIFIC LOG IS 720,000 MILES; Capt. Morton, Sailing There for 25 Years, Is Friendly with Typhoons', The New York Times (19 September 1910):7; 'Immigrant Ships: Transcribers Guild: SS Mongolia', [57]; Pacific Marine Review 20 (1923):528; 'S.S. Mongolia', [58]; E. Mowbray Tate, Transpacific Steam: The Story of Steam Navigation from the Pacific Coast of North America to the Far East and the Antipodes, 1867–1941 (Associated University Presses, 1986):36-37; Robert Barde, 'The Scandalous Ship Mongolia', Steamboat Bill: Journal of The Steamship Historical Society of America 250 (Spring 2004):112-118, [59]; 'Joseph Tape and the S.S. Mongolia', [60]
  264. * Central Stores, Limited', North-China Herald (18 March 1916):36-37.
  265. * a b Powell, 9.
  266. * United States Court for China: Hearings, Sixty-first Congress, First Session on H.R. 4281. September 27, 28, October 1, 1917 (U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1917):34.
  267. * Powell, 51.
  268. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 216.
  269. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 116.
  270. * 'Presentation to Captain H.E. Morton', North-China Herald (21 July 1917):36 (156).
  271. * Ben Finney, Feet First (Crown, 1971):158.
  272. * Yuan-tsung Chen, Return to the Middle Kingdom: One Family, Three Revolutionaries, and the Birth of Modern China (Union Square Press, 2008):73.
  273. * Barbara Baker and Yvette Paris, Shanghai: Electric and Lurid City : an Anthology (Oxford University Press, 1998):100.
  274. * Walter Hines Page and Arthur Wilson Page, eds. The World's Work 41 (Doubleday, Page & Co., 1921):454.
  275. * Jeffrey W. Cody, 'Building a China-Based Practice: Murphy amid Competitors in Shanghai and Beijing, 1918–1919' in Building in China: Henry K. Murphy's 'adaptive architecture,' 1914–1935 (Chinese University Press, 2001):89.
  276. * Dong, 128-129; Stephen J. Valone, 'A Policy Calculated to Benefit China' The United States and the China Arms Embargo, 1919–1929 (Greenwood Press, 1991).
  277. * Fur-fish-game (1920):31-32.
  278. * Lucian Swift Kirtland, Finding the Worth While in the Orient (R. M. McBride & company, 1926):175.
  279. * Ron Gluckman, 'Hipper than Hong Kong?' (November 2000)
  280. * 历 经 沧 桑 (in Chinese)
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  282. * 'British Order Causes American Business Loss', The Evening Herald (Rock Hill, South Carolina) (May 6, 1920):6.
  283. * 'British Order Causes American Business Loss', The Evening Herald (Rock Hill, South Carolina) (May 6, 1920):6.
  284. * China Monthly Review 12 (1920):235. Morton was in Manila in March 1923. See 'Capt. Morton Talks on Shipping Board Activities', American Chamber of Commerce Journal (March 1923):9-14.
  285. * Bardarson was of Danish heritage. He entered Canada on 7 October 1922 intending to reside there. See Library and Archives Canada, Form 30A Ocean Arrivals. Date of Arrival: 28 Oct 1922 Port of Arrival: Vancouver, British Columbia. Image 1121; Naturalization Record Type: Declarations of Intention Roll Description: (Roll 031) Declarations of Intention, 1921–1923, #15497-17496 Archive: National Archives, Washington, D.C. Collection Title: Naturalization Records for the Superior Court for King, Pierce, Thurston, and Snohomish Counties, Washington, 1850–1974 Archive Series: M1543 Archive Roll: 31; Title: Naturalization Records of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington, 1890–1957 Issue Date: 15 June 1923 State: Washington Locality, Court: Seattle, District Court Description: Petition and record, 1928, #14401-14708 > Image 2. Series: M1542. Another source indicates he was born 4 September 1877, and died 17 Oct 1944 in Alameda, California. See California Death Index. Social Security #: 554031031 Mother's Maiden Name: Eiricksson Father's Surname: Bardarson. Bardarson was married to Irene (born Butte, Montana).
  286. * Naturalization Records of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington, 1890–1957 State: Washington Seattle, District Court Naturalization index, 1890–1937 Series: M1542, Image 288; John Willy, ed., Hotel Monthly 28 (1920):53; North-China Herald (11 June 1921):59; 'Petition 973-R of W. Sharp-Bardarson (Seattle)', in United States. Dept. of the Treasury, Treasury Decisions Under Customs and Other Laws (U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1924):872.
  287. * George Ephraim Sokolsky, China, a Sourcebook of Informaton (Pan-Pacific Association, Shanghai, 1920).
  288. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 210.
  289. * 'Sudden Death of Mr. Edward Ezra', North-China Herald (17 December 1921):27 (767); 'Internment of Mr. E.I. Ezra', North-China Herald (24 December 1921):25 (833).
  290. * Hibbard, Bund, 121.
  291. * a b c 'Shanghai Hotels Sold', North-China Herald (13 May 1922):31; Hibbard, Bund, 211.
  292. * It was founded in Hong Kong in March 1866. See 'Topping Out Ceremony For The New Peninsula Shanghai' (17 April 2008); [62]
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  294. * By 1940 Taggart had been awarded an OBE, see Geoffrey Cadzow Hamilton, Government Departments in Hong Kong, 1841–1966 (J. R. Lee, acting Govt. printer, at the Govt. Press, 1967):81.
  295. * Austin Coates, Quick Tidings of Hong Kong (Oxford University Press, 1990):108.
  296. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 211.
  297. * a b 'Shanghai Hotels Sold', North-China Herald (13 May 1922):31.
  298. * 'Topping Out Ceremony For The New Peninsula Shanghai' (17 April 2008);
  299. * Hibbard, Bund, 211.
  300. * China Review [China Trade Bureau] 3-4 (1922):120.
  301. * Kuhn, 208; China Weekly Review 18 (1921):282.
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  304. * [64][dead link]
  305. * Now Yan'an Road.
  306. * Dong, 137.
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  308. * Gulian Lansing Morrill, Near Hell in the Far East: A Pleasure Jaunt Through Japan, Formosa, Korea, Manchuria, China, Tonkin, Cochin-Chine, Cambodia, Siam, Malay States, Sumatra, Java, Madura, Bali, Lombok, Borneo, Celebes, Hawaii (Pioneer printers, 1923):110.
  309. * a b c d 'New Astor House Ball-Room', North-China Herald (29 December 1923):27 (891).
  310. * Valentin Vassilievich Fedoulenko and Boris Raymond, Chinan Emigré Life in Shanghai (Bancroft Library, 1967):66; Hibbard, Bund, 217.
  311. * Maud Parrish, Nine Pounds of Luggage (J.B. Lippincott company, 1939):86.
  312. * 'China Attracts Tourists: Visitors from America Steadily Increase, Shanghai Hotel Man Says; Market for Goods', The Los Angeles Times (23 April 1924):24.
  313. * Lowell Thomas and Lowell H. Smith, The First World Flight: Being the Personal Narratives of Lowell Smith, Erik Nelson, Leigh Wade, Leslie Arnold, Henry Ogden, John Harding (Houghton Mifflin, 1927):153.
  314. * D.C. Bess, 'General Sun Takes Shanghai Control', Berkeley Daily Gazette (October 17, 1924):1.
  315. * a b Mrs Isabel Duke, 'Victims: All in a Lifetime' typescript; quoted in Hibbard, Bund, 224.
  316. * Frederic E. Wakeman, Policing Shanghai, 1927–1937 (Reprint: University of California Press, 1996):107.
  317. * Ernest O. Hauser, Shanghai: City for Sale (Harcourt, Brace and company, 1940):304.
  318. * Dong, 97.
  319. * Elise McCormick, Audacious Angles of China (Reprint: READ BOOKS, 2007):43.
  320. * 'Settlements Under Fire', The Evening Independent [St. Petersburg, Florida] (21 March 1927):1; [65]
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  322. * Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 52 (1929): 143.
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  326. * Ernest O. Hauser, Shanghai: City for Sale (Harcourt, Brace and company, 1940):278.
  327. * Rob Gifford, China Road: A Journey into the Future of a Rising Power (Random House, 2007):9.
  328. * a b 'Shanghai Should Be Moved', The China Weekly Review 60 (30 April 1932): 274.
  329. * 'The Shanghai Boom' Fortune 11:1 (January 1935)
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  332. * James Lafayette Hutchison, China Hand (Lothrop, Lee and Shepard company, 1936):273, 220.
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  335. * Pictorial Review of the Sino-Japanese Conflict 1932: With a Day-by-Day Abbreviated Report (Asiatic Pub. Co., 1932):31.
  336. * United States Dept. of State, Foreign Relations of the United States Vol. 3 (U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1932):422.
  337. * 'Wild Turmoil in City' The New York Times (31 January 1932); [68]; quoted in Izumi Hirobe, Japanese Pride, American Prejudice: Modifying the Exclusion Clause of the 1924 Immigration Act (Stanford University Press, 2001):160.
  338. * Hallett Abend, 'Wild Turmoil in City', The New York Times (31 January 1932):1.
  339. * Hallett Abend, 'Cannon Used in Shanghai: Battle in Hongkew Area Follows Failure to Agree on Peace. Many Slain in Streets. Tens of Thousands of Chinese Driven From Their Homes by the Japanese. Snipers Fight Europeans. Americans Also Are Targets', The New York Times (1 February 1932):1.
  340. * '4 of our Warships Arrive at Shanghai: Americans Are Heartened by the Event, Though Grave Concern Is Still Felt', The New York Times (1 February 1932):2.
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  343. * The Monthly Supplement 3-4 (1942):141.
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  345. * ' Japanese Say Wang Legally Was a Spy: Chinese West Pointer Was Released, However, 'Because This Is Not a War.' The New York Times (2 March 1932):13.
  346. * Chung-shu Kuei, ed., Symposium on Japan's Undeclared War in Shanghai (Chinese Chamber of Commerce, 1932):15, vi.
  347. * Junpei Shinobŭ, International Law in the Shanghai Conflict (Maruzen company, ltd., 1933):2, 100-101.
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  349. * 'Strike Ties Up Shanghai Hotel When Japanese Arrest Chinese', The New York Times (28 February 1932):21.
  350. * 'Bottle Thrown Out of Window of Astor House Causes Scare', The New York Times (29 February 1932):13.
  351. * 'Gen. Wang is Freed by Shanghai Japanese: Seizure of West Point Graduate Resulted in Complaint to Foreign Consuls.' The New York Times (1 March 1932):17; Chih-hsiang Hao, Who's Who in China: Containing the Pictures and Biographies of China's Best Known Political, Financial, Business & Professional Men (The China Weekly Review, 1936):250.
  352. * 'Col. Wang Not Executed: Chinese Deny Report That He Was Put to Death for Treason', The New York Times (25 March 1932):10.
  353. * a b All About Shanghai and Environs: A Standard Guide Book (Shanghai: University Press, 1934): Chapter 8
  354. * a b Joel Bleifuss, 'Shanghai in 1942' Film in Focus;
  355. * Bertha Boynton Lum, Gangplanks to the East (The Henkle-Yewdale House, Inc., 1936):261.
  356. * Charles H. Baker, Jr., The Gentleman's Companion. Volume II Being an Exotic Drinking Book Or, Around the World with Jigger, Beaker and Flask, (New York: Derrydale Press, 1939):12; quoted in 'Charles Baker's Drunken Oriental Junket', Things Asian (21 April 2006); [70]; see Charles Baker, Jigger, Beaker and Glass: Drinking Around the World (The Derrydale Press, 2001):12.
  357. * 'The Astor Hotel Special' (15 March 2006);
  358. * Vaudine England and Elizabeth Sinn, The Quest of Noel Croucher: Hong Kong's Quiet Philanthropist (Hong Kong University Press, 1998):124.
  359. * 'CHINA-JAPAN', Time (23 August 1937); [71]; 'Missiles Hit Crowd in Street', The Evening Independent [St. Petersburg, Florida] (14 August 1937):1-2; [72]; 'Americans Leaving Zones Under Fire' The New York Times (15 August 1937); [73]
  360. * 'Japanese Soldiers Seize British Hotels in Shanghai', Los Angeles Times (18 August 1937):3.
  361. * 'Millions Have Left 2 Shanghai Areas: The Hongkew and Yangtsepoo' The New York Times (18 August 1937); [74]
  362. * a b 'War in Shanghai', The China Journal 27:3 (September 1937)
  363. * Sean O'Reilly and Larry Habegger, Traveler's Tales Hong Kong: Including Macau and Southern China (Travelers' Tales, 1996):236.
  364. * Hallett Abend, 'Chinese Bomb Foe: Japanese Naval Guns Imperil City in Attack on the Air Raiders', The New York Times (15 October 1937):1.
  365. * 'Photographs of Karl Kengelbacher', [75]; George Moorad, quoted in Hesperides, As We See China (E.P. Dutton, 1948):311.
  366. * Ralph Shaw, Sin City
  367. * George Moorad, quoted in Hesperides, As We See China (E.P. Dutton, 1948):311; George Lester Moorad (b. 25 March 1908; d. 12 July 1949)
  368. * 'Kuhn, Irene Corbally', in Sam G. Riley, ed., Biographical Dictionary of American Newspaper Columnists (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995):168-169.
  369. * Irene Corbally Kuhn, 'Shanghai: The Vintage Years' (January 1986), in Ruth Reichl, Endless Feasts (Allen & Unwin, 2002):73-81.
  370. * Irène Kuhn, Assigned to Adventure (J.B. Lippincott Company, 1938):207.
  371. * Kuhn, 201, 206-208.
  372. * Hallett Abend, 'Peace Talk Grows; China is in Straits: Japanese Send a Message by Parachute to Chiang Kai-shek Asking Surrender', The New York Times (23 November 1937):18.
  373. * Hibbard, Bund, 120; 'Five-star Legend', Shanghai Daily (18 April 2005)
  374. * The Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels: History. Hshgroup.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-03.
  375. * Marcia Reynders Ristaino, Port of Last Resort: The Diaspora Communities of Shanghai (Stanford University Press, 2003):162-163.
  376. * 'Newscaster of Shanghai' Time (29 July 1940); [76]; see also 'Shanghai Radio Dial 1941'; [77]
  377. * Greg Leck (gregleck@epix.net), [78] (posted 11 August 2007) indicates Alcott, was the son of 'Fred Allcott, was a physician and may have had a pharmacy in Reliance the family moved to Reliance from Iowa sometime before 1920. Carroll Alcott (he changed the spelling of his name while in college) attended the (then) South Dakota State College in the 1918–1920 time period. He then joined the staff of the Sioux Falls Argus Leader, then newspapers in Sioux City Denver before going to the Philippines where he served in the Army for one year. From there he went to Shanghai, China and returned to the US in 1941. He worked for the Office of War Information during the war. He died in 1965 and left no descendants.'; See Carroll Duard Alcott, My War with Japan (New York, H. Holt and Co., 1943); Bernard Wasserstein, Secret War in Shanghai: An Untold Story of Espionage, Intrigue, and Treason in World War II (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999):66-67; Paul French, Through the Looking Glass: Foreign Journalists in China, from the Opium Wars to Mao (Hong Kong University Press, 2009), especially Chapter 8, 'The Dirty Thirties—Left Wing, Right Wing, Imperialists and Spies: Radio Shanghai', extracted at Alice Xin Liu, 'Foreign Journalists in China, from the Opium Wars to Mao' (19 June 2009), [79]
  378. * 'Newscaster of Shanghai' Time (29 July 1940)
  379. * James Brown Scott, ed., The American Journal of International Law 36 (1942):126.
  380. * 'Foreign News: New Order in Shanghai' Time (29 July 1940)
  381. * Harold Abbott Rand Conant, 'A Far East Journal (1915–1941)', ed. Edmund Conant Perry (published 1994)
  382. * 'Radio: Radio and Asia' Time (29 December 1941); [80]; Carroll Duard Alcott, My War with Japan (New York, H. Holt and Co., 1943); Paul French, Through the Looking Glass: Foreign Journalists in China, from the Opium Wars to Mao (Hong Kong University Press, 2009), especially Chapter 8, 'The Dirty Thirties—Left Wing, Right Wing, Imperialists and Spies: Radio Shanghai', extracted at Alice Xin Liu, 'Foreign Journalists in China, from the Opium Wars to Mao' (19 June 2009), [81]
  383. * Enid Saunders Candlin, The Breach in the Wall: A Memoir of the Old China (Macmillan, 1973):115; Fred Harris, The Arabic Scholar's Son: Growing Up in Turbulent North China (1927–1943) (AuthorHouse, 2007):276.
  384. * Bill Lawrence, Six Presidents, Too Many Wars (Saturday Review Press, 1972):133-134.
  385. * Parks M. Coble, Chinese Capitalists in Japan's New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937–1945 (University of California Press, 2003):79.
  386. * Orville Schell, Mandate of Heaven: The Legacy of Tiananmen Square and the Next Generation of China's Leaders (Reprint: Simon & Schuster, 1995):363.
  387. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 220.
  388. * Horst 'Peter' Eisfelder, Chinese Exile: My Years in Shanghai and Nanking (Avotaynu Inc, 2004):219; Hibbard, Bund, 220.
  389. * Eisfelder, 219-220.
  390. * Gary Nash, The Tarasov Saga: From China Through China to Australia (Rosenberg, 2002):193-194)
  391. * The China Monthly Review 105-106 (1947):161. Its phone number was 40499.
  392. * a b Lu Chang, 'Legendary Astor House Hotel', Shanghai Star (30 May 2002)
  393. * 'Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels Ltd.,' Far Eastern Economic Review 18 (1955):344.
  394. * a b Hibbard, Bund, 222.
  395. * Megan Shank, 'The Astor House Hotel', Megan Shank dot com (for the forthcoming "To Shanghai with Love" travel guide); [82] See also: Crystyl Mo, ed., To Shanghai With Love: A Travel Guide for the Connoisseur (ThingsAsian Press)
  396. * Hibbard, Bund, 222.
  397. * Jill Hunt et al., Shanghai, rev.ed. (China Guide Series, 1983):24.
  398. * Fredric M. Kaplan, Julian M. Sobin, and Arne J. De Keijzer, eds., The China Guidebook, 7th ed. (Houghton Mifflin Co., 1986):551.
  399. * Pamela Yatsko, New Shanghai: The Rocky Rebirth of China's Legendary City (Wiley, 2006):2.
  400. * Hibbard says it was in 1994. See Hibbard, Bund, 222.
  401. * Alan Samagalski, Robert Strauss, and Michael Buckley, eds. China: A Travel Survival Kit, 2nd ed. (Lonely Planet Publications, 1988):353.
  402. * Jim Ford, Don't Worry, Be Happy: Beijing to Bombay with a Backpack (Troubador Publishing Ltd, 2006):108, 109.
  403. * Ellen Hertz, The Trading Crowd: An Ethnography of the Shanghai Stock Market (Cambridge University Press, 1998):33.
  404. * Laurie Fullerton and Tony Wheeler, eds., North-East Asia on a Shoestring, 2nd ed. (Lonely Planet Publications, 1989):51.
  405. * Bruno Gmünder, ed., Spartacus, 1993–1994: International Gay Guide, 22nd ed. (Bruno Gmünder, 1993):117.
  406. * Orville Schell and Todd Lappin, 'China Plays the Market: Capitalist Leap', The Nation (14 December 1992).
  407. * Stephen Paul Green, The Development of China's Stockmarket, 1984–2002: Equity Politics and Market Institutions (Routledge, 2003):8.
  408. * Damian Harper, Christopher Pitts, and Bradley Mayhew, eds., Shanghai, 3rd ed. (Lonely Planet, 2006):104.
  409. * History
  410. * 'Shanghai' The Economist 333 (1994):40; Stock Exchange of Hong Kong, The Securities Journal 9-12 (1990):25; William Arthur Thomas, Western Capitalism in China: A History of the Shanghai Stock Exchange (Ashgate, 2001):70.]
  411. * Hertz, 33.
  412. * Lynn T. White, Unstately Power. Vol. 1: Local Causes of China's Economic Reforms (M.E. Sharpe, 1998):325.
  413. * Seth Faison, 'What's Doing in Shanghai', The New York Times (19 April 1998); [83]
  414. * Jen Lin-Liu et al., eds., Frommer's China, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, 2006):428.
  415. * Ian Buruma, 'China: New York ... Or Singapore? The 21st Century Starts Here.' The New York Times (18 February 1996); [84]
  416. * Lydia Laube, Bound for Vietnam (Wakefield Press, 1999):25-26.
  417. * Mark O'Neill, 'Astor House wants to be Shanghai's Raffles', South China Morning Post; reprinted in Asia Africa Intelligence Wire (13 November 2003).
  418. * Wu Huaixiang, quoted in O'Neill.
  419. * Hibbard, Bund, 129.
  420. * Graham Thompson, 'Shanghai's Classic Hotels' (28 August 2008)
  421. * Jim, 'Shanghai Loon', The Guardian (19 February 2004);
  422. * Bradley Mayhew, Shanghai, 2nd ed. (Lonely Planet, 2004):160.
  423. * Mark O'Neill, 'Astor House wants to be Shanghai's Raffles', South China Morning Post; reprinted in Asia Africa Intelligence Wire (13 November 2003); [85]
  424. * According to Zuo Yan, the hotel office manger, who had worked at the Hotel since 1984. See 'Hotel Uncovers Hidden Treasures' (7 May 2004); [86]
  425. * 'Hidden Treasures'.
  426. * Jasper Becker, 'The Other Side of Shanghai's Success Story' The Independent (11 August 2004); [87] . Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  427. * Imogen Fox, 'Designer China', The Guardian (27 May 2006);
  428. * Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  429. * 'The Morning of Shanghai', China Daily (22 November 2006)
  430. * 'Astor House Hotel: The History Was Made Here' Tourism Review: Online Review (November 2008):9-10.
  431. * Damian Harper and David Eimer, eds. Lonely Planet Shanghai: City Guide, 4th ed. (Lonely Planet, 2008):193.
  432. * a b Mark O'Neill, 'Bund to Happen: As Host of the 2010 World Expo, Shanghai is Hanging the Expense to Return this Symbol of Prosperity to its Former Glory', South China Morning Post (11 February 2006); [88]
  433. * Richard Spencer, 'China's Nod to Colonialism in Shanghai Revamp', Telegraph (18 February 2008); [89]; 'The Astor Hotel, Shanghai, Must be Restored', The China Economic Review (20 February 2008); [90]
  434. * Hibbard, Bund, 217.
  435. * Samuel Merwin, Drugging a Nation: The Story Of China And The Opium Curse; A Personal Investigation, During An Extended Tour, Of The Present Conditions Of The Opium Trade In China And Its Effects Upon The Nation (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1908):129. These chapters were originally published during 1907 and 1908 in Success magazine.
  436. * This Astor House antedates the one in Shanghai, being established soon after the founding of the colony. See Osmond Tiffany, The Canton Chinese, Or, The American's Sojourn in the Celestial Empire (1849 ):255; Daniel Henderson, Yankee Ships in China Seas: Adventures of Pioneer Americans in the Troubled Far East (New York: Hastings House, 1946): 152; Graham Hassall, 'Baha'i Faith in Hong Kong', (January 2000). [91]; Astor House (Astor Chio-tim) was located on Queen's Road Central. See City Guide and Descriptions of: Tientsin, Shanghai, Peking, Hangschow, Tsinan, Hongkong, Tsingtao, Canton, Nanking (1945):353.
  437. * Astor House (Li-shun-te), see The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c; with which are Incorporated 'The China Directory' and 'The Hongkong Directory and Hong List for the Far East' (The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1894):88; The first Astor House Hotel in Tientsin was 'a building on a site south of Bromley Road.' See Wilfred Victor Pennell and James Stewart, Pioneer Days in Tientsin: The Reminiscences of the Late Mr. James Stewart (1931):7; The Astor House Hotel may have been established by 1870. See Otto Durham Rasmussen, Tientsin: An Illustrated Outline History (1925):44, 62. For an account of the original Astor House in Tientsin c. 1871, see J[ohn]. Thomson, The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China and China or Ten years' Travels, Adventures and Residence Abroad (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, & Searle. 1875):480; also published as Through China with a Camera (Adament Media):228; For an account of the devastation to the Hotel caused by August 1871 flooding, see James Brooks, A Seven Months' Run, Up and Down, and Around the World: Written in Letters to the N.Y. Evening Express (Appleton, 1874):156, [92]. Brooks adds: 'The 'Astor House', the famous hotel of the place, established by some California Yankee by the name of Smith, was washed out - billiard, bar-room, all.'; 'The second location, 'The House of Li Shun De' known later as the Astor House Hotel, also known as the Mud House (Ni Wu) and Old House (Lao Wu). These likely early Customs house buildings were single story bungalows' (page 4). By 1886, the 'Astor House Hotel needed to be rebuilt because demand for rooms was up.'(page 8), see 郵政總局 Jin ri you zheng 47 (1996); By 1894 the proprietor was G. Ritter, see The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c; with which are Incorporated 'The China Directory' and 'The Hongkong Directory and Hong List for the Far East' (The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1894):88, 659; The existing building was built about 1900. See Peabody Essex Museum Collections 133-134 (1999):82; Hotel is 'an American hotel kept by a German' (see Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, The Awakening of the East: Siberia, Japan, China, ed. Henry Norman. (McClure, Phillips & co., 1900):189); For account of shelling of the Hotel in November 1902, see The Diaries of Sir Ernest Satow, British Envoy in Peking (1900–06) Volume One, ed. Ian Ruxton ( ):299; The Hotel was described as German, and was damaged during the Boxer Uprising (See Ralph Delahaye Paine, Roads of Adventure (Houghton Mifflin company, 1922):297.), the manager was Herr Ritter, described as 'servile' (see 330-331); 'This well-known first-class Hotel, which has now been entirely rebuilt, affording to travellers every convenience at reasonable prices.' (See Guide to Tientsin (Tientsin press, limited, 1904):4); The Steamers of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Handbook of Information for Passengers & Shippers (Tokyo: Tokyo Printing Co., 1904):387. [93]; Thomas Cook Ltd., Peking and the Overland Route 3rd ed. (Shanghai: Thos. Cook, 1917):197. [94]; Address: 283 VICTORIA ROAD, TIENTSIN THE ASTOR HOUSE HOTEL, LTD., TIENTSIN 'The leading Hotel in best and healthiest position of town facing the Victoria Gardens. See Thomas Cook Ltd, Peking, North China, South Manchuria and Korea‎ 5th ed. (North-China Daily News & Herald, 1924):95; The last Emperor of China, Puyi stayed at the Astor House after his abdication. See John D. Meehan, The Dominion and the Rising Sun: Canada Encounters Japan, 1929-41 (UBC Press, 2005):80; Describes 'stout Swiss manager', and 'American Jews with woebegone faces lounged in the Astor House lobby chewing half-smoked cigars', see James Lafayette Hutchison, China Hand (Lothrop, Lee and Shepard company, 1936):56, 371; Waiters had blue gowns and white dress and sleeves, Manager in Spring 1938 was Paul Weingart, Swiss (see Frank Clune, Sky High to Shanghai (Angus and Robertson, 1939):332.); After 1949 'the Astor House Hotel in Tianjin were of their own will transferred to Chinese hands.' See Suinian Liu, Chʻün-kan Wu; Qun'gan Wu; Chieh Tsʻui; and Jie Cui, China's Socialist Economy: An Outline History, 1949–1984 (Beijing Review, 198S):58; For 1963 description, see Frederick Nossal, Dateline-Peking (Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963):72; By 1972 it was described as: 'Victorian-style British-built Astor House (now the Tientsin Hotel)'. See Far Eastern Economic Review 75-76 (1972):28; The area near the former Astor Hotel is described as: 'All squeezed up together, it is the architectural Legoland of mercantile capitalism Referring to the Tianjin Hotel in June 1980: 'The silver cutlery in the Edwardian depths of the Tianjin Hotel bears the original name - Astor House Hotel. I don't believe the official guide's claim that there was once a notice on the park opposite (Middle Gardens) which read `Chinese and Dogs do not Enter'. But I can believe that there was once, in the words of a European ex-resident, `a splendid brothel at the hotel.' The rooms are discreetly panelled and the baths are three foot wide. Traffic is sparse and mostly official - buses, jeeps and taxis - on Liberation Road.' Liberation road used to be Victoria Road. See 'John Gittings, China Through the Sliding Door: Reporting Three Decades of Change (Touchstone, 1999):112, [95]; Address by 1990 was 199 Jie Fang Road. See Bankers Handbook for Asia (Asian Finance Publications, 1990):80; John James Aubertin, Wanderings & Wonderings: India, Burma, Kashmir, Ceylon, Singapore, Java (1892):353; Brian Power, The Ford of Heaven: A Cosmopolitan Childhood in Tientsin, China (Signal Books, 2005):102ff; 'Old Tianjin Slide Slow, AN AMERICAN IN CHINA: 1936-39 A Memoir; [96]; S. Kojima, Views and Custom of North China Vol. 1: [97]; Address is Astor Hotel, 33 Tai Er Zhuang Lu,Heping Qu,Tianjin (22-31-7430). See Kaigai shinshutsu kigyō sōran: Japanese Multinationals, Facts & Figures 2 (東洋経済新報社, 1994):1403.
  438. * North-China Herald (24 July 1875):14.
  439. * The two-story hotel was founded by a Captain Michelsen not long before 1878. There was a major fire at the Astor House at Chefoo (or Chih-fu or Yantai) in May 1878 causing $16,000 damage. See North-China Herald (8 June 1878):7 (591). It was still in operation in 1914. See Karl Baedeker, China: with Teheran, Port Arthur, and Peking (Baedeker, 1914):552; See Teikoku Tetsudōchō, Japan, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Trans-Continental Connections between Europe and Asia 4th ed. (Imperial Japanese Government Railways, 1915):131; Kurt G. W. Luedecke, Ashwell's World Routes: International Travel Guide (1930):169.
  440. * Ernest Satow, The Diaries of Sir Ernest Satow, British Envoy in Peking (1900–06) - Volume Two, ed. Ian Ruxton (Lulu Press, 2006 ):207.
  441. * There was an Astor House in Moukden by 1908, see Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 39-41 (Kelly & Walsh., 1908):125; 'At Mukden there is now a very fair foreign hotel within the walled city, the Astor House, under competent German management.' See Ernest John Harrison, Peace or War East of Baikal? (Kelly & Walsh limited, 1910):299; 'There is an unpromising-looking hotel at Moukden called the Astor House', see Emily Georgiana Kemp, The Face of Manchuria, Korea, Chinan Turkestan (Chatto & Windus, 1911):31; Wu Lien-the, letter to G.E. Morrison, 30 November 1911 in George Ernest Morrison, The Correspondence of G.E. Morrison, ed. Hui-min Lo (1976):642-643; Mary Hall, A Woman in the Antipodes and in the Far East (Methuen, 1914):320; For details of fire during the stay of Dorothy Payne Whitney, see W.A. Swanberg, Whitney Father, Whitney Heiress (Scribner, 1980):278; Guests included William Paton Ker pre-1900, see Essex Collection; Bailey Wills in 1902?, see Bailey Wills, Friendly China: Two Thousand Miles Afoot Among the Chinese (Stanford University Press, 1949):98 and Eliot Blackwelder, 'Bailey Willis: 1857—1949: A Biographical Memoir' (Washington D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1961), [98]
  442. * There was an Astor House Hotel in Nanking by 1910. See A Visit to China: Being the Report of the Commercial Commissioners from the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast, Invited to China by Chambers of Commerce of that Country, September–October, 1910 (The Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast, 1911):52, 55; Japan. Dept. of Railways, Japan. Teikoku Tetsudōchō, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia, Trans-continental Connections Between Europe and Asia 4th ed. (Imperial Japanese Government Railways,, 1915):131.
  443. * There was an Astor House Hotel in Seoul (also known as Keijo after Japanese annexation) by 1910. See Welcome Society, Tokyo, A Guide-book for Tourist[s] in Japan, 5th ed. (1910):218; See Japan Teikoku Tetsudōchō, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Manchuria & Chosen (1913):242, 267; Angus Hamilton, Korea: Its History, Its People, and Its Commerce 13 (J. B. Millet company, 1910):189-190; The National Geographic Magazine 21 (1910):896; James A. Field, Jr., History of United States Naval Operations: Korea. (U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1962):8. [99]; 서울特别市史編纂委員會 [Sŏul Tʻŭkpyŏlsi Sa Pʻyŏnchʻan Wiwŏnhoe], 鄉土 서울 [Hyangtʻo Sŏul] 56 (1996):208.
  444. * Marcus Lorenzo Taft, Strange Siberia along the Trans-Siberian Railway: a Journey from the Great Wall of China to the Skyscrapers of Manhattan (New York: Eaton & Mains, 1911):41; Cyril Pearl, Morrison of Peking (Angus & Robertson, 1967):233; The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 21-22 (1905):26.
  445. * There was an Astor House in Newchang, Manchuria by 1913. Also known previously as Niu-chuang. The Astor House Hotel (Fu-lai Kochan) 'stands on the wharf by the Custom House at East Yingkou….This is the only European hotel in the city owned and managed by a European. The charges are $5–7, including 3 meals.' See Japan. Teikoku Tetsudōchō, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Manchuria & Chosen (Imperial Japanese Government Railways, 1913):127; See Karl Baedeker, China: with Teheran, Port Arthur, and Peking (Baedeker, 1914):545, and Cyril Pearl, Morrison of Peking (Angus & Robertson, 1967):306; By 1920 Newchang was referred to as Yingkou. Astor House or Te-lai-fan-tien (His-pei-chieh, Old Town), see Tetsudōin, Japan., An Official Guide to Eastern Asia, 2nd ed. (The Dept., 1920):211-212.
  446. * The Astor House Hotel (Shik-i-lau) in Kia-lat. See Teikoku Tetsudōchō, Japan, An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Trans-Continental Connections between Europe and Asia Vol. 4 (Imperial Japanese Government Railways, 1915):297.
  447. * There was an Astor House in Peiping (Peking, Beijing) by 1935, see Yoshiyuki Kagami and Lewis William Bush, Handy Guide to Japan and the Orient: with 18 maps (Japan Publicity Agency, 1935):52.
  448. * Rosenfeld is not to be confused with the Austrian physician of a similar name, Jakob Rosenfeld (1903–1952), who migrated to Shanghai in 1937. See Wang Fasheng, 'Re: Albert Less and Levi-Strauss family?', [100]
  449. * 'Kaifeng''; [101] (accessed 9 July 2009). Note this article has several errors, including confusing Rosenfeld with his 'cousin' Jakob Rosenfeld (General Luo); has the Astor House being founded in 1840; and the Rosenfelds owing the hotel from 1840–1900. See also: Eugenio Tarabini, 'Rosenfeld Family of Shanghai, China', (19 March 2001), [102]; Wu Wei, 'Re: Rosenfeld Family of Shanghai, China', (6 October 2008), [103];
  450. * Everlasting Regret (2005), IMDB.com
  451. * [104]
  452. * Emma Ashburn, 'In the Mood for Lust', The SAIS Observer Johns Hopkins University 9:2 (February 2009); [105]
  453. * Mei Lanfang';
  454. * 'Director Chen Kaige to Film in Shanghai', Shanghai Daily (16 January 2008)

Further reading

* The Astor House Guide to Shanghai. Shanghai: North-China Daily News and Herald, 1911. 41 pages.
* Browne, G. Waldo. China: The Country and Its People. Boston: Dana Estes & Company, 1901.
* Clifford, Nicholas Rowland. Spoilt Children of Empire: Westerners in Shanghai and the Chinese Revolution of the 1920s. Middlebury College Press, 1991.
* Conant, Harold Abbott Rand. 'A Far East Journal (1915–1941)', ed. Edmund Conant Perry (published 1994); [107]
* Cranley, William Patrick. 'Old Shanghai's 'Others': Sailor, Whores, Half-breeds and Other Interlopers'. [108]
* Dorn, Frank. The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-41: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor. Macmillan, 1974.
* Dupée, Jeffrey N. British Travel Writers in China: Writing Home to a British Public, 1890–1914. E. Mellen Press, 2004.
* French, Paul. Through the Looking Glass: Foreign Journalists in China, from the Opium Wars to Mao. Hong Kong University Press, 2009.
* Gamewell, Mary Louise Ninde. The Gateway to China: Pictures of Shanghai. Fleming H. Revell, 1916.
* Henriot, Christian and Matthew Woodbury. 'The Shanghai Bund: A History through Visual Sources' Virtual Shanghai: Shanghai Urban Space in Time (June 2007). [109]
* Johnston, Tess and Deke Erh. A Last Look: Western Architecture in Old Shanghai. Hong Kong: Old China Hand Press, 2004.
* Jordon, Donald A. China's Trial by Fire: The Shanghai War of 1932. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
* Kuo chia t'ung chi chü, China. Changes and Development in China (1949–1989). Beijing Review Press, 1990.
* Lunt, Carroll Prescott. Some Builders of Treaty Port China, 1965.
* Lunt, Carroll Prescott. Treaty Port: An Intimate History of Shanghai in Metrical Form. Shanghai: The China Digest 1934.
* Maclellan, J.W. The Story of Shanghai, from the Opening of the Port to Foreign Trade. North-China Herald Office, 1889.
* Macmillan, Allister. Seaports of the Far East: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial, Facts, Figures, & Resources. 2nd ed. W.H. & L. Collingridge, 1925.
* Shanghai lishi bowuguan (ed.) 上海历史博物馆, Survey of Shanghai 1840's-1940's. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin meisha chubanshe, 1992. [110]
* Shanghai of To-day: A Souvenir Album of Fifty Vandyke Gravure Prints of the 'Model Settlement'. 3rd ed. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1930. [111]
* Shaw, Charles Frederick Ralph. Sin City. Everest Books, 1973.
* Tang, Zhenchang, Yunzhong Lu, and Siyuan Lu. Shanghai's Journey to Prosperity, 1842–1949. Commercial Press, 1996.
* Tobias, Sigmund. Strange Haven: A Jewish Childhood in Wartime Shanghai. University of Illinois Press, 1999.
* Wakeman, Frederic E. The Shanghai Badlands: Wartime Terrorism and Urban Crime, 1937–1941. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
* Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. Global Shanghai 1850–2010. Routledge, 2009. Figure 3,2, page 58: photo of Astor House Hotel 1901.
* Wei, Betty Peh-Ti. Old Shanghai. Oxford University Press, 1993.
* Wei, Betty Peh-Ti. Shanghai: Crucible of Modern China. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 1987.
* Yeh, Wen-Hsin., ed. Wartime Shanghai. Taylor & Francis, 1998.
* Zhai, Qiang. The Dragon, the Lion & the Eagle: Chinese-British-American Relations, 1949–1958. Kent State University Press, 1994.

Chinese language sources

* 潘君祥, 段炼, Lian Duan. 话说沪商(图文商谚本). CICAP, 2007. Pages 82–86.

外灘 - 外滩 上海
The Bund - Shanghai

The Bund (simplified Chinese: 外滩; traditional Chinese: 外灘; Shanghainese: nga thae; Mandarin pinyin: Wàitān) is an area of Huangpu District in central Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The area centres on a section of Zhongshan Road (East-1 Zhongshan Road) within the former Shanghai International Settlement, which runs along the western bank of the Huangpu River, facing Pudong, in the eastern part of Huangpu District. The Bund usually refers to the buildings and wharves on this section of the road, as well as some adjacent areas. It is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Shanghai. Building heights are restricted in this area.

The word 'bund' means an embankment or an embanked quay. The word comes from the Hindi-Urdu word band, which has Persian origins and meant an embankment, levee or dam (a cognate of English terms 'bind', 'bond' and 'band', and the German word 'bund', etc). In Chinese port cities, the English term came to mean, especially, the embanked quay along the shore. In English, 'Bund' is pronounced to rhyme with 'fund'.

There are many 'bands' to be found in Baghdad, even today. There are numerous sites in India, China, and Japan which are called 'bunds' (e.g. the Yokohama Bund). However, 'The Bund' as a proper noun almost invariably refers to this stretch of embanked riverfront in Shanghai.

History:

The Shanghai Bund has dozens of historical buildings, lining the Huangpu River, that once housed numerous banks and trading houses from the United Kingdom, France, the United States, Italy, China, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands and Belgium, as well as the consulates of China and Britain, a newspaper, the Shanghai Club and the Masonic Club. The Bund lies north of the old, walled city of Shanghai. This was initially a British settlement; later the British and American settlements were combined in the International Settlement. A building boom at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century led to the Bund becoming a major financial hub of East Asia. The former French Bund, east of the walled city was formerly more a working harbourside.

By the 1940s the Bund housed the headquarters of many, if not most, of the major financial institutions operating in China, including the 'big four' national banks in the Republic of China era. However, with the Communist victory in the Chinese civil war, many of the financial institutions were moved out gradually in the 1950s, and the hotels and clubs closed or converted to other uses. The statues of colonial figures and foreign worthies which had dotted the riverside were also removed.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, with the thawing of economic policy in the People's Republic of China, buildings on the Bund were gradually returned to their former uses. Government institutions were moved out in favour of financial institutions, while hotels resumed trading as such. Also during this period, a series of floods caused by typhoons motivated the municipal government to construct a tall levee along the riverfront, with the result that the embankment now stands some 10 metres higher than street level. This has dramatically changed the streetscape of the Bund. In the 1990s, Zhongshan Road (named after Sun Yat-sen), the road on which the Bund is centred, was widened to ten lanes. As a result, most of the parkland which had existed along the road disappeared. Also in this period, the ferry wharves connecting the Bund and Pudong, which had served the area's original purpose, were removed. A number of pleasure cruises still operate from some nearby wharves.

In the 1990s the Shanghai government attempted to promote an extended concept of the Bund to boost tourism, and land value in nearby areas, as well as to reconcile the promotion of 'colonial relics' with the Socialist ideology. In its expanded form, the term 'Bund' (as 'New Bund' or 'Northern Bund') was used to refer to areas south of the Yan'an Road, and a stretch of riverfront north of the Suzhou River (Zhabei). Such use of the term, however, remains rare outside of the tourism literature.

From 2008, a major reconfiguration of traffic flow along the Bund was carried out. The first stage of the plan involved the southern end of the Bund, and saw the demolition of a section of the Yan'an Road elevated expressway, which will remove the large elevated expressway exit structure which formerly dominated the confluence of Yan'an Road and the Bund. The second stage, begun on 1 March 2008, involves the complete restoration of the century-old Waibaidu Bridge at the northern end of the Bund. The restoration is expected to be completed by early 2009. The next stage of the plan involves a reconstruction of the Bund roadway. The current 8-lane roadway will be rebuilt as in two levels, with four lanes on each level. This will allow part of the Bund road space to be restored to its former use as parkland and marginal lawns. The new concrete bridge that was built in 1991 to relieve traffic on Waibaidu Bridge will also be rendered obsolete by the new double-levelled roadway, and will be demolished.

The Bund was re-opened to the public on Sunday 28 March 2010 after restoration.

Layout:

The Bund stretches one mile along the bank of the Huangpu River. Traditionally, the Bund begins at Yan'an Road (formerly Edward VII Avenue) in the south and ends at Waibaidu Bridge (formerly Garden Bridge) in the north, which crosses Suzhou Creek.

The Bund centres on a stretch of the Zhongshan Road, named after Sun Yat-sen. Zhongshan Road is a largely circular road which formed the traditional conceptual boundary of Shanghai city 'proper'. To the west of this stretch of the road stands some 52 buildings of various Western classical and modern styles which is the main feature of the Bund (see Architecture and buildings below). To the east of the road was formerly a stretch of parkland culminating at Huangpu Park. (This park is the site of the infamous sign reported to have proclaimed 'no dogs or Chinese', although this exact wording never existed. Further information, including an image of the sign, can be found at the article on Huangpu Park.) This area is now much reduced due to the expansion of Zhongshan Road. Further east is a tall levee, constructed in the 1990s to ward off flood waters. The construction of this high wall has dramatically changed the appearance of the Bund.

Near the Nanjing Road intersection stands what is currently the only bronze statue along the Bund. It is a statue of Chen Yi, the first Communist mayor of Shanghai. At the northern end of The Bund, along the riverfront, is Huangpu Park, in which is situated the Monument to the People's Heroes - a tall, abstract concrete tower which is a memorial for the those who died during the revolutionary struggle of Shanghai dating back to the Opium Wars.

Architecture and buildings:

The Peace Hotel (green steepled building), formerly known as Sassoon House, one of the most famous buildings on the Bund.

The Bund houses 52 buildings of various architectural styles such as Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Neo-Classical, Beaux-Arts, and Art Deco (Shanghai has one of the richest collections of Art Deco architectures in the world). From the south, the main buildings are:























Web References:
http://web.utk.edu
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bund
http://www.simonfieldhouse.com/shanghai.htm
http://www.simonfieldhouse.com/McBain_Building_Shanghai_Simon_Fieldhouse%202.jpg

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Hi Matthew,

Thank you for your e-mail and interest on my Shanghai photographs. Yes, you may use any of the Shanghai photographs from my site. You can link to the images or you can download them onto your server. They were taken in 1994 so you can compare your recent photos with these and see what had been changed on the Bund. I was in Shanghai last summer for 4 weeks and re-photographed many of the buildings with a digital camera and a "shift" lens (to preserve the proper perspectives on the buildings) and I am in the process of adding these photos to my site.

I also photographed other colonial-era western architecture in Tianjin, Qingdao, Macau and Hong Kong and will be adding them to the site as well so check back later this summer for the new images.

Best,
Paul Leeh
http://web.utk.edu

 

黄浦区 - 黄浦區 上海
Huangpu District Shanghai

Huangpu District (simplified Chinese: 黄浦区; traditional Chinese: 黄浦區, Shanghainese: huaon1phu2 chiu1, Mandarin pinyin: Huángpǔ Qū), also known as New Huangpu, is one of Shanghai's 18 districts. It was combined from old Huangpu and Nanshi districts in 2000 to form the New Huangpu with an area of 12.41 km² and 574,500 inhabitants (as of 2002). Huangpu is one of the most densely populated urban districts in the world.

Huangpu is located in central Shanghai, People's Republic of China on the banks of Huangpu river, after which the district is named. It is opposite to Pudong and borders Suzhou Creek.

Shanghai 上海

Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; Shanghainese: Zånhae [z̥ɑ̃̀hé]; Mandarin pinyin: Shànghǎi Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂɑ̂ŋxài]) is the most populous city in China. The city is located in eastern China, at the middle portion of the Chinese coast, and sits at the mouth of the Yangtze River. Due to its rapid growth in the last two decades, it has again become one of the world's leading cities, exerting influence over finance, commerce, fashion, and culture.

Once a fishing and textiles town, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to its favourable port location and was one of the cities opened to foreign trade by the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between east and west, and became a multinational hub of finance and business in the 1930s. However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, the city's international influence declined. In 1990, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. Shanghai is now aiming to be a global finance hub and international shipping centre in the future, and is predicted to become one of the world's main global financial centres, on the level of even London and New York in this regard.

Shanghai is also a popular tourist destination renowned for its historical landmarks such as The Bund, Peoples Square (the former racing track) and Yuyuan Garden, and its extensive yet growing Pudong skyline. It hosted the World Expo in 2010, attracting 73 million visitors. It is described as the 'showpiece' of the booming economy of China.


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